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Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 11790

Special Issue Editor

Department of Parasitology, University of Valencia , 46010 València, Spain
Interests: intestinal helminths; trematodes; immunoparasitology; echinostomes; immune response; resistance; susceptibility; chronic infections; tropical diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Around two billion people are currently infected with one or more tropical diseases, most of them in developing countries. The term tropical disease encompasses all diseases that principally occur in the tropics, though these geographical limits are expanding in relation to factors such as growing international markets, improved transportation systems, demographic changes and, ultimately, as a consequence of global climatic change. Tropical diseases contribute to a vast social and economic burden resulting from social shame, somatic disabilities, blindness, discrimination, malnutrition, growth failure, and impaired cognitive development. The resulting outcome of these factors perpetuates the cycle of poverty by preventing individuals from leading productive lives, thus affecting families, communities, and countries as a whole. Another factor that aggravates this situation is the tendency for many of these diseases to become chronic, exacerbated by the lack of treatments, inadequate treatments, or absence of medical attention and adequate hygienic–sanitary conditions. To address this situation, in-depth studies are needed to clarify the current epidemiology of these diseases and the changes that are occurring in addition to developing effective control tools. Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those combining a high level of academic discourse coupled with provision of optimal proposals that have a practical focus. 

Prof. Dr. Rafael Toledo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tropical diseases
  • neglected tropical diseases
  • chronic infections
  • epidemiology
  • control
  • tropics
  • climatic change

