Advances in Novel Lubricant Additives

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 12183

Special Issue Editors

Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
Interests: surface science; environmentally friendly lubricant; tribochemistry; ionic liquid; high-temperature tribology
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Guest Editor
Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6063, USA
Interests: design, synthesis, and surface modification of nanomaterials as lubricant additives and protective coating; tribochemistry and tribofilm nanostructures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Novel lubricants can provide effective energy efficiency, extended durability, and environmental compatibility for mechanical systems. Over 20% of energy consumption all over the world originates from tribology, while 3% of it is used to maintain and repair systems because of wear and related issues. Petroleum-based lubricants have been investigated for centuries and applied in almost all industries.

Typically, industrial lubricant contains a blend of base oils (70~90%) and several categories of additives, including anti-wear additives, friction modifiers, antioxidants, detergents, dispersants, and viscosity modifiers. With multifunctional additives, the formulated lubricants can not only lubricate the interfaces, but also solve problems including cleaning, cooling, and sealing. The design of additives and lubricant formulation has mostly remained an art.

This Special Issue aims to present the most recent discoveries in advanced additives in the lubrication industry and research. Topics dealing with friction improvement (friction modifiers, additives, and formulations), novel anti-wear additives (nanoparticles, ionic liquids, and bio-based additives), and eco-friendly additives are welcome. Outstanding studies in other research areas supporting the design and development of advanced additives will also be encouraged. The contributions will have a significant impact on both academic and industrial fields.

Dr. Xin He
Dr. Chanaka Kumara
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • lubricants
  • additives
  • tribochemistry
  • friction
  • wear
  • tribology
  • environmentally friendly fluids
  • modeling

