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Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Economics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2021) | Viewed by 29366

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
Interests: land use–transportation–environment interactions; chronic diseases; obesity; physical activity; well-being; urban parks; ageing; gerontology; active travel; traffic safety; risk perception; leisure and tourism; spatial analysis; survey methods; meta-analysis

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Guest Editor
Division of Global & Interdisciplinary Studies, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea
Interests: sustainable water resources planning; river restoration; socio-hydrology; flood mitigation; tourism in water resources management; water governance
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The start of the 2020s was arguably defined by chaos across the world, with the novel COVID-19 at the focal point. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the severity of the viral spread had reached pandemic proportions. The main focus of the exploratory Special Issue is to examine varying approaches to implementation and enforcement of physical/social distancing measures given the respective historical and evolving social norms in multi-national areas that rely heavily on tourism money for a healthy economy. This Special Issue welcomes both conceptual and empirical contributions that may conduce to the evaluation of social relationships after COVID-19 social distancing, social phenomena beyond the pandemic, public quarantine policy, regional infections, sustainable tourism trends in the New Normal Pandemic era, and new patterns of the national exchange due to border closures.

Authors from different disciplines such as public policy, health policy, social theory, and other related disciplines are invited to submit their manuscripts. Multidisciplinary research that covers a diversity of urban and public health policy perspectives is particularly appreciated. Submissions could relate, but are not limited, to the following topics:

  • Quarantine policy: cross-regional comparative case study;
  • Sustainable eco-tourism in the pandemic era;
  • Measuring performance in contactless education and teaching;
  • Innovative quarantine policy;
  • New type of governance models beyond COVID-19;
  • Spatial analysis and modeling on COVID-19 quarantine policy trend, applying machine learning;
  • New global business models after the national isolation policy.

Dr. Tae-Hyoung (Tommy) Gim
Dr. Chang-Yu Hong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • quarantine policy
  • sustainable eco-tourism
  • governance models beyond COVID-19
  • urban remote contactless education
  • transnational comparative case study

