Novel Challenges and Therapeutic Strategies for Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Diseases

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2024 | Viewed by 7762

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Unit of Otorhinolaryngology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry, “Federico II” University of Naples, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: head and neck surgery; laryngology; head and neck cancer; nose and paranasal sinus surgery; head and neck oncology; otorhinolaryngology; personalized medicine; rhinology; OSAS

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The purpose of this Special Issue is to offer readers and colleagues updates on Novel Challenges and Therapeutic Strategies for Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Diseases.

This Special Issue welcomes research articles and review papers focused on pathogenetic, diagnostic, and therapeutic perspectives in ear, nose and throat disease. Every year, we see continued advancement in the field of Otorhinolaryngology. The goal of this Special Issue is to keep us up to date on an ever-expanding field. We will include a number of topics that are pertinent for all aspects of challenges and therapeutic strategies in Otology, Rhinology, Laryngology and other ENT fields as well as in related fields including office-based management, general surgical updates as well as recent diagnostic and therapeutic investigations and innovations. Some of the topics are well known to our readers but provide key updates to help with patient management. Others are novel concepts that we are still trying to understand and provide a basic background for exciting ongoing work.

For this reason, we proposed this Special Issue of the Journal of Personalized Medicine in order to collect papers about new challenges and therapeutic strategies in all the fields of otorhinolaryngology.

