Marine Gas Hydrates: Formation, Storage, Exploration and Exploitation

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Geological Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2024 | Viewed by 2655

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, China
Interests: hydrate exploration and exploitation; wellbore multiphase flow and heat transfer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China
Interests: wellbore pressure control theory and technology; offshore oil and gas engineering; multiphase flow theory and engineering applications

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Guest Editor
School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China
Interests: hydrate formation and deposition; hydrate inhibition; phase transition; hydrate slurry rheology; natural gas hydrate recovering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural gas hydrates, as a significant reserve of clean energy, have been extensively investigated by energy institutions and researchers all over the world. Pilot production has already begun in China, Japan, Canada and the United States. The results show that the exploitation of gas hydrate resources is technically feasible. However, the production of natural gas has not yet reached the threshold of commercial exploitation, and the safety of long-term production has not been verified; hence, efficient extraction technology and methods are urgently needed for the development of natural gas hydrates. In terms of drilling, the weak bonding characteristics of the hydrate layer remains a significant challenge. In addition, hydrate flow assurance in the process of gas hydrate transport and storage has hindered the development of oil and gas fields. Therefore, research and development of new hydrate management methods and technologies are now a priority in the field of energy.

This Special Issue aims to collate papers that underscore the latest progress in theory, experiment, modeling and application of marine gas hydrates, as well as highlight the processes of their formation, storage, exploration, exploitation, and transportation.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • NGH formation;
  • NGH storage;
  • NGH drilling;
  • NGH exploration;
  • NGH well completion;
  • NGH extraction simulation;
  • NGH management in flow assurance;
  • Novel technologies base on NGH;
  • CCS related to NGH;
  • Fundamentals of NGH.

Prof. Dr. Yonghai Gao
Prof. Dr. Baojiang Sun
Prof. Dr. Zhiyuan Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • NGH formation
  • NGH storage
  • NGH drilling
  • NGH exploration
  • NGH well completion
  • NGH extraction simulation
  • NGH management in flow assurance
  • novel technologies base on NGH
  • CCS related to NGH
  • fundamentals of NGH