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Social Distancing in Tourism Destination Management during the COVID-19 Pandemic in China: A Moderated Mediation Model
by Hui Zhang, Min Zhuang, Yihan Cao, Jingxian Pan, Xiaowan Zhang, Jie Zhang and Honglei Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111223 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3239
Abstract
While protective measures in response to infectious diseases may reduce the freedom of tourists (regarding their behaviors), few studies have documented the effects of destination protective measures on the self-protective behaviors of tourists. By applying the protection motivation theory, this study examines the [...] Read more.
While protective measures in response to infectious diseases may reduce the freedom of tourists (regarding their behaviors), few studies have documented the effects of destination protective measures on the self-protective behaviors of tourists. By applying the protection motivation theory, this study examines the effects of perceived destination protective supports on the social distancing intentions of tourists during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results reveal significant relationships among perceived destination support, coping appraisal, threat appraisal, and the social distancing intentions of tourists. Moreover, two cognitive appraisals—toward the pandemic—partially mediate the relationship between perceived destination support and social distancing intention, and this mediational process is ‘intervened’ with by social norms. This has implications on whether tourist destinations apply more rigorous social distancing polices during the COVID-19 pandemic, to enhance the coping confidence behaviors of tourists, without causing anxiety and fear, and to achieve the goal of enhancing tourists’ intentions to protect themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19)
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17 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Korean Domestic Tourists’ Decision-Making Process under Threat of COVID-19
by JunHui Wang, Yunseon Choe and HakJun Song
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010835 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1998
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to build a theoretical framework to explain Korean domestic tourists’ decision-making process under COVID-19 by applying an extended model of goal-directed behavior. The role of positive expectation of COVID-19, the effect of mass media, and perception of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to build a theoretical framework to explain Korean domestic tourists’ decision-making process under COVID-19 by applying an extended model of goal-directed behavior. The role of positive expectation of COVID-19, the effect of mass media, and perception of government policy were considered as new variables in the process of tourism decision-making. The results of this present study show that positive and negative anticipated emotion, positive expectation, and the frequency of past behavior positively influence the desire for travel domestically within the next three months, while the effect of mass media negatively affected the desire for travel domestically within the next three months. Two anticipated emotions and positive expectations were positive antecedents of the desire for travel domestically within this year. The anticipated emotions and the effect of mass media affected the desire to travel domestically next year. The results of this tourist’s decision-making research will offer government, the tourism sector, and policy decision-makers better insights for establishing tourism policy responses and create safe destinations to help an adequate recovery and development of the tourism industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19)
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13 pages, 889 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of COVID-19 Global Guidelines Published in the Early Phase of the Pandemic for People with Disabilities
by Jeong-hyun Kim, Seungbok Lee, Yun-hwan Lee and Jongbae Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147710 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
Purpose: COVID-19 guidelines for persons with disabilities published globally during the early phase of the pandemic by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies were reviewed and analyzed by trends of information provided under various settings. Method: The Google search engine was used by applying [...] Read more.
Purpose: COVID-19 guidelines for persons with disabilities published globally during the early phase of the pandemic by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies were reviewed and analyzed by trends of information provided under various settings. Method: The Google search engine was used by applying the following search terms: COVID-19, Coronavirus 2019, Disability, and Guidelines. Search efforts yielded 514 records from 1 December 2019 to 16 May 2020. The selected 26 guidelines were classified for analysis by organizations (NGOs, non-profit, and governmental institutions), information provided (risks, prevention, and countermeasures), target group (people with disability, service and support providers, and family members), and environmental setting (hospital, community, and home). Results: Government agencies from eight countries published results. Eight of the 26 guidelines were presented by non-governmental organizations, and 18 were not. There were 15 guidelines for individuals with disabilities; seven for service providers, staff, and families providing care; and four addressing both the individuals with a disability and care providers. In terms of appropriate environment and scope, there were 19 guidelines produced for community, government, home, and hospital. The information predominantly presented regarded the prevention of COVID-19 with 22 sources, followed by general information containing risks and response strategies. Conclusion: The majority of the published guidelines focused primarily on the risks and prevention of COVID-19 for people with disabilities. Future procedures should include specific methods in guiding COVID-19 response strategies for the disabled and caregivers who provide essential health services with access to online resources in multiple languages and dialects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19)
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12 pages, 1892 KiB  
Article
Structural Topic Model Analysis of Mask-Wearing Issue Using International News Big Data
by Kyeo Re Lee, Byungjun Kim, Dongyan Nan and Jang Hyun Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126432 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3446
Abstract
Media plays an important role in the acquisition of health information worldwide. This was particularly evident in the face of the COVID-19 epidemic. Relatedly, it is practical and desirable for people to wear masks for health, fashion, and religious regions. However, depending on [...] Read more.
Media plays an important role in the acquisition of health information worldwide. This was particularly evident in the face of the COVID-19 epidemic. Relatedly, it is practical and desirable for people to wear masks for health, fashion, and religious regions. However, depending on cultural differences, people naturally accept wearing a mask, or they look upon it negatively. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread mask-wearing mandates worldwide. In the case of COVID-19, wearing a mask is strongly recommended, so by analyzing the news data before and after the spread of the epidemic, it is possible to see how the direction of crisis management is being structured. In particular, by utilizing big data analysis of international news data, discourses around the world can be analyzed more deeply. This study collected and analyzed 58,061 international news items related to mask-wearing from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020. The collected dataset was compared before and after the World Health Organization’s pandemic declaration by applying structural topic model analysis. The results revealed that prior to the declaration, issues related to the COVID-19 outbreak were emphasized, but afterward, issues related to movement restrictions, quarantine management, and local economic impacts emerged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19)
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17 pages, 913 KiB  
Article
