Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Focus on Epidemiology and Clinical Consequences

A special issue of Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease (ISSN 2308-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology, Lifestyle, and Cardiovascular Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 10496

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Internal Diseases, Riga Stradins University, LV-1010 Riga, Latvia
2. Riga East University Hospital, LV-1038 Riga, Latvia
Interests: risk factors of cardiovascular diseases; metabolic syndrome; pre-diabetes; diabetes mellitus; arterial hypertension; pulmonary hypertension; calcium metabolism; vitamin D; osteoporosis; pathology of bone, muscles, and connective tissues; significance and impact of viruses in internal medicine
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of the Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease focuses on Cardiovascular risk factors, more specifically on their epidemiology and their clinical consequences.

It is well known that cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide and as our society is aging their incidence is steadily rising. As the research field is getting broader, we acquire new knowledge about previously unknown risk factors and their influence on our health. If some of the risk factors, such as genetics, age, and sex cannot be modified, by addressing the modifiable risk factors most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented or at least postponed. The aim of this Special Issue is to deeper the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors starting from a molecular level and beyond. In this Special Issue, there will be a focus on the newest research and other scientific works in this field providing a clear and modern look and the newest trends in cardiovascular risk factor identification and introducing their influence on clinical outcomes.

Prof. Dr. Aivars Lejnieks
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cardiovascular risk factors
  • epidemiology
  • cardiovascular risk factor clinical outcomes
  • cardiovascular prophylaxis
  • arterial hypertension

