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Physical Exercise/Physical Activity and Metabolic Diseases in Children and Adolescents

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2022) | Viewed by 15144

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance, Pós- Graduate Program in Human Movement Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande Do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90040-060, Brazil
Interests: physical activity assessment; physical fitness; exercise intervention

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Guest Editor
Graduate Program in Health Promotion, Department of Health Sciences, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul 96815-900, Brazil
Interests: physical fitness; physical activity; metabolic disorders; genetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Research Center for Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portuga
Interests: physical activity; exercise; pediatrics; obesity; physical fitness; cardiometabolic risk factors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue entitled “Physical Exercise/Physical Activity and Metabolic Diseases in Children and Adolescents” will discuss the role of physical exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of different metabolic disorders in childhood and adolescence. This topic is of great concern because of the increasing number of overweight and obese children and adolescents as well as of youngsters who do not engage in daily physical activity as recommended by health guidelines. Insufficient physical activity seems to be crucial for the early development of an inflammatory profile, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic diseases. Though some indicators and determinants of metabolic diseases have been identified, we still have to understand what causes the genetic unmasking of these diseases, increasing their prevalence and incidence in the youth population.

In particular, lifestyle factors of the mothers as well as of their children during the first years of life appear to be involved and need to be studied through descriptive, analytical, and longitudinal studies. It is also essential to examine individual factors that may influence children’s and adolescents' responses to different types of physical activity interventions, considering their risk of cardiometabolic disorders.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present high-quality, quantitative and qualitative original research studies to improve our knowledge of the role of physical exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic disease in children and adolescents, also in relation to behavioral and genetic indicators and determinants.

Dr. Anelise Reis Gaya
Prof. Dr. Cézane Reuter
Prof. Dr. Jorge Mota
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cardiometabolic disease
  • inflammatory markers
  • children
  • adolescents
  • intervention
  • exercise
  • physical activity
  • parents
  • obesity
  • genetic determinants
  • sleep
  • tv time
  • health
  • diabetes
  • metabolic syndrome