The Positive Effects of Unneeded Consumption Behaviour on Consumers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Jianjia He, Shengmin Liu, Tingting Li and Thi Hoai Thuong Mai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126404 - 13 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2794
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has become an important global contagion that requires workers to implement necessary behaviours to cope. Based on the conservation of resources theory, the present studies explore the effects of unneeded consumption behaviour on consumers’ recovery level and work engagement and [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has become an important global contagion that requires workers to implement necessary behaviours to cope. Based on the conservation of resources theory, the present studies explore the effects of unneeded consumption behaviour on consumers’ recovery level and work engagement and the moderated mediating process of such relationships. Using a purchasing experiment, study 1 examined the positive effect of unneeded consumption behaviour on recovery among 100 MBA students. Using the experience sampling method, the data in study 2 were collected from 115 consumers (employees) using ten iterations of 2-day continual questionnaires (Sunday and the following Monday) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results from multilevel structural equation modelling indicate that unneeded consumption behaviour positively impacts work engagement in a moderated mediating mode. Consumer indulgence positively moderates the mediating effect of recovery level on the relationship between indulgent consumption behaviour and work engagement, while perceived consumer effectiveness negatively moderates the mediating effect of recovery level. This paper also identifies the value of transformation from consumption to work during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19)
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16 pages, 804 KiB  
Article
Density or Connectivity: What Are the Main Causes of the Spatial Proliferation of COVID-19 in Korea?
by Yun Jo, Andy Hong and Hyungun Sung
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105084 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3891
Abstract
COVID-19 has sparked a debate on the vulnerability of densely populated cities. Some studies argue that high-density urban centers are more vulnerable to infectious diseases due to a higher chance of infection in crowded urban environments. Other studies, however, argue that connectivity rather [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has sparked a debate on the vulnerability of densely populated cities. Some studies argue that high-density urban centers are more vulnerable to infectious diseases due to a higher chance of infection in crowded urban environments. Other studies, however, argue that connectivity rather than population density plays a more significant role in the spread of COVID-19. While several studies have examined the role of urban density and connectivity in Europe and the U.S., few studies have been conducted in Asian countries. This study aims to investigate the role of urban spatial structure on COVID-19 by comparing different measures of urban density and connectivity during the first eight months of the outbreak in Korea. Two measures of density were derived from the Korean census, and four measures of connectivity were computed using social network analysis of the Origin-Destination data from the 2020 Korea Transport Database. We fitted both OLS and negative binomial models to the number of confirmed COVID-19 patients and its infection rates at the county level, collected individually from regional government websites in Korea. Results show that both density and connectivity play an important role in the proliferation of the COVID-19 outbreak in Korea. However, we found that the connectivity measure, particularly a measure of network centrality, was a better indicator of COVID-19 proliferation than the density measures. Our findings imply that policies that take into account different types of connectivity between cities might be necessary to contain the outbreak in the early phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19)
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14 pages, 590 KiB  
Article
Does Risk Awareness of COVID-19 Affect Visits to National Parks? Analyzing the Tourist Decision-Making Process Using the Theory of Planned Behavior
by Bo-Hyun Seong and Chang-Yu Hong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105081 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 5032
Abstract
This study aimed to determine whether risk awareness of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) affects visits to national parks. We analyzed the tourist decision-making process during the current pandemic using the theory of planned behavior as a framework, adding variables relevant to the pandemic, such [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine whether risk awareness of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) affects visits to national parks. We analyzed the tourist decision-making process during the current pandemic using the theory of planned behavior as a framework, adding variables relevant to the pandemic, such as risk perception and risk reduction behavior, to the model. Based on a literature review, we developed a research model describing the impact relationship between risk perception, the theory of planned behavior, and risk reduction behavior and tested nine hypotheses. Results of a survey of 555 visitors to two national parks supported eight of the nine hypotheses. Although the results are limited, they reaffirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in explaining tourism behavior. This work is significant in that we would be able to extend the scope of subsequent research beyond a discussion of the direct effects on optimistic perceptions (bias) and risk reduction behavior as well as visit intention, by explaining the probability even in unprecedented crises such as COVID-19. Humans may be negotiating the constraints (COVID-19) or embodied tourism need through the personal bias. Furthermore, we discuss the theoretical implications of the results for tourism behavior research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19)
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21 pages, 2444 KiB  
Article
COVID-19, Urbanization Pattern and Economic Recovery: An Analysis of Hubei, China
by Wenyi Yang, Xueli Wang, Keke Zhang and Zikan Ke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249577 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4886
Abstract
In the context of the rapid development of urbanization and increasing population mobility in China, the outbreak of COVID-19 has had a significant impact on China’s economy and society. This article uses China UnionPay transaction data and takes Hubei, the worst-hit region by [...] Read more.
In the context of the rapid development of urbanization and increasing population mobility in China, the outbreak of COVID-19 has had a significant impact on China’s economy and society. This article uses China UnionPay transaction data and takes Hubei, the worst-hit region by COVID-19 in China, as an example, to conduct empirical analysis using the generalized method of moments (GMM) of the impact of current urbanization patterns on the spread of the epidemic and economic recovery from the perspectives of time, industry, and regional differences. The study found that during the different stages of COVID-19, including discovery, outbreak, and subsidence, the overall impact of urbanization on the economy in Hubei Province was first positive, then became negative, and finally gradually increased. This process had significant industrial and urban heterogeneity, which was mainly manifested in losses in tourism and catering industries that were significantly greater than those in the audio-visual entertainment and digital office industries. Similarly, the recovery speed of large cities was lower than that of small and medium-sized cities. The main reason for these differences is that the one-sided problem of urbanization is more obvious in areas with higher urbanization rates. COVID-19 has drawn attention to the development of urbanization in the future, that is, the development path of one-sided economic resource agglomeration and scale expansion should be abandoned, with greater attention paid to the improvement of service functions and the development of amenities. This transformation is necessary to enhance urban economic resilience and reduce public health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19)
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