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2616 KiB  
Article
Burden of Malaria in Sao Tome and Principe, 1990–2019: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214817 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
Background: Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquito vectors, commonly found in tropical regions, and characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It causes a heavy disease burden in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), an island country in West Africa which at [...] Read more.
Background: Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquito vectors, commonly found in tropical regions, and characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It causes a heavy disease burden in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), an island country in West Africa which at one time had a high incidence of malaria. Objective: This study aims to analyze the trend of disease burden of malaria in STP. Methods: The crude and age-standardized incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rate data of malaria were extracted from GBD 2019. Joinpoint 4.9 software was used to calculate the annual percentage change (APC) and the average annual percentage change (AAPC), which were also used to indicate the change in disease burden by different stages. Results: In general, the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR), and age-standardized DALYs rate (ASDR) of malaria presented a decreasing trend between 1990 and 2019, with an average annual decrease of 5.6%, 6.2%, and 10.7%, respectively, in STP. Specifically, all indicators first presented an increasing trend from 1990 to about 2000, followed by a decreasing trend until 2019, although the incidence rebounded slightly after 2015. Overall, the ASIR, ASMR, and ASDR of malaria reduced by 77.08%, 87.84%, and 82.21%, respectively, in 2019 as compared to 1990. No significant differences in disease burden were found between males and females between 2005 and 2019. Children who were under 5 years old showed a relatively small decrease in the rate of DALYs as compared to other age groups, but remained the group with the highest disease burden of malaria in the country. Conclusions: The disease burden of malaria in STP showed a significant decrease between 1990 and 2019, but it will still be challenging to achieve the goal of eliminating malaria by 2025. The government and relevant authorities should aim to strengthen the prevention and surveillance of malaria and tailor population-specific interventions in order to reduce the disease burden of malaria in STP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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13 pages, 15817 KiB  
Article
Assessing Entomological and Epidemiological Efficacy of Pyriproxyfen-Treated Ovitraps in the Reduction of Aedes Species: A Quasi-Experiment on Dengue Infection Using Saliva Samples
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053026 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Our study assessed the impact of using ovitraps with pyriproxyfen on mosquito populations and the feasibility of using human saliva samples to test for seroconversion to dengue virus (DENV). We used a quasi-experimental research design by forming the intervention (n = 220) [...] Read more.
Our study assessed the impact of using ovitraps with pyriproxyfen on mosquito populations and the feasibility of using human saliva samples to test for seroconversion to dengue virus (DENV). We used a quasi-experimental research design by forming the intervention (n = 220) and the control (n = 223) groups in neighboring Taguig City, Philippines, over 4 months. Socio-demographic data, entomological indices, and IgG antibodies against DENV were measured. Associations between the implementation of ovitraps dosed with pyriproxyfen and mosquito densities (percentage positive ovitraps and container indices) and DENV seroconversion were calculated post-intervention in Months 2, 3, and 4. Among the participants recruited at baseline, 17 and 13 were seropositive for dengue (DENV) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Both entomological indices were lower in the treated area than the control site at post-intervention Months 2, 3, and 4, but not earlier. Dengue seroconversions rates decreased in the treated population, but not significantly so. In conclusion, the use of PPF-treated ovitraps may have impacted the mosquito population, but not seroconversion rates. Compliance in providing saliva samples and the ability to detect IgG antibodies within these samples was encouraging and suggests that further studies on larger populations for longer durations are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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44 pages, 12330 KiB  
Article
One Health Action against Human Fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano: Food, Water, Housing, Behavioural Traditions, Social Aspects, and Livestock Management Linked to Disease Transmission and Infection Sources
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031120 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is the fascioliasis endemic area with the reported highest human prevalence and intensities. A multidisciplinary One Health initiative was implemented to decrease infection/reinfection rates detected by periodic monitoring between the ongoing yearly preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Within a One Health [...] Read more.
The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is the fascioliasis endemic area with the reported highest human prevalence and intensities. A multidisciplinary One Health initiative was implemented to decrease infection/reinfection rates detected by periodic monitoring between the ongoing yearly preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Within a One Health axis, the information obtained throughout 35 years of field work on transmission foci and affected rural schools and communities/villages is analysed. Aspects linked to human infection risk are quantified, including: (1) geographical extent of the endemic area, its dynamics, municipalities affected, and its high strategic importance; (2) human population at risk, community development and mortality rates, with emphasis on problems in infancy and gender; (3) characteristics of the freshwater collections inhabited by lymnaeid snail vectors and constituting transmission foci; (4) food infection sources, including population surveys with questionnaire and reference to the most risky edible plant species; (5) water infection sources; (6) household characteristics; (7) knowledge of the inhabitants on Fasciola hepatica and the disease; (8) behavioural, traditional, social, and religious aspects; (9) livestock management. This is the widest and deepest study of this kind ever performed. Results highlight prevention and control difficulties where inhabitants follow century-old behaviours, traditions, and beliefs. Intervention priorities are proposed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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13 pages, 819 KiB  
Article
Malaria Infection and Risk for Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115886 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Background: Malaria infection is reportedly linked to endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) in malaria-endemic areas. This study aimed to pool the overall risk (or odds) of eBL among children with previous or concurrent malaria infection. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, [...] Read more.
Background: Malaria infection is reportedly linked to endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) in malaria-endemic areas. This study aimed to pool the overall risk (or odds) of eBL among children with previous or concurrent malaria infection. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and reference lists of publications for potentially relevant studies on malaria infection and eBL. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute for case-control studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to summarize whether the odds of eBL can be increased by (1) malaria infection or (2) elevated titer of IgGs to malaria antigen. The level of heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran’s Q statistic and I2. The individual study data, pooled odds, and confidence interval (CI) were illustrated using the forest plot. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger’s test. Results: Ten studies were included, reporting the number of malaria cases in eBL and non-eBL (5 studied malaria infection and the odds of eBL; five studied the burden of IgGs to malarial antigens and the odds of eBL). According to the meta-analysis results, the odds of eBL was not increased by malaria infection (p = 0.562, OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.54–1.39, I2: 93.5%, malaria in eBL: 604/1506 cases, malaria in non-eBL: 2117/4549 cases) and the elevated titer of IgGs to malaria antigen (p = 0.051, OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.00–2.25, I2: 89%, increased IgG titer in eBL: 1059/1736 cases, increased IgG titer in non-eBL: 847/1722 cases). In meta-regression analysis, sex was not a confounding factor for the effect size of malaria infection and eBL (p = 0.10) and that of increased IgGs and eBL (p = 0.80). Conclusions: Malaria infection and IgG titer elevation did not increase the risk for eBL among children. However, the included studies, which are only few, do not generally agree on this point. Therefore, the risk for eBL in children diagnosed with malaria should be investigated further by longitudinal studies to confirm our evidence-based approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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Review