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 683 KiB  
Article
Obesogenic Clusters Associated with Weight Status in Brazilian Adolescents of the Movimente School-Base Intervention
by Gabrielli Thais de Mello, Kelly Samara Silva, Thiago Sousa Matias, Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis and Adriano Ferreti Borgatto
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910350 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Background: the relationship between behavior clusters and weight status, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between profiles of physical activity (PA), diet and sedentary behavior (SB) with weight status in adolescents from a southern [...] Read more.
Background: the relationship between behavior clusters and weight status, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between profiles of physical activity (PA), diet and sedentary behavior (SB) with weight status in adolescents from a southern Brazilian city, according to sex. Methods: data from the Movimente Intervention study were analyzed (n = 812 / mean age 13.0 years (sd 1.04). Data on SB hours per day, PA minutes per week and weekly consumption frequencies of fruits, vegetables, salty snacks, candies and soda were self-reported on the validated Movimente questionnaire. Classes of healthy and unhealthy behaviors were derived by latent class analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between adolescents’ weight status and classes. Results: two classes were identified for the whole sample and for boys and girls. All classes had high probabilities of engaging high time in SB. Male adolescents in the unhealthy class had low probabilities of being active and high probability of consuming a low-quality diet. In contrast, girls’ healthiest profile presented lower probabilities of being active compared to boys’ healthiest profiles. No association was found between weight status and classes. Conclusion: All classes had at least one unhealthy behavior, for both the whole sample, and for girls and boys. Girls’ profiles were unhealthier compared to boys’ profiles. Hence, it is recommended that intervention strategies to change behaviors need to be distinct according to sex, targeting more than one obesogenic behavior at the same time. Full article
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9 pages, 752 KiB  
Article
Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Muscular Strength Moderates the Relationship between FNDC5 Polymorphism and Adiposity in Children and Adolescents
by Pâmela Ferreira Todendi, Caroline Brand, João Francisco de Castro Silveira, Ryan Donald Burns, J. Alfredo Martínez, Marilu Fiegenbaum, Anelise Reis Gaya, Jane Dagmar Pollo Renner, Cézane Priscila Reuter and Andréia Rosane de Moura Valim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189797 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
The human locus FNDC5 rs16835198 contributes positively to anthropometric phenotypes in children and adolescents. However, the role of specific components of physical fitness in this relationship is not known. The present study aimed to verify the moderator role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and [...] Read more.
The human locus FNDC5 rs16835198 contributes positively to anthropometric phenotypes in children and adolescents. However, the role of specific components of physical fitness in this relationship is not known. The present study aimed to verify the moderator role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular strength in the relationship between rs16835198 polymorphism FNDC5 and adiposity in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out by genotyping the rs16835198 FNDC5 polymorphism in 1701 children and adolescents (mean age 11.73 ± 2.75 years). Obesity was assessed using waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) z-scores. To evaluate CRF and muscular strength, the 6 min run/walk test and lower limb strength (LLS) were used. Linear regression models were applied, and all analyses were adjusted for age, sex, skin color, living area, and school type. A significant interaction term for CRF (p = 0.038) and LLS (p = 0.040) × rs16835198 FNDC5 with WC was identified. Regarding BMI, a significant interaction term for CRF (p = 0.007) and LLS (p = 0.044) × rs16835198 FNDC5 was observed. Moreover, medium and high CRF and LLS levels protected against higher WC and BMI. In conclusion, adiposity levels of children and adolescents with a genetic predisposition to obesity might be modified by improving CRF and muscular strength. Full article
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13 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
Associations between Movement Behaviours and Obesity Markers among Preschoolers Compliant and Non-Compliant with Sleep Duration: A Latent Profile Analysis
by Alesandra A. de Souza, Jorge A. P. S. Mota, Gustavo M. G. da Silva, Rafael M. Tassitano, Cain C. T. Clark, Michael J. Duncan and Clarice M. de L. Martins
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189492 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
This study identifies physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) clusters in preschoolers compliant (C) or non-compliant (NC) with sleep recommendations; and associates these clusters with obesity markers. PA and SB were objectively assessed (Actigraph WGT3-X) in 272 preschoolers (4.4 ± 0.7 years [...] Read more.
This study identifies physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) clusters in preschoolers compliant (C) or non-compliant (NC) with sleep recommendations; and associates these clusters with obesity markers. PA and SB were objectively assessed (Actigraph WGT3-X) in 272 preschoolers (4.4 ± 0.7 years old). Sleep duration was parent-reported, and preschoolers were classified as C (3–4 years old: 600–780 min/day; 5 years old: 540–660 min/day) or NC with sleep recommendations. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed according to international protocols. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light physical activity (LPA) were categorized as low/high (<60 min/>60 min/day or <180 min/180 min/day, respectively). SB was defined according to mean values between clusters. Latent profile analysis was performed. Associations between the observed clusters and obesity markers were determined using linear regression (RStudio; 1.3.1073). Four cluster solutions for C and NC preschoolers were identified. A negative association between C/Low MVPA cluster and BMI, and a positive association between NC/Low MVPA and BMI (β = −0.8, 95%CI = −1.6;−0.1, and β = 0.9, 95%CI = 0.1;1.7, respectively) were observed. No association was seen for SB clusters. Adequate sleep duration may have a protective role for preschoolers’ BMI, even if the children do not comply with MVPA recommendations. Full article
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14 pages, 2044 KiB  
Article
Normalization of Muscle Strength Measurements in the Assessment of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adolescents
by Tiago Rodrigues de Lima, Xuemei Sui and Diego Augusto Santos Silva
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168428 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Muscle strength (MS) has been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMR) in adolescents, however, the impact attributed to body size in determining muscle strength or whether body size acts as a confounder in this relationship remains controversial. We investigated the association between absolute [...] Read more.