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 4567 KiB  
Article
Pore Water Conversion Characteristics during Methane Hydrate Formation: Insights from Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Measurements
by Jiaxian Wang, Yunkai Ji, Changling Liu, Qingguo Meng, Yapeng Zhao, Zhun Zhang, Jianye Sun, Lele Liu and Fulong Ning
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(4), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12040619 - 04 Apr 2024
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Understanding the conversion characteristics of pore water is crucial for investigating the mechanism of hydrate accumulation; however, research in this area remains limited. This study conducted methane hydrate formation experiments in unconsolidated sands using an in-house low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system. It [...] Read more.
Understanding the conversion characteristics of pore water is crucial for investigating the mechanism of hydrate accumulation; however, research in this area remains limited. This study conducted methane hydrate formation experiments in unconsolidated sands using an in-house low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system. It focused on pore water conversion characteristics and influencing factors such as initial water saturation and sand particle sizes. Results show that methane hydrate formation enhances the homogeneity of the effective pore structure within sand samples. The conversion rate of pore water is significantly influenced by differences in heat and mass transfer capacity, decreasing as initial water saturation and sand size increase. Pore water cannot be fully converted into hydrates in unconsolidated sands. The final conversion ratio of pore water in water-poor sand samples nears 97%, while in water-rich sand samples, it is only 65.80%. Sand particle size variation has a negligible impact on the final conversion ratio of pore water, with ratios exceeding 94% across different particle sizes, differing by less than 3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Gas Hydrates: Formation, Storage, Exploration and Exploitation)
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29 pages, 15581 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Hydrate Dissociation Behaviors in Hydrate Reservoir with Different Properties during Horizontal Well Drilling
by Fei Gao, Yu Zhang, Chang Chen, Xiaosen Li and Zhaoyang Chen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12040554 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
The effectiveness of horizontal well drilling in improving the gas recovery efficiency of hydrate production makes it a promising technology for commercial exploitation. However, during horizontal well drilling in hydrate reservoirs, it is crucial to control hydrate dissociation to ensure the reservoir stability [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of horizontal well drilling in improving the gas recovery efficiency of hydrate production makes it a promising technology for commercial exploitation. However, during horizontal well drilling in hydrate reservoirs, it is crucial to control hydrate dissociation to ensure the reservoir stability and drilling safety. In this work, a two-dimensional model using polar coordinates was built to study the influences of hydrate reservoir characteristics and drilling fluid salinity on gas production. The simulation applies to the hydrate reservoir of the second natural gas hydrate (NGH) production test in the Shenhu area of the South China Sea. The characteristics of hydrate dissociation and secondary formation and the drilling invasion behavior in the NGH layer and the mixing layer (free gas + hydrate) during horizontal well drilling were analyzed and compared. The simulation results indicated that the pressure and temperature transmission rates in the mixing layer (free gas + hydrate) are higher than those in the NGH layer. The invasion amount of drilling fluid in the mixing layer is 18.8 times more than that in the NGH layer. Under the high invasion of the drilling fluid, the hydrate dissociation amount in the mixing layer is similar to that of the NGH layer even though the initial hydrate saturation of the NGH layer was 2.65 times that of the mixing layer. The area of the hydrate dissociation in the mixing layer is much larger than that in the NGH layer, which may lead to the increase in risk of wellbore instability. The secondary hydrate formation is only observed in the NGH layer, which inhibits the drilling fluid invasion. The salinity of the drilling fluid has a more significant impact on the hydrate dissociation near the wellbore in the mixing layer compared to the NGH layer. With the increase in salinity from 3.05 wt% to 20 wt%, the hydrate dissociation range in the mixing layer increases from 0.16 m to 0.23 m, while the hydrate dissociation range in the NGH layer does not significantly change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Gas Hydrates: Formation, Storage, Exploration and Exploitation)
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16 pages, 3984 KiB  
Article
Study of the Formation of Hydrates with NaCl, Methanol Additive, and Quartz Sand Particles
by Yaqiang Qi, Yonghai Gao, Lei Zhang, Xinyao Su and Yanli Guo
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030364 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 479
Abstract
During deepwater drilling, testing, production, or hydrate mining, the circulating medium in the wellbore may contain solid particles, such as rock chips and sand, in addition to drilling fluids, gas, and water. In the high-pressure, low-temperature conditions of deep water, gas intrusion can [...] Read more.
During deepwater drilling, testing, production, or hydrate mining, the circulating medium in the wellbore may contain solid particles, such as rock chips and sand, in addition to drilling fluids, gas, and water. In the high-pressure, low-temperature conditions of deep water, gas intrusion can easily combine with free water in the drilling fluid to form hydrates, increasing the drilling risk. Therefore, understanding the formation patterns of hydrates in drilling fluids is of significant importance for the prevention and control of hydrates. This study utilized a small-scale high-pressure reactor to investigate the impact of the stirring rate, NaCl, and methanol additives, as well as the sand content on the hydrate formation process and gas consumption. The results indicate that the hydrate formation process can be divided into an induction stage, a rapid formation stage, and a slow formation stage. The induction stage and rapid formation stage durations are significantly reduced under stirring conditions. In NaCl and methanol solutions, hydrate formation is inhibited, with the induction stage duration increasing with higher concentrations of NaCl and methanol. There was no apparent rapid formation stage observed. The final gas consumption decreases substantially with increasing concentrations of NaCl and methanol, reaching no significant hydrate formation at a 20% concentration. The sand content has a significant impact on the slow formation stage, with the final gas consumption increasing within a certain range (in this work, at a sand content of 20%), and being notably higher than in the pure water system under the same conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Gas Hydrates: Formation, Storage, Exploration and Exploitation)
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21 pages, 4454 KiB  
Article
A New Model of Bubble Migration Velocity in Deep Water Wellbore Considering Hydrate Phase Transition
by Xinxin Zhao, Faling Yin, Haiyuan Yao, Yaqiang Qi and Xin Cao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(11), 2206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11112206 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Mass transfer and phase transition have an important effect on the velocity of bubble migration in deepwater wellbores, and accurate prediction of bubble migration velocity is crucial for calculating the safe shut-in period of deepwater oil and gas wells. Therefore, the effect of [...] Read more.
Mass transfer and phase transition have an important effect on the velocity of bubble migration in deepwater wellbores, and accurate prediction of bubble migration velocity is crucial for calculating the safe shut-in period of deepwater oil and gas wells. Therefore, the effect of bubble dissolution mass transfer and hydrate phase transition on bubble migration behavior in the deepwater environment have attracted extensive attention from researchers in the fields of energy, marine chemistry, and marine engineering safety. In this work, a new model of bubble migration velocity in deepwater is developed, which considers the effect of hydrate phase transition and gas-water bidirectional cross-shell mass transfer during bubble migration. Based on the observation data of bubble migration in deepwater, the reliability of the model in predicting bubble migration velocity is verified. Then, the model is used to calculate and analyze the bubble migration velocity and bubble migration cycle under different initial bubble size, different annular fluid viscosity, and density. The results show that the initial size of bubble and the viscosity of annulus fluid are the main factors affecting the migration velocity of the bubble, but the density of annulus fluid has little effect on the migration velocity of the hydrated bubble and clean bubble. In addition, the migration velocity of the clean bubble gradually increases during the migration process from the bottom to the wellhead, while the migration velocity of the hydrated bubble is divided into a gradually decreasing stage and a slowly increasing stage. The gas consumption and the thickening of hydrate shell in the gradually decreasing stage play a dominant role, and the increase of bubble volume caused by the decrease of pressure in the slowly increasing stage is the most important factor. The formation of the hydrated bubble can significantly reduce the migration velocity of the bubble and effectively prolong the safe shut-in period. This study provides a reference for quantitative description and characterization of complex bubble migration behavior with phase change and mass transfer in deepwater environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Gas Hydrates: Formation, Storage, Exploration and Exploitation)
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