Synthesis, Characterization and Tribological Investigation of Bio-Based Lubricants

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 24 September 2024 | Viewed by 3590

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Lubrificantes, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, Bl 709, Fortaleza 60.455-760, CE, Brazil
Interests: adsorption; catalysis; biomass valorization; biofuels; biolubricants; tribology; modeling and simulation
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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, 65, São Luis 055-310, MA, Brazil
Interests: tribology; biolubricant; biomass valorization; wear; friction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The term “bio-based lubricant” usually refers to lubricants formulated with renewable and biodegradable, usually nontoxic basestocks. Biolubricant basestock oils with additives (antioxidants, pour point depressants, viscosity index (VI) enhancer, etc.) are used to obtain final products for several applications. Vegetable oils have proved to be good alternatives for biolubricant production, not only because they have long carbon chains, similar to mineral lubricants, but also because they have the advantage of presenting a high rate of biodegradability. Furthermore, they exhibit high lubricity, high VI, have a higher flash point and lower evaporative losses than mineral oil. In recent years, several chemical routes have been developed to obtain lubricants from various renewable sources (vegetable oil, animal fats, residual biomass, etc.), comparing their physicochemical properties and tribological behavior with similar products derived from petroleum. Identifying a feasible industrial chemical route that produces bio-based lubricants with better performance than petroleum derivatives is still a challenge for researchers in this field. Based on these considerations, we invite authors to submit articles and reviews related to the development of bio-based lubricant molecules obtained through several chemical routes, assessing the physicochemical properties and/or tribological behavior of products.

Prof. Dr. Francisco Murilo Tavares de Luna
Dr. Paulo Roberto Campos Flexa Ribeiro Filho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biomass valorization
  • bio-based lubricants
  • friction
  • tribology
  • wear

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Composite of Carboxymethyl Cellulose/MXene and Span 60 as Additives to Enhance Tribological Properties of Bio-Lubricants
by Dedison Gasni, Dieter Rahmadiawan, Ridho Irwansyah and Aldi Em Khalid
Lubricants 2024, 12(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12030078 - 1 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Bio-lubricants are the future of lubricants as a substitute for mineral lubricants; however, bio-lubricants have drawbacks, such as poor thermal-oxidative stability. In addition, during the friction process, the temperature of the lubricant increases, so the lubricant must have good thermal conductivity to conduct [...] Read more.
Bio-lubricants are the future of lubricants as a substitute for mineral lubricants; however, bio-lubricants have drawbacks, such as poor thermal-oxidative stability. In addition, during the friction process, the temperature of the lubricant increases, so the lubricant must have good thermal conductivity to conduct heat to the environment. To combat the drawbacks of bio-lubricants, some additives have been used to improve their performance as lubricants. Composites of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/MXene and Span 60 as surfactants were used as additives in CPO with different compositions. The physicochemical properties of the addition of CMC/MXene and Span 60 in CPO have changed, including kinematic viscosity, TAN, thermal conductivity, and fatty acids, which have a positive impact on lubrication performance in terms of reducing oxidation processes and increasing thermal conductivity. From fatty acid composition tests and FTIR analysis, the additives work to suppress the oxidation process. A pin-on-disk test was performed to evaluate the tribological performances of bio-lubricants. The results show that CM 10 SP (0.5% wt of CMC and MXene and 1% wt Span 60) demonstrated a significant decrease in CoF and wear rate by 49% and 74%, respectively, at a load of 50 N and a speed of 1400 rpm compared to CPO without additives. An interface layer of CMC/MXene and Span 60, separating two surfaces, could induce wear on the surface of the disk and pin. Full article
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15 pages, 11982 KiB  
Article
Thermo-Oxidative Stability and Tribological Properties of Biolubricants Obtained from Castor Oil Fatty Acids and Isoamyl Alcohol
by Maria Marliete F. Melo Neta, Gustavo R. R. Lima, Philipe de O. Tavares, Igor de M. Figueredo, Weslley da S. Rocha, Paulo R. C. F. Ribeiro Filho, Célio L. Cavalcante, Jr. and Francisco Murilo T. Luna
Lubricants 2023, 11(11), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11110490 - 12 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
In this study, the thermo-oxidative stability and tribological behavior of bio-based lubricant samples synthesized from castor oil using isoamyl alcohol were evaluated. Initially, the compositional and physicochemical properties of the obtained samples were assessed using the 1H NMR, FTIR and ASTM methods. [...] Read more.
In this study, the thermo-oxidative stability and tribological behavior of bio-based lubricant samples synthesized from castor oil using isoamyl alcohol were evaluated. Initially, the compositional and physicochemical properties of the obtained samples were assessed using the 1H NMR, FTIR and ASTM methods. Oxidative stability of the samples was evaluated using the Rancimat method at 110 °C under air flow. The final biolubricant sample (BL2), obtained after esterification, epoxidation and oxirane rings opening reactions, presented an oxidation stability time (OST) of 14.3 h. The thermal stability was also evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG) from the mass variations under inert and oxidative atmosphere. BL2 showed higher thermal stability compared to the other samples, demonstrating higher decomposition temperatures in both inert (339.04 °C) and oxidative (338.47 °C) atmospheres, for a mass loss of 50%. The tribological properties of the samples were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer configuration. The BL1 and BL2 samples exhibited lower friction coefficients than the mineral oil sample (MOS) by 21.5% and 43.1%, respectively. Regarding wear, the observed wear scar diameter (WSD) was also lower in BL1 and BL2 compared to MOS by 5.2% and 40.4%, respectively. The results of the tribological evaluation suggest that both samples (BL1 and BL2) have promising potential for applications in lubricating machines. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 929 KiB  
Review
A Review of Chemical Modification of Vegetable Oils and Their Applications
by Yongjing Zeng, Zichen Shang, Zeni Zheng, Ning Shi, Bo Yang, Sheng Han and Jincan Yan
Lubricants 2024, 12(5), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12050180 - 17 May 2024
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Abstract
In order to cope with the shortage of non-renewable energy and the increasingly environmental pollution, sustainable vegetable oils, as competitive alternatives, have widely been held in the good graces of the researchers. Vegetable oils are suitable for a wide range of applications such [...] Read more.
In order to cope with the shortage of non-renewable energy and the increasingly environmental pollution, sustainable vegetable oils, as competitive alternatives, have widely been held in the good graces of the researchers. Vegetable oils are suitable for a wide range of applications such as biofuels and biodiesel. However, the development of vegetable oils is limited due to the characteristics of unsatisfactory oxidation stability and poor cold-flow properties. Chemical modification is considered as an effective solution to enhance the performance. The research progress of the chemical modification methods and applications of vegetable oils in recent years are summarized in this review. Reducing the content of carbon–carbon double bonds and increasing the degree of saturation are the keys to improve the physicochemical properties of vegetable oils. The prospects for the development direction and challenges of vegetable oils are proposed. Future research may focus on the use of multifunctional catalysts to optimize reaction conditions or to introduce active groups with lubricating properties in epoxidation reactions and explore the combination of chemical and auxiliary methods. Full article
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