High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing

A special issue of Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing (ISSN 2504-4494).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 6488

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada
Interests: metal additive manufacturing; texture and anisotropy; dynamic mechanical behaviour; materials characterization; light alloys

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA
Interests: additive manufacturing; cold spray; PSPP linkages; scientific machine learning; high entropy alloys
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metal additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing (3DP), has emerged as a transformative technology that revolutionizes traditional manufacturing processes. By enabling the direct fabrication of complex metal parts from digital designs, additive manufacturing offers unprecedented freedom in design and manufacturing flexibility. In this Special Issue, we seek to present a comprehensive collection of research articles, reviews, and case studies that highlight the state-of-the-art techniques, novel materials, in/ex situ materials characterization, process optimization, modelling and simulation, and applications in metal AM, with a specific focus on achieving high-performance outcomes for strategic sectors, including the aerospace, marine, automotive and energy industries. We encourage submissions that cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Design methodologies for high-performance metal parts using AM techniques.
  • Advanced metal powders and alloys tailored for AM, specifically metal matrix composites and smart alloys.
  • Process optimization and control strategies to enhance mechanical, chemical and physical properties and surface finish of additively manufactured parts.
  • Novel post-processing techniques for improving the performance of additively manufactured metal components, particularly in extreme environments.
  • Real-world applications of high-performance metal AM in diverse sectors.

By assembling this collection of contributions, we aim to foster collaboration, knowledge exchange, and advancements in metal additive manufacturing. I invite researchers from academia and industry to share their expertise, innovative ideas, and exciting developments in this exciting field. Together, we can push the boundaries of high-performance metal additive manufacturing and pave the way for its widespread adoption.