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2658 KiB  
Article
Postprandial Plasma Glucose Measured from Blood Taken between 4 and 7.9 h Is Positively Associated with Mortality from Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease
by Yutang Wang
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020053 - 4 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
It is unknown whether postprandial plasma glucose measured from blood taken between 4 and 7.9 h (PPG4–7.9h) is associated with mortality from hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to investigate these associations in 4896 US adults who attended [...] Read more.
It is unknown whether postprandial plasma glucose measured from blood taken between 4 and 7.9 h (PPG4–7.9h) is associated with mortality from hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to investigate these associations in 4896 US adults who attended the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of PPG4–7.9h for mortality. This cohort was followed up for 106,300 person-years (mean follow-up, 21.7 years). A 1-natural-log-unit increase in PPG4–7.9h was associated with a higher risk of mortality from hypertension (HR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.34–5.24), diabetes (HR, 11.7; 95% CI, 6.85–20.0), and CVD (HR, 2.76; 95% CI, 2.08–3.68) after adjustment for all the tested confounders except hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). After further adjustment for HbA1c, PPG4–7.9h remained positively associated with mortality from both hypertension (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.13–4.08) and CVD (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.05–2.51), but was no longer associated with diabetes mortality. Subgroup analyses showed that similar results were obtained in the sub-cohort of participants without a prior diagnosis of myocardial infarction or stroke. In conclusion, PPG4–7.9h predicts mortality from hypertension and CVD, independent of HbA1c. Full article
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12 pages, 3010 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Superficial Subcutaneous Fat Camper’s and Scarpa’s Fascia in a United States Cohort
by David Z. Chen, Aravinda Ganapathy, Yash Nayak, Christopher Mejias, Grace L. Bishop, Vincent M. Mellnick and David H. Ballard
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(8), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10080347 - 14 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2532
Abstract
Together, the Camper’s and Scarpa’s fasciae form the superficial fat layer of the abdominal wall. Though they have clinical and surgical relevance, little is known about their role in body composition across diverse patient populations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between [...] Read more.
Together, the Camper’s and Scarpa’s fasciae form the superficial fat layer of the abdominal wall. Though they have clinical and surgical relevance, little is known about their role in body composition across diverse patient populations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between patient characteristics, including sex and body mass index, and the distribution of Camper’s and Scarpa’s fascial layers in the abdominal wall. A total of 458 patients’ abdominal CT examinations were segmented via CoreSlicer 1.0 to determine the surface area of each patient’s Camper’s, Scarpa’s, and visceral fascia layers. The reproducibility of segmentation was corroborated by an inter-rater analysis of segmented data for 20 randomly chosen patients divided between three study investigators. Pearson correlation and Student’s t-test analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between fascia distribution and demographic factors. The ratios of Camper’s fascia, both as a proportion of superficial fat (r = −0.44 and p < 0.0001) and as a proportion of total body fat (r = −0.34 and p < 0.0001), showed statistically significant negative correlations with BMI. In contrast, the ratios of Scarpa’s fascia, both as a proportion of superficial fat (r = 0.44 and p < 0.0001) and as a proportion of total body fat (r = 0.41 and p < 0.0001), exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with BMI. Between sexes, the females had a higher ratio of Scarpa’s facia to total body fat compared to the males (36.9% vs. 31% and p < 0.0001). The ICC values for the visceral fat, Scarpa fascia, and Camper fascia were 0.995, 0.991, and 0.995, respectively, which were all within the ‘almost perfect’ range (ICC = 0.81–1.00). These findings contribute novel insights by revealing that as BMI increases the proportion of Camper’s fascia decreases, while the ratio of Scarpa’s fascia increases. Such insights expand the scope of body composition studies, which typically focus solely on superficial and visceral fat ratios. Full article
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14 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
Association between Cardiovascular Health, C-Reactive Protein, and Comorbidities in Spanish Urban-Dwelling Overweight/Obese Hypertensive Patients
by Ana María Armas-Padrón, Miriam Sicilia-Sosvilla, Pedro Ruiz-Esteban, Armando Torres and Domingo Hernández
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(7), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10070300 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1050
Abstract
The relationship between poorer cardiovascular health metrics (CVHM) plus low-grade inflammation (LGI) and hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) and hypertension-related comorbidities (HRC) in hypertensive populations with an overweight/obese (Ow/Ob) hypertension-related phenotype is understudied. We examined the relationship between the CVHM score and the presence [...] Read more.
The relationship between poorer cardiovascular health metrics (CVHM) plus low-grade inflammation (LGI) and hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) and hypertension-related comorbidities (HRC) in hypertensive populations with an overweight/obese (Ow/Ob) hypertension-related phenotype is understudied. We examined the relationship between the CVHM score and the presence of LGI and Ow/Ob hypertension-associated phenotype morbidities and mortality in 243 hypertensive patients from an urban primary care center. We recorded the baseline CVHM score plus clinical data, including hs-C-reactive protein (CRP) and prevalent and incident HMOD-HRC and death. A total of 26 (10.7%) had a body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, 95 (31.1%) were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), and 122 (50.2%) were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). There were 264 cases of HMOD-HRC and 9 deaths. Higher hs-CRP levels were observed as BMI increased. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between BMI and hs-CRP, adjusted for confounders. Additionally, individuals with a higher hs-CRP tertile had a significant increase in BMI. Significantly lower log hs-CRP levels were found as the number of ideal CVHM scores rose. Multivariate binary logistic regression found the risk of HMOD-HRC increased significantly as the ideal CVHM scores decreased, and hs-CRP levels also correlated with HMOD-HRC in the whole cohort and in the Ow and Ob subpopulations. These findings highlight the need for early intervention targeting ideal CVHMs among hypertensive individuals with an Ow/Ob phenotype in order to attenuate the inflammatory state and prevent cardiovascular disease. Full article
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12 pages, 1208 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Short-Term Aggressive Lipid-Lowering Therapy with the PCSK9 Antibody in Acute Coronary Syndrome
by Satoshi Yamashita, Atsushi Sakamoto, Satoshi Shoji, Yoshitaka Kawaguchi, Yasushi Wakabayashi, Masaki Matsunaga, Kiyohisa Suguro, Yuji Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Takase, Tomoya Onodera, Kei Tawarahara, Masahiro Muto, Yasutaka Shirasaki, Hideki Katoh, Makoto Sano, Kenichiro Suwa, Yoshihisa Naruse, Hayato Ohtani, Masao Saotome, Tsuyoshi Urushida, Shun Kohsaka, Eisaku Okada and Yuichiro Maekawaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10050204 - 9 May 2023
Viewed by 2131
Abstract
Background: The guideline-recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target level of <70 mg/dL may not be achieved with statin administration in some patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Therefore, the proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibody can be added to high-risk patients with ACS. [...] Read more.
Background: The guideline-recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target level of <70 mg/dL may not be achieved with statin administration in some patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Therefore, the proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibody can be added to high-risk patients with ACS. Nevertheless, the optimal duration of PCSK9 antibody administration remains unclear. Methods and Results: Patients were randomized to receive either 3 months of lipid lowering therapy (LLT) with the PCSK9 antibody followed by conventional LLT (with-PCSK9-antibody group) or 12 months of conventional LLT alone (without-PCSK9-antibody group). The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina, and ischemia-driven revascularization. A total of 124 patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomly assigned to the two groups (n = 62 in each). The primary composite outcome occurred in 9.7% and 14.5% of the patients in the with- and without-PCSK9-antibody groups, respectively (hazard ratio: 0.70; 95% confidence interval: 0.25 to 1.97; p = 0.498). The two groups showed no significant differences in hospitalization for worsening heart failure and adverse events. Conclusions: In ACS patients who underwent PCI, short-term PCSK9 antibody therapy with conventional LLT was feasible in this pilot clinical trial. Long-term follow-up in a larger scale clinical trial is warranted. Full article
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22 pages, 1376 KiB  
Article
Diabetes, Hypertension, and Comorbidity among Bangladeshi Adults: Associated Factors and Socio-Economic Inequalities
by Satyajit Kundu, Md. Ashfikur Rahman, Humayun Kabir, Md. Hasan Al Banna, John Elvis Hagan Jr., Medina Srem-Sai and Lina Wang
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10010007 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
Diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity are still crucial public health challenges that Bangladeshis face. Nonetheless, very few studies have been conducted to examine the associated factors, especially the socioeconomic inequalities in diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity in Bangladesh. This study explored the prevalence of, factors [...] Read more.
Diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity are still crucial public health challenges that Bangladeshis face. Nonetheless, very few studies have been conducted to examine the associated factors, especially the socioeconomic inequalities in diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity in Bangladesh. This study explored the prevalence of, factors connected with, and socioeconomic inequalities in diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity among Bangladeshi adults. We used the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) data set of 2017–2018. A total of 12,136 (weighted) Bangladeshi adults with a mean age of 39.5 years (±16.2) participated in this study. Multilevel (mixed-effect) logistic regression analysis was employed to ascertain the determinants of diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity, where clusters were considered as a level-2 factor. The concentration curve (CC) and concentration index (CIX) were utilized to investigate the inequalities in diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity. The weighted prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity was 10.04%, 25.70%, and 4.47%, respectively. Age, body mass index, physical activity, household wealth status, and diverse administrative divisions were significantly associated with diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity among the participants. Moreover, participants’ smoking statuses were associated with hypertension. Women were more prone to hypertension and comorbidity than men. Diabetes (CIX: 0.251, p < 0.001), hypertension (CIX: 0.071, p < 0.001), and comorbidity (CIX: 0.340, p < 0.001) were higher among high household wealth groups. A pro-wealth disparity in diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity was found. These inequalities in diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity emphasize the necessity of designing intervention schemes geared towards addressing the rising burden of these diseases. Full article
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