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19 pages, 3636 KiB  
Review
A Forty-Year Analysis of the Literature on Babesia Infection (1982–2022): A Systematic Bibliometric Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(12), 6156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20126156 - 16 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Babesia infection is a tick-borne protozoan disease associated with significant veterinary, economic, and medical importance. This infection affects many hosts, ranging from wild to domestic animals and including man. All vertebrates serve as potential carriers due to the huge diversity of the species. [...] Read more.
Babesia infection is a tick-borne protozoan disease associated with significant veterinary, economic, and medical importance. This infection affects many hosts, ranging from wild to domestic animals and including man. All vertebrates serve as potential carriers due to the huge diversity of the species. Babesiosis has been associated with severe economic loss in livestock production, especially in cattle farming, and is also a major public health concern in man, which could be fatal. The infection is usually opportunistic, ranging from asymptomatic to symptomatic, usually in immunocompromised subjects or under conditions of stressful management. This study was designed to uncover trends in relation to publication growth and further explore research output regarding babesiosis from data indexed in the WoS. The WoS is the only platform used to map publications on Babesia infection. The search term “babesiosis” or “Babesia infection” was used to extract articles published across the study period from 1982 to 2022. The inclusion criteria were restricted to only articles for the analysis. The results from the search query showed that a total of 3763 articles were published during the study period with an average of 91.70 ± 43.87 articles annually and an average total citation (n = 1874.8). An annual growth rate of 2.5% was recorded during the study period. The year 2021 had the highest number of published articles (n = 193, 5.1%) and citations (n = 7039). The analysis of the most relevant keywords and titles showed that infection (n = 606, 16.1%), babesiosis (n = 444, 11.7%), and Babesia (n = 1302, 16%) were the most relevant keyword plus (ID), author keyword (DE), and title, respectively. The common conceptual framework analysis through K-means clustering showed two clusters comprising 4 and 41 elements, respectively. The United States of America is the top-performing country in terms of article production (n = 707, 20.8%) and the leading funder for babesiosis research, with two of its agencies ranked at the top. These are the Department of Health and Human Services (n = 254, 6.7%) and the National Institute of Health (n= 238,6.3%). Igarashi I. is the top-performing author (n = 231, 6.1%), while Veterinary Parasitology is ranked the top journal (n = 393, 10.4%) in terms of babesiosis publications. Overall, an increase in publications was observed in the study period, with significant output from developed nations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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16 pages, 1315 KiB  
Review
Burden and Risk Factors of Melioidosis in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315475 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
This scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of human melioidosis in Southeast Asia as well as to highlight knowledge gaps in the prevalence and risk factors of this life-threatening disease using available evidence-based data for better diagnosis and treatment. Preferred Reporting [...] Read more.
This scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of human melioidosis in Southeast Asia as well as to highlight knowledge gaps in the prevalence and risk factors of this life-threatening disease using available evidence-based data for better diagnosis and treatment. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) was used as the guideline for this review. The literature search was conducted on 23 March 2022 through two electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) using lists of keywords referring to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus. A total of 38 articles related to human melioidosis were included from 645 screened articles. These studies were carried out between 1986 and 2019 in six Southeast Asian countries: Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Vietnam. Melioidosis has been reported with a high disease prevalence among high-risk populations. Studies in Thailand (48.0%) and Cambodia (74.4%) revealed disease prevalence in patients with septic arthritis and children with suppurative parotitis, respectively. Other studies in Thailand (63.5%) and Malaysia (54.4% and 65.7%) showed a high seroprevalence of melioidosis among Tsunami survivors and military personnel, respectively. Additionally, this review documented soil and water exposure, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, thalassemia, and children under the age of 15 as the main risk factors for melioidosis. Human melioidosis is currently under-reported in Southeast Asia and its true prevalence is unknown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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