Dr. Hamed Asgari
Dr. Elham Mirkoohi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metal additive manufacturing
  • process optimization
  • quality control
  • materials characterization
  • powder processing
  • design for additive manufacturing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 3800 KiB  
Article
Theoretical-Numerical Investigation of a New Approach to Reconstruct the Temperature Field in PBF-LB/M Using Multispectral Process Monitoring
by Lisa May and Martin Werz
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8020073 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 441
Abstract
The monitoring of additive manufacturing processes such as powder bed fusion enables the detection of several process quantities important to the quality of the built part. In this context, radiation-based monitoring techniques have been used to obtain information about the melt pool and [...] Read more.
The monitoring of additive manufacturing processes such as powder bed fusion enables the detection of several process quantities important to the quality of the built part. In this context, radiation-based monitoring techniques have been used to obtain information about the melt pool and the general temperature distribution on the surface of the powder bed. High temporal and spatial resolution have been achieved at the cost of large storage requirements. This contribution aims to offer an alternative strategy of gaining information about the powder bed’s temperature field with sufficient resolution but with an economical amount of data. The investigated measurement setup uses a spectrometer to detect the spectral radiation intensities emitted by an area enclosing the melt pool and part of its surroundings. An analytical description of this process is presented, which shows that the measured spectral entities can be reconstructed by the Ritz method. It is also shown that the corresponding weighting factors can be physically interpreted as subdomains of constant temperature within the measurement area. Two different test cases are numerically analyzed, showing that the methodology allows for an approximation of the melt pool size while further assumptions remain necessary to reconstruct the actual temperature distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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24 pages, 39872 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Deposition Parameters for Near-Beta Alloy Ti-55511 Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition
by Addison J. Rayner, Greg A. W. Sweet, Owen Craig, Mahdi Habibnejad-Korayem and Paul Bishop
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8020072 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 307
Abstract
The directed energy deposition (DED) parameters were determined for near-β alloy Ti-55511 by employing statistical design of experiments (DOEs) methods. Parameters resulting in fully dense freeform deposits were identified using two sequential DOEs. Single laser tracks were printed with several laser power, traverse [...] Read more.
The directed energy deposition (DED) parameters were determined for near-β alloy Ti-55511 by employing statistical design of experiments (DOEs) methods. Parameters resulting in fully dense freeform deposits were identified using two sequential DOEs. Single laser tracks were printed with several laser power, traverse rate, and powder feed rate settings in an initial DOE to identify promising build parameters. The capture efficiency and effective deposition rate were used to characterize and rank the single track deposits. The best parameters were then used to print a solid cube with various X–Y and Z overlaps (different hatch spacing, HS, and layer thickness, ZS) in a second DOE. Suitable deposition parameters were selected based on the cube density and microstructure and were used to fabricate larger tensile samples for mechanical testing. Multiple parameter sets were found to provide dense Ti-55511 deposits with acceptable mechanical properties and the parametric models showed statistical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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14 pages, 4286 KiB  
Article
Analytical Model of Quantitative Texture Prediction Considering Heat Transfer Based on Single-Phase Material in Laser Powder Bed Fusion
by Wei Huang, Wenjia Wang, Jinqiang Ning, Hamid Garmestani and Steven Y. Liang
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8020070 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is widely used in metal additive manufacturing to create geometrically complex parts, where heat transfer and its affected temperature distribution significantly influence the parts’ materials’ microstructure and the resulting materials’ properties. Among all the microstructure representations, crystallographic orientations [...] Read more.
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is widely used in metal additive manufacturing to create geometrically complex parts, where heat transfer and its affected temperature distribution significantly influence the parts’ materials’ microstructure and the resulting materials’ properties. Among all the microstructure representations, crystallographic orientations play a paramount role in determining the mechanical properties of materials. This paper first developed a physics-based analytical model to predict the 3D temperature distribution in PBF considering heat transfer boundary conditions; heat input using point-moving heat source solutions; and heat loss due to heat conduction, convection, and radiation. The superposition principle obtained temperature distributions based on linear heat sources and linear heat loss solutions. Then, the temperature distribution was used to analytically obtain the texture grown on a substrate with random grain orientations considering columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). Thus, the link between process parameters and texture was established through CET models and physical rules. Ti-6Al-4V was selected to demonstrate the capability of the analytical model in a single-phase situation. By applying advanced thermal models, the accuracy of the texture prediction was evaluated based on a comparison of experimental data from the literature and past analytical model results. Hence, this work not only provides a method of the fast analytical simulation of texture prediction in the single-phase mode for metallic materials but also paves the road for subsequent studies on microstructure-affected or texture-affected materials’ properties for both academic research and industrial applications. The prediction of single-phase material texture has never been achieved before, and the scalability has been expanded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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17 pages, 8741 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel by Cold Rolled and Machining vs. DMLS Additive Manufacturing
by Pablo Moreno-Garibaldi, Melvyn Alvarez-Vera, Juan Alfonso Beltrán-Fernández, Rafael Carrera-Espinoza, Héctor Manuel Hdz-García, J. C. Díaz-Guillen, Rita Muñoz-Arroyo, Javier A. Ortega and Paul Molenda
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8020048 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
The 17-4 PH stainless steel is widely used in the aerospace, petrochemical, chemical, food, and general metallurgical industries. The present study was conducted to analyze the mechanical properties of two types of 17-4 PH stainless steel—commercial cold-rolled and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) [...] Read more.
The 17-4 PH stainless steel is widely used in the aerospace, petrochemical, chemical, food, and general metallurgical industries. The present study was conducted to analyze the mechanical properties of two types of 17-4 PH stainless steel—commercial cold-rolled and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) manufactured. This study employed linear and nonlinear tensile FEM simulations, combined with various materials characterization techniques such as tensile testing and nanoindentation. Moreover, microstructural analysis was performed using metallographic techniques, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results on the microstructure for 17-4 PH DMLS stainless steel reveal the layers of melting due to the laser process characterized by complex directional columnar structures parallel to the DMLS build direction. The mechanical properties obtained from the simple tension test decreased by 17% for the elastic modulus, 7.8% for the yield strength, and 7% for the ultimate strength for 17-4 PH DMLS compared with rolled 17-4 PH stainless steel. The FEM simulation using the experimental tension test data revealed that the 17-4 PH DMLS stainless steel experienced a decrease in the yield strength of ~8% and in the ultimate strength of ~11%. A reduction of the yield strength of the material was obtained as the grain size increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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16 pages, 12892 KiB  
Article
Forging Treatment Realized the Isotropic Microstructure and Properties of Selective Laser Melting GH3536
by Shuai Huang, Tianyuan Wang, Kai Li, Biao Zhou, Bingqing Chen and Xuejun Zhang
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060213 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1323
Abstract
The anisotropy of mechanical properties in SLMed alloy is very important. In order to realize the homogeneity of the microstructure and mechanical properties of GH3536 alloy prepared by selective laser melting (SLM), the as-deposited samples were treated by hot isostatic pressing and then [...] Read more.
The anisotropy of mechanical properties in SLMed alloy is very important. In order to realize the homogeneity of the microstructure and mechanical properties of GH3536 alloy prepared by selective laser melting (SLM), the as-deposited samples were treated by hot isostatic pressing and then forged at different temperatures. The microstructure, grain size, room- and high- temperature tensile properties, and endurance properties of the samples were studied. The results showed that the microstructure of the sample was mainly equiaxed austenite phase, and granular carbides were precipitated inside the grains after forging treatment, resulting in the anisotropy of the sample almost disappearing. The grain boundary phase difference distribution was most concentrated at 60°. The grain size was less than 10 μm, and a large number of twins were formed. With the increase in forging temperature, the yield strength, tensile strength, and contraction of area of the samples changed little, and the properties parallel to the z-axis (parallel samples) and vertical to the z-axis (vertical samples) were almost the same. In particular, the yield strength, tensile strength, and contraction of area in the transverse and vertical samples were almost at the same level. Judging from the elongation after fracture and the contraction of area, the properties of the samples showed characteristics of anisotropy after a high temperature endurance test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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15 pages, 7676 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis and Spatial Component Impact of the Inert Cross Flow in Open-Architecture Laser Powder Bed Fusion
by Magnus Bolt Kjer, Zhihao Pan, Venkata Karthik Nadimpalli and David Bue Pedersen
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040143 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Laser-based powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing process in which a high-power laser melts a thin layer of metal powder layer by layer to yield a three-dimensional object. An inert gas must remove process byproducts formed during laser processing to ensure a [...] Read more.
Laser-based powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing process in which a high-power laser melts a thin layer of metal powder layer by layer to yield a three-dimensional object. An inert gas must remove process byproducts formed during laser processing to ensure a stable and consistent process. The process byproducts include a plasma plume and spatter particles. An NC sensor gantry is installed inside a bespoke open-architecture laser-based powder bed fusion system to experimentally characterize the gas velocity throughout the processing area. The flow maps are compared to manufactured samples, where the relative density and melt pools are analyzed, seeking a potential correlation between local gas flow conditions and the components. The results show a correlation between low gas flow velocities and increased porosity, leading to lower part quality. Local flow conditions across the build plate also directly impact components, highlighting the importance of optimizing the gas flow subsystem. The experimental flow analysis method enables optimization of the gas flow inlet geometry, and the data may be used to calibrate the computational modeling of the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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Review