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 2931 KiB  
Article
Chemically Modified Silicone Oil with Enhanced Tribological and Anti-Foaming Properties
by Xiaosheng Luan, Enhui Zhang, Yunlong Chen, Rui Ma, Kuiliang Gong, Weimin Li and Xiaobo Wang
Lubricants 2022, 10(12), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10120364 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2418
Abstract
Two kinds of chemically modified silicone oil, diisooctyl phosphate-terminated silicone oil (UCP204) and dioctyl dithiophosphate-terminated silicone oil (UCT2003), were synthesized. The tribological properties of silicone oil were evaluated using an SRV tribometer, and the worn surface and chemical composition were examined by scanning [...] Read more.
Two kinds of chemically modified silicone oil, diisooctyl phosphate-terminated silicone oil (UCP204) and dioctyl dithiophosphate-terminated silicone oil (UCT2003), were synthesized. The tribological properties of silicone oil were evaluated using an SRV tribometer, and the worn surface and chemical composition were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The friction coefficients of UCP204 and UCT2003 were reduced by approximately 62.7% and 56.7% compared with untreated silicone oil. The results indicated that the incorporation of phosphorus and/or sulfur could significantly enhance the tribological performance of modified silicone oil. Benefiting from their unique chemical structure, chemically modified silicone fluids also exhibit good dispersion stability and excellent anti-foaming properties, which are mainly attributed to the low surface tension properties imparted by the silicone backbone and the better dispersion stability provided by the dialkyl dithiophosphate group in chemically modified silicone fluids. It is also found that lubricants containing modified silicone oil remain clear after three months of storage and still maintain good anti-foaming properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Novel Lubricant Additives)
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12 pages, 3505 KiB  
Article
Ascorbyl Palmitate-Vitamin C Effective Friction Modifier and Wear Inhibitor for Steel in a PAO Base Oil
by Yun Long, Jean Michel Martin, Frederic Dubreuil, Benoit Thiebaut, Sophie Loehle, Corinne Lacassagne and Maria-Isabel De Barros Bouchet
Lubricants 2022, 10(10), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10100253 - 11 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Ascorbyl palmitate (AP), known as a nutrition pill, and an antioxidant agent in food, has demonstrated excellent lubricity as an additive in PAO4. Adding one wt% AP in PAO4 drastically decreases friction Coefficient (CoF) up to 66% and protects the steel surface from [...] Read more.
Ascorbyl palmitate (AP), known as a nutrition pill, and an antioxidant agent in food, has demonstrated excellent lubricity as an additive in PAO4. Adding one wt% AP in PAO4 drastically decreases friction Coefficient (CoF) up to 66% and protects the steel surface from wear. Meanwhile, it shows a more vital friction reduction ability than conventional Mo-based additives and fatty acids, especially palmitic acid. Ascorbic acid core on AP optimises palmitic acid lubricity by forming robust chemical C-O-Fe bond on steel, increasing surface coverage rate. Masked by AP self-assembled layers, steel surfaces can also handle extreme pressure (up to 2.34 GPa) and temperature (150 °C) with unmeasurable wear. This work broadens human-friendly AP vitamin C application for industrial use and introduces a new pathway for optimizing fatty acids lubricity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Novel Lubricant Additives)
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16 pages, 5093 KiB  
Article
Activated Carbon Nano-Particles from Recycled Polymers Waste as a Novel Nano-Additive to Grease Lubrication
by Mohamed G. A. Nassef, Hassan Shokry Hassan, Galal A. Nassef, Belal Galal Nassef, Mina Soliman and Marwa F. Elkady
Lubricants 2022, 10(9), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10090214 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3072
Abstract
A worldwide growing trend is dedicated towards reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mechanical systems in different industries. One key factor under focus of research is to decrease energy losses in rotating machinery during operation by improving lubrication performance. This paper presents a novel [...] Read more.
A worldwide growing trend is dedicated towards reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mechanical systems in different industries. One key factor under focus of research is to decrease energy losses in rotating machinery during operation by improving lubrication performance. This paper presents a novel grease nano-additive using activated carbon (AC) as a byproduct from recycled polymer waste. Five different concentrations of AC nanoparticles (ACNPs) are added to lithium grease to obtain blends containing 0.025 wt.%, 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, 0.5 wt.%, and 1 wt.%. The tribological assessment of blends has been performed using a four-ball wear test and load carrying capacity test. The obtained results for blends are compared to samples of base grease and to blends with 2 wt.% reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Test results showed a remarkable enhancement of load carrying capacity of AC samples by 20–30% as compared to base grease. By observing wear scar in rolling elements, the ACNPs lowered the average wear scar diameter (WSD) for all samples by 30–36%. Base grease samples showed the highest coefficient of friction (COF) values between 0.15 and 0.17. These values are reduced to 0.03 and 0.06 for grease with ACNPs reaching their minimum in the case of 1 wt.% AC. These outcomes are found consistent with the enhancements in driving power saving values. The results proved the competitiveness and suitability of the AC as a recycled waste and nano-additive for improving the tribological performance of grease lubrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Novel Lubricant Additives)
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14 pages, 4420 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Lubricating Performance of Graphene Oxide and Modified Biodiesel Soot as Water Additives
by Chuan Li, Bo Wu, Xiaoju Chen, Lei Li, Xinyun Wang, Xiaobao Gao, Xiaodong Wang, Kunhong Hu and Xianguo Hu
Lubricants 2022, 10(8), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10080175 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
The tribological performance of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, modified biodiesel soot (MBS) nanoparticles, and their mixture (MBS–GO) nanoparticles as lubricant additives in water was evaluated using a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer. The effects of different mass ratios of GO to MBS, additive concentrations, and [...] Read more.
The tribological performance of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, modified biodiesel soot (MBS) nanoparticles, and their mixture (MBS–GO) nanoparticles as lubricant additives in water was evaluated using a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer. The effects of different mass ratios of GO to MBS, additive concentrations, and loads, as well as corresponding lubrication mechanisms, were studied. The tribological measurements showed that the water-containing 0.5 wt% additives at a mass ratio of 60:40 (GO to MBS) resulted in larger reductions in friction coefficient (69.7%) and wear volume (60.5%) than water. Owing to the synergistic effect of GO nanosheets and MBS nanoparticles, the MBS–GO aqueous sample showed superior lubricating properties compared to water as well as GO and MBS aqueous samples. The good tribological properties of MBS–GO nanoparticles in water are attributed to the formation of a tribofilm of hybrid nanoparticles that effectively protects the friction interface. Moreover, the MBS nanoparticles can provide lubrication by acting as ball bearings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Novel Lubricant Additives)
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9 pages, 1508 KiB  
Article
Increasing Wear Resistance of Heavy-Loaded Friction Pairs by Nanoparticles in Conventional Lubricants: A Proof of Concept
by Valeriy Kosarchuk, Mykola Chausov, Andrii Pylypenko, Volodymyr Tverdomed, Pavlo Maruschak and Vasyl Vasylkiv
Lubricants 2022, 10(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10040064 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
This paper provides experimental data on the effective use of a new lubricating composition, which includes industrial oil of any brand with the addition of a nanometal of the component of a friction pair, which has a lower hardness. It is shown that [...] Read more.
This paper provides experimental data on the effective use of a new lubricating composition, which includes industrial oil of any brand with the addition of a nanometal of the component of a friction pair, which has a lower hardness. It is shown that this composition significantly reduces the wear resistance of the rails and wheels of rolling stock during operation, prevents electrochemical corrosion of the friction pair wheel–rail and, most importantly, stabilizes the coefficient of friction at the optimum level after a relatively short operating time. The experiments were performed on the friction pair, “sample of the bandage material of the railway wheel—a sample of the rail material”, with a ratio of hardness of the bandage material (Rockwell hardness, HRC scale—35.3) to the hardness of the rail material of 1.1. Test results show that in the case of industrial lubricant, the BioRail brand, with the addition of a nanomaterial friction pair with lower wear hardness of the rail metal sample, after three hours in operation the wear was practically not observed. Moreover, the average value of the friction coefficient for three hours of operation was maintained at the level 0.25, which is optimal for the friction pair wheel–rail. Similar experiments using only the same lubricant brand showed much worse results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Novel Lubricant Additives)
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