Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis of Biomaterials via Advanced Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 17913

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Innovation Management, Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia
Interests: silver nanoparticles; biological application; enzyme activity; protease; bacillus
Department of Analytical Chemistry, National Research Technological University, K. Marx Street 68, 420015 Kazan, Russia
Interests: coordination chemistry; quantum chemistry; chemistry of macrocyclic compounds; nanosciences; scientometrics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The last few decades have been marked by a huge number of works in nanotechnology related to so-called “green synthesis”. The eco-friendly mechanism and low toxicity of the applied and obtained compounds have already helped to radically increase the popularity of the biological synthesis method. It is important to understand that the term “green” synthesis should carry a double meaning, i.e., being both environmentally friendly and safe for both nature and humans. In the context of medical use, this means, first of all, the absence of a toxic effect for humans, as well as a targeted effect.

Due to their unique physicochemical properties, nanomaterials have received increased attention regarding their use in biological approaches and are capable of opening a new chapter in the treatment of various diseases. The different biological activities can make them indispensable assistants in the fight against diseases of the most diverse origin, such as antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal agents, drug delivery, and other types of diagnostics and therapy. Studying the mechanisms of “green” nanomaterials on living cells can not only bring us closer to solving a considerable number of modern medical problems but also expand the application horizons of these amazing objects.

In this Special Issue, we aim to publish studies on the current and potential applications of nanomaterials in biomedical research and practice, agriculture, bioremediation, and other areas, as well as synthesis mechanisms and interaction with living objects, which can become the basis of their potential multipolar application. Both original research papers and review articles are invited.

Dr. Ekaterina O. Mikhailova
Prof. Dr. Oleg V. Mikhailov
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • “green synthesis”
  • biomedical application
  • nanoparticles

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 203 KiB  
Editorial
Introduction to Problematics of the Special Issue “Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications”
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040307 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
The concept of “green biosynthesis”, as well as the similar and more general concept of “green synthesis”, is collective and includes very diverse synthetic methods, using products vital for activity from various living organisms—of both plant and animal origin—for chemical compound production [...] [...] Read more.
The concept of “green biosynthesis”, as well as the similar and more general concept of “green synthesis”, is collective and includes very diverse synthetic methods, using products vital for activity from various living organisms—of both plant and animal origin—for chemical compound production [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)