Prof. Dr. Massimo Mesolella
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ear
  • nose
  • throat
  • laryngology
  • head and neck surgery
  • head and neck oncology
  • OSAS
  • diagnosis
  • radiotherapy
  • chemotherapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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10 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Balloon Eustachian Tuboplasty Combined or Not with Myringotomy in Eustachian Tube Dysfunction
by Wei-Chieh Lin, Yao-Wen Chang, Ting-Ya Kang, Ciou-Nan Ye, Hung-Pin Wu and Chung-Ching Lin
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(11), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13111527 - 25 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Background: Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a common disorder causing ear pressure, pain, and hearing loss. Balloon Eustachian tuboplasty (BET) is an emerging technique for dilating the Eustachian tube and treating ETD. Whether adding myringotomy improves BET efficacy is controversial. Methods: This retrospective [...] Read more.
Background: Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a common disorder causing ear pressure, pain, and hearing loss. Balloon Eustachian tuboplasty (BET) is an emerging technique for dilating the Eustachian tube and treating ETD. Whether adding myringotomy improves BET efficacy is controversial. Methods: This retrospective study included 95 ETD patients undergoing BET alone (n = 44) or BET with myringotomy (BET + M; n = 51) between June 2020 and August 2021 at a single medical center. The primary outcome was the change in ETDQ-7 symptom scores from baseline to 6 months after treatment. Secondary outcomes included audiometry, endoscopy, Valsalva maneuver, and complications. Results: The ETDQ-7 scores improved significantly after treatment in both groups (p < 0.001), without significant between-group differences (p = 0.417). No significant differences occurred in the audiometry, endoscopy, and Valsalva results or in most complications between groups. One BET + M patient had a persistent tympanic membrane perforation. Conclusions: Both BET alone and BET + M effectively and safely improved the subjective and objective ETD outcomes. However, adding myringotomy did not further improve the outcomes over BET alone, while it incurred risks such as persistent perforation. BET alone may sufficiently treat ETD without requiring myringotomy in this cohort. Further randomized controlled trials should identify optimal candidates for BET alone versus combined approaches. Full article
12 pages, 1198 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Fungal and Non-Fungal Rhinosinusitis by Culture-Based Analysis
by Chih-Hung Cha, Wei-Chih Chen, Yu-Ming Wang, Shao-Chun Wu, Tai-Jan Chiu, Ching-Nung Wu, Yinshen Wee, Ching-Shuen Wang, Yao-Hsu Yang and Sheng-Dean Luo
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(9), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13091368 - 11 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Background: Incidence of fungal rhinosinusitis has increased in recent few years. We investigated the differences in microbiological findings between patients with fungal and non-fungal rhinosinusitis by growing microbiological cultures from samples obtained from sinus surgery. Methods: Using the Chang Gung Research Database, we [...] Read more.
Background: Incidence of fungal rhinosinusitis has increased in recent few years. We investigated the differences in microbiological findings between patients with fungal and non-fungal rhinosinusitis by growing microbiological cultures from samples obtained from sinus surgery. Methods: Using the Chang Gung Research Database, we enrolled all chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients who had ever undergone sinus surgery from 2001 to 2019 and had microbiological culture during sinus surgery. Enrolled patients were divided into fungal and non-fungal groups, based on fungal culture and surgical pathology. Results: A total of 898 patients were diagnosed with fungal rhinosinusitis and 2884 with non-fungal rhinosinusitis. The fungal group had a higher age distribution (56.9 ± 13.1 vs. 47.0 ± 14.9), a larger proportion of females (62.4% vs. 37.0%), more unilateral lesions (80.4% vs. 41.6%), a lower incidence of the need for revision surgery (3.6% vs. 6.0%, p = 0.004), and a higher proportion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the culture (14.3% vs. 4.6%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This large-scale study showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa are more commonly found in patients with fungal rhinosinusitis and in patients who needed revision surgery, suggesting that efforts aimed at eliminating Pseudomonas are needed in order to improve the disease outcomes of patients with fungal rhinosinusitis. Full article
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11 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology with Histopathology in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules
by Michael Osseis, Georges Jammal, Daniel Kazan and Roger Noun
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(8), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13081197 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
Background: Accurate diagnosis of thyroid nodules is crucial for avoiding unnecessary surgeries and enabling timely treatment. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and ultrasound are commonly employed diagnostic techniques, but their reliability is debated. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC [...] Read more.
Background: Accurate diagnosis of thyroid nodules is crucial for avoiding unnecessary surgeries and enabling timely treatment. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and ultrasound are commonly employed diagnostic techniques, but their reliability is debated. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC and ultrasounds using histopathology as the reference standard. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 344 patients who underwent thyroidectomy between January 2017 and May 2022. An ultrasound and FNAC were performed before surgery, and histopathological findings were compared. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), false positive rate, false negative rate, and overall accuracy for each diagnostic method. Results: Among the study population, 38.67% of thyroid tumors were malignant. Ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 68.18%, specificity of 76.55%, PPV of 64.74%, NPV of 79.20%, and overall accuracy of 73.31%. FNAC had a sensitivity of 89.31%, specificity of 48.44%, PPV of 78%, NPV of 68.89%, and accuracy of 75.89%. The correlation coefficient between ultrasound and FNAC was 0.512 (p < 0.0000001). Ultrasound correlated with histopathology with a coefficient of 0.408 (p < 0.0000001), while FNAC with histopathology had a coefficient of 0.304 (p < 0.00001). The correlation coefficient between these three diagnostic methods was 0.423 (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: In the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, both FNAC and ultrasound demonstrated moderate diagnostic accuracy. Ultrasound showed a higher specificity, while FNAC exhibited a higher sensitivity. Combining these techniques may improve diagnostic accuracy. Further research and the development of more reliable diagnostic methods are warranted to optimize the management of thyroid nodules and avoid unnecessary surgeries. Full article
13 pages, 1123 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Care and Follow-Up in Laryngeal Cancer Patients: A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis
by Blažen Marijić, Filip Tudor, Stefan Janik, Stefan Grasl, Florian Frommlet, Diana Maržić, Ita Hadžisejdić, Jelena Vukelić, Tamara Braut, Marko Velepič and Boban M. Erovic
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(6), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13060927 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Purpose: We conducted an outcome analysis on surgically treated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients. Methods: A multicenter retrospective study with 352 patients was analyzed. A new nomogram that incorporates age, T- and N-classification, and treatment was created. Results: Recurrence was observed in [...] Read more.
Purpose: We conducted an outcome analysis on surgically treated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients. Methods: A multicenter retrospective study with 352 patients was analyzed. A new nomogram that incorporates age, T- and N-classification, and treatment was created. Results: Recurrence was observed in 65 (18.5%) patients after a mean time of 16.5 months. After 60 months, 91 (25.9%) of patients developed secondary primary tumors (SPT), most commonly in the lungs (n = 29; 8.2%) followed by other head and neck cancers (n = 21; 6.0%). Notably, the mean time to occurrence of secondary head and neck cancers was twice that of lung cancer (101.1 vs. 47.5 months). Conclusion: Recurrent disease is less common in LSCC patients and appears much earlier than SPT. Because one in every four laryngeal cancer patients develops SPTs within 5–10 years, long-term care and follow-up, including imaging studies, are highly recommended. The nomogram was useful for estimating survival. Full article
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9 pages, 1225 KiB  
Case Report
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH): Role of Logopedic Rehabilitation in Dysphagia
by Massimo Mesolella, Sarah Buono, Roberto D’Aniello, Annarita Ascione, Gaetano Motta and Salvatore Allosso
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(6), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13060994 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Forestier’s disease is a systemic, degenerative metabolic condition, which is still insufficiently investigated and understood, characterized by the progressive ossification of the ligaments and entheses. This case describes a 63-year-old man admitted to our department after several years of failed attempts to obtain [...] Read more.
Forestier’s disease is a systemic, degenerative metabolic condition, which is still insufficiently investigated and understood, characterized by the progressive ossification of the ligaments and entheses. This case describes a 63-year-old man admitted to our department after several years of failed attempts to obtain a definitive diagnosis presenting with a painless mass in the pre-auricular region, gradually worsening dysphonia, severe dysphagia relating to solids, stiffness, and mild pain at the back of the neck. After performing further diagnostic tests, in addition to a pleomorphic adenoma, the simultaneous presence of diffuse spondylarthrosis on the cervical spine was highlighted, with beak-like osteophytes at C2–C5 resulting in esophageal compression. Given the absence of upper digestive endoscopy abnormalities, we initiated an intense logopedic and postural rehabilitative treatment, which led to a significant improvement in the patient’s dysphagia symptoms. In addition, we limited the use of medical therapy to solely indomethacin in order to control the osteophytic process. Full article
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