Muscle strength (MS) has been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMR) in adolescents, however, the impact attributed to body size in determining muscle strength or whether body size acts as a confounder in this relationship remains controversial. We investigated the association between absolute MS and MS normalized for body size with CMR in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study comprising 351 adolescents (44.4% male; 16.6 ± 1.0 years) from Brazil. MS was assessed by handgrip and normalized for body weight, body mass index (BMI), height, and fat mass. CMR included obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, glucose imbalance, and high inflammation marker. When normalized for body weight, BMI, and fat mass, MS was inversely associated with the presence of two or more CMR among females. Absolute MS and MS normalized for height was directly associated with the presence of two or more CMR among males. This study suggests that MS normalized for body weight, BMI, and fat mass can be superior to absolute MS and MS normalized for height in representing lower CMR among females. Absolute MS and MS normalized for height were related to higher CMR among males. Full article
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14 pages, 1017 KiB  
Article
Effects and Responsiveness of a Multicomponent Intervention on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Leptin in Overweight/Obese Adolescents
by Leticia Borfe, Caroline Brand, Letícia de Borba Schneiders, Jorge Mota, Claudia Regina Cavaglieri, Neiva Leite, Jane Dagmar Pollo Renner, Cézane Priscila Reuter and Anelise Reis Gaya
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147267 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Physical exercise reduces the biochemical markers of obesity, but the effects of multicomponent interventions on these markers should be explored. The present study aimed to elucidate how overweight/obese adolescents respond to a multicomponent program approach on body composition, physical fitness, and inflammatory markers, [...] Read more.
Physical exercise reduces the biochemical markers of obesity, but the effects of multicomponent interventions on these markers should be explored. The present study aimed to elucidate how overweight/obese adolescents respond to a multicomponent program approach on body composition, physical fitness, and inflammatory markers, using a quasi-experimental study with 33 overweight/obesity adolescents (control group (CG) = 16; intervention group (IG) = 17). The intervention consisted of 24 weeks with physical exercises and nutritional and psychological guidance. Both groups were evaluated at the pre/post-intervention moments on body mass index (BMI); body fat (%Fat); waist circumference (WC); waist/hip ratio (WHR); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF); abdominal strength, flexibility; leptin; interleukin 6; interleukin 10; and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Mixed-analysis of variance and generalized estimation equations were used for statistical analysis. There was an interaction effect between groups and time on %Fat (p = 0.002), WC (p = 0.023), WHR (p < 0.001), WHtR (p = 0.035), CRF (p = 0.050), and leptin (p = 0.026). Adolescents were classified as 82.4% responders for %Fat, 70.6% for WC, 88.2% for WHR, and 70.6% for CRF. Further, there was an association between changes in %Fat (p = 0.033), WC (p = 0.032), and WHR (p = 0.033) between responders and non-responders with CRF in the IG. There was a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, and leptin. In addition, reductions in body composition parameters were explained by CRF improvements. Full article
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12 pages, 318 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity and Social Network Use of Adolescents in Overweight and Obesity Treatment
by Hagen Wulff, Yanping Duan and Petra Wagner
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136938 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
Tackling obesity among adolescents requires the optimization of existing obesity treatment strategies. For this purpose, social and personal circumstances, individual needs and behavior of therapy participants need to be analyzed to tailor aims, content and methods of therapy interventions to the target groups. [...] Read more.
Tackling obesity among adolescents requires the optimization of existing obesity treatment strategies. For this purpose, social and personal circumstances, individual needs and behavior of therapy participants need to be analyzed to tailor aims, content and methods of therapy interventions to the target groups. A total of 432 obesity therapy participants between 11 and 17 years completed a written survey in a national multi-center study conducted in 2015. The data collection on behavior, in terms of physical activity, media use and sociodemographic variables, was based on questionnaires from the KiGGS, HBSC and JIM studies. The results show that participants were found to be physically active together with friends (75.5%), alone (41.4%) and in sports clubs (34.9%). Girls (OR 1.55) were less likely to participate in sports clubs. Social networks, especially YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram and Facebook, were widely used. However, differences emerged among sociodemographic groups (e.g., boys vs. girls) regarding the use of social network features. A third of participants reported that smartphone apps regularly encouraged them to exercise. The findings imply that obesity therapy approaches need to be adapted and more differentiated according to the specific needs of the target groups. Full article
11 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Segmented School Physical Activity and Weight Status in Children: Application of Compositional Data Analysis
by Ryan Donald Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau, Yang Bai and Wonwoo Byun
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063243 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2405
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to apply compositional data analysis (CoDA) for the analysis of segmented school step counts and associate the school step count composition to body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample of children. Participants were 855 (51.8% female) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to apply compositional data analysis (CoDA) for the analysis of segmented school step counts and associate the school step count composition to body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample of children. Participants were 855 (51.8% female) children recruited from the fourth and fifth grades from four schools following a 7-h school schedule. Using piezoelectric pedometers, step count data were collected during physical education, recess, lunch, and during academic class time. A multi-level mixed effects model associated the step count composition with BMI z-scores. Compositional isotemporal substitution determined changes in BMI z-scores per reallocation of steps between pairs of school segments. A higher percentage of steps accrued during physical education (b = −0.34, 95%CI: −0.65–−0.03, p = 0.036) and recess (b = −0.47, 95%CI: −0.83–−0.11, p = 0.012), relative to other segments, was associated with lower BMI z-scores. Specifically, a 5% to 15% reallocation of steps accrued during lunchtime to either physical education or recess was associated with lower BMI z-scores, ranging from −0.07 to −0.25 standard deviation units. Focusing school-based promotion of physical activity during physical education and recess may have greater relative importance if targeted outcomes are weight-related. Full article
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