Research

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12 pages, 3778 KiB  
Article
Olive Leaf Extracts for a Green Synthesis of Silver-Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040224 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Green biosynthesis, one of the most dependable and cost-effective methods for producing carbon nanotubes, was used to synthesize nonhazardous silver-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SFMWCNTs) successfully. It has been shown that the water-soluble organic materials present in the olive oil plant play a vital [...] Read more.
Green biosynthesis, one of the most dependable and cost-effective methods for producing carbon nanotubes, was used to synthesize nonhazardous silver-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SFMWCNTs) successfully. It has been shown that the water-soluble organic materials present in the olive oil plant play a vital role in converting silver ions into silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). Olive-leaf extracts contain medicinal properties and combining these extracts with Ag-NPs is often a viable option for enhancing drug delivery; thus, this possibility was employed for in vitro treating cancer cells as a proof of concept. In this study, the green technique for preparing SFMWCNTs composites using plant extracts was followed. This process yielded various compounds, the most important of which were Hydroxytyrosol, Tyrosol, and Oleuropein. Subsequently, a thin film was fabricated from the extract, resulting in a natural polymer. The obtained nanomaterials have an absorption peak of 419 nm in their UV–Vis. spectra. SEM and EDS were also used to investigate the SFMWCNT nanocomposites’ morphology simultaneously. Moreover, the MTT assay was used to evaluate the ability of SFMWCNTs to suppress cancer cell viability on different cancer cell lines, MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), and SW620 (human colorectal cancer). Using varying doses of SFMWCNT resulted in the most significant cell viability inhibition, indicating the good sensitivity of SFMWCNTs for treating cancer cells. It was found that performing olive-leaf extraction at a low temperature in an ice bath leads to superior results, and the developed SFMWCNT nanocomposites could be potential treatment options for in vitro cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 2814 KiB  
Article
Carbon Nanoparticles Extracted from Date Palm Fronds for Fluorescence Bioimaging: In Vitro Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040218 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Numerous studies have been reported on single- and multicolored highly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCNPs) originating from various sources and their potential applications in bioimaging. Herein, multicolored biocompatible carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) unsheathed from date palm fronds were studied. The extracted CNPs were characterized via [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have been reported on single- and multicolored highly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCNPs) originating from various sources and their potential applications in bioimaging. Herein, multicolored biocompatible carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) unsheathed from date palm fronds were studied. The extracted CNPs were characterized via several microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The results revealed that the CNPs were crystalline graphitic and hydrophilic in nature with sizes ranging from 4 to 20 nm. The unsheathed CNPs showed exemplary photoluminescent (PL) properties. They also emitted bright blue colors when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. Furthermore, in vitro cellular uptake and cell viability in the presence of CNPs were also investigated. The cell viability of human colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines with aqueous CNPs at different concentrations was assessed by a cell metabolic activity assay (MTT) for 24 and 48 h incubations. The results were combined to generate dose-response curves for the CNPs and evaluate the severity of their toxicity. The CNPs showed adequate fluorescence with high cell viability for in vitro cell imaging. Under the laser-scanning confocal microscope, the CNPs with HCT-116 and MCF-7 cell lines showed multicolor fluorescence emissions, including blue, green, and red colors when excited at 405, 458, and 561 nm, respectively. These results prove that unsheathed CNPs from date palm fronds can be used in diverse biomedical applications because of their low cytotoxicity, adequate fluorescence, eco-friendly nature, and cheap production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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23 pages, 4368 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and In-Vitro Cytotoxicity and Mosquitocidal Activities of Portulaca oleracea-Based Green Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030157 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
The aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea was used as a biocatalyst for the reduction of Na2SeO3 to form Se-NPs that appeared red in color and showed maximum surface plasmon resonance at a wavelength of 266 nm, indicating the successful Phyto-fabrication [...] Read more.
The aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea was used as a biocatalyst for the reduction of Na2SeO3 to form Se-NPs that appeared red in color and showed maximum surface plasmon resonance at a wavelength of 266 nm, indicating the successful Phyto-fabrication of Se-NPs. A FT-IR chart clarified the role of plant metabolites such as proteins, carbohydrates, and amino acids in capping and stabilizing Se-NPs. TEM, SAED, and XRD analyses indicated the formation of spherical, well-arranged, and crystalline Se-NPs with sizes in the range of 2–22 nm. SEM-EDX mapping showed the maximum peaks of Se at 1.4, 11.3, and 12.4 KeV, with weight and atomic percentages of 36.49 and 30.39%, respectively. A zeta potential of −43.8 mV also indicated the high stability of the synthesized Se-NPs. The Phyto-synthesized Se-NPs showed varied biological activities in a dose-dependent manner, including promising activity against pathogenic bacteria and Candida species with varied MIC values in the range of 12.5−50 µg·mL−1. Moreover, the Se-NPs showed antiviral activity toward HAV and Cox-B4, with percentages of 70.26 and 62.58%, respectively. Interestingly, Se-NPs showed a target orientation to cancer cell lines (HepG2) with low IC50 concentration at 70.79 ± 2.2 µg·mL−1 compared to normal cell lines (WI−38) with IC50 at165.5 ± 5.4 µg·mL−1. Moreover, the as-formed Se-NPs showed high activity against various instar larvae I, II, III, and IV of Culex pipiens, with the highest mortality percentages of 89 ± 3.1, 73 ± 1.2, 68 ± 1.4, and 59 ± 1.0%, respectively, at 50 mg L−1. Thus, P. oleracea-based Se-NPs would be strong potential antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-cancer, and anti-insect agents in the pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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26 pages, 3997 KiB  
Review
Gelatin Matrix as Functional Biomaterial for Immobilization of Nanoparticles of Metal-Containing Compounds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020092 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
The data concerning the synthesis and physicochemical characteristics of specific functional biomaterials—biopolymer-immobilized matrix systems based on gelatin as an array and chemical compounds, which include atoms of various metal elements—are systematized and discussed. The features of this biopolymer which determine the specific properties [...] Read more.
The data concerning the synthesis and physicochemical characteristics of specific functional biomaterials—biopolymer-immobilized matrix systems based on gelatin as an array and chemical compounds, which include atoms of various metal elements—are systematized and discussed. The features of this biopolymer which determine the specific properties of the immobilized matrix systems formed by it and their reactivity, are noted. Data on gelatin-immobilized systems in which immobilized substances are elemental metals and coordination compounds formed as a result of redox processes, nucleophilic/electrophilic substitution reactions, and self-assembly (template synthesis), are presented. The possibilities of the practical use of metal-containing gelatin-immobilized systems are promising for the future; in particular, their potential in medicine and pharmacology as a vehicle for “targeted” drug delivery to various internal organs/tissues of the body, and, also, as potential biosensors is noted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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29 pages, 32917 KiB  
Review
Emerging Trends in Advanced Translational Applications of Silver Nanoparticles: A Progressing Dawn of Nanotechnology
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14010047 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5555
Abstract
Nanoscience has emerged as a fascinating field of science, with its implementation in multiple applications in the form of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has recently been more impactful in diverse sectors such as the pharmaceutical industry, agriculture sector, and food market. The peculiar properties which [...] Read more.
Nanoscience has emerged as a fascinating field of science, with its implementation in multiple applications in the form of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has recently been more impactful in diverse sectors such as the pharmaceutical industry, agriculture sector, and food market. The peculiar properties which make nanoparticles as an asset are their large surface area and their size, which ranges between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm). Various technologies, such as chemical and biological processes, are being used to synthesize nanoparticles. The green chemistry route has become extremely popular due to its use in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanomaterials are versatile and impactful in different day to day applications, resulting in their increased utilization and distribution in human cells, tissues, and organs. Owing to the deployment of nanoparticles at a high demand, the need to produce nanoparticles has raised concerns regarding environmentally friendly processes. These processes are meant to produce nanomaterials with improved physiochemical properties that can have significant uses in the fields of medicine, physics, and biochemistry. Among a plethora of nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles have emerged as the most investigated and used nanoparticle. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have become vital entities of study due to their distinctive properties which the scientific society aims to investigate the uses of. The current review addresses the modern expansion of AgNP synthesis, characterization, and mechanism, as well as global applications of AgNPs and their limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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27 pages, 1435 KiB  
Review
Green Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040260 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2911
Abstract
The diverse biological properties of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) make them ideal for use in the development of new tools in therapy, diagnostics, and other biomedical purposes. “Green” PtNPs synthesis is of great interest as it is eco-friendly, less energy-consuming and minimizes the amount [...] Read more.
The diverse biological properties of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) make them ideal for use in the development of new tools in therapy, diagnostics, and other biomedical purposes. “Green” PtNPs synthesis is of great interest as it is eco-friendly, less energy-consuming and minimizes the amount of toxic by-products. This review is devoted to the biosynthesis properties of platinum nanoparticles based on living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants) use. The participation of various biological compounds in PtNPs synthesis is highlighted. The biological activities of “green” platinum nanoparticles (antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, etc.), the proposed mechanisms of influence on target cells and the potential for their further biomedical application are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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