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121 pages, 85007 KiB  
Review
Advancements in Additive Manufacturing for Copper-Based Alloys and Composites: A Comprehensive Review
by Alireza Vahedi Nemani, Mahya Ghaffari, Kazem Sabet Bokati, Nima Valizade, Elham Afshari and Ali Nasiri
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8020054 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Copper-based materials have long been used for their outstanding thermal and electrical conductivities in various applications, such as heat exchangers, induction heat coils, cooling channels, radiators, and electronic connectors. The development of advanced copper alloys has broadened their utilization to include structural applications [...] Read more.
Copper-based materials have long been used for their outstanding thermal and electrical conductivities in various applications, such as heat exchangers, induction heat coils, cooling channels, radiators, and electronic connectors. The development of advanced copper alloys has broadened their utilization to include structural applications in harsh service conditions found in industries like oil and gas, marine, power plants, and water treatment, where good corrosion resistance and a combination of high strength, wear, and fatigue tolerance are critical. These advanced multi-component structures often have complex designs and intricate geometries, requiring extensive metallurgical processing routes and the joining of the individual components into a final structure. Additive manufacturing (AM) has revolutionized the way complex structures are designed and manufactured. It has reduced the processing steps, assemblies, and tooling while also eliminating the need for joining processes. However, the high thermal conductivity of copper and its high reflectivity to near-infrared radiation present challenges in the production of copper alloys using fusion-based AM processes, especially with Yb-fiber laser-based techniques. To overcome these difficulties, various solutions have been proposed, such as the use of high-power, low-wavelength laser sources, preheating the build chamber, employing low thermal conductivity building platforms, and adding alloying elements or composite particles to the feedstock material. This article systematically reviews different aspects of AM processing of common industrial copper alloys and composites, including copper-chrome, copper-nickel, tin-bronze, nickel-aluminum bronze, copper-carbon composites, copper-ceramic composites, and copper-metal composites. It focuses on the state-of-the-art AM techniques employed for processing different copper-based materials and the associated technological and metallurgical challenges, optimized processing variables, the impact of post-printing heat treatments, the resulting microstructural features, physical properties, mechanical performance, and corrosion response of the AM-fabricated parts. Where applicable, a comprehensive comparison of the results with those of their conventionally fabricated counterparts is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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