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The Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Human Health

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020) | Viewed by 8680

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Guest Editor
Department of Public Health and Infection Disease, Microbiology Section, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: microorganism/host interactions; pathogenesis mechanisms; innovative therapies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gut microbiota have taken a dominant role in the last decade as one of the major driving forces defining human health status. Gut microbiota composition includes bacteria, fungi, viruses, and Archaea, altogether peacefully coexisting in health. Evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota strongly influence the development and the functioning of many organs even far from the intestine, such as the brain, liver, and pancreas. Gut microbiota influence the development of the mucosal immune system and the enteric nervous system (ENS); effects on angiogenesis have also been recorded. The emerging field of the brain–gut axis and the direct/indirect action of the microbiota on ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) highlight its potential effect on extra intestinal health. All the functions of the intestinal microbiota are closely related to its equilibrium state/eubiosis. Several biotic (genetics, immune system, pathogens, and aging) and abiotic (xenobiotic, lifestyle, and drugs) features are able to affect gut microbiota composition, inducing a dysbiosis status. A growing number of pathologies are related to gut microbiota alteration, dysbiosis: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), celiac disease, obesity, atopic allergies, and, ultimately, cognitive behavior and autism. The importance of gut microbiota composition for our health status has now veen established, and many therapies have been proposed to maintain/restore microbiota balance. I invite authors to submit original research and review articles focusing the Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, entitled “The Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Human Health”. I am also interested in the role of single bacterial, fungus, virus, or Archaea species that may enhance their fitness within the gut upon biotic/abiotic stimuli. Potential manuscript topic include but are not limited to:

  • Gut microbiota impact on human health;
  • Diseases related to gut microbiota dysbiosis;
  • The ageing effect: Microbiota changes through the lifetime in health and disease ;
  • The brain–gut axis: How gut microbiota cross-talk with CNS and ENS;
  • Microbiota metabolic signatures in health and disease;
  • Rule of single bacterial, fungal or virus species impacting the composition of gut microbiota: Effect on human health;
  • Biotic/abiotic stimuli/factors impacting gut microbiota eubiotic status;
  • Therapeutics strategies to restore gut microbiota balance.

Prof. Serena Schippa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gut Microbiota
  • Human health
  • Eubiosis/dysbiosis
  • Metabolic signatures
  • Bacterial, fungal or virus species of the gut
  • Therapeutic strategies

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 2631 KiB  
Article
Gut Microbiota Profiles Differ among Individuals Depending on Their Region of Origin: An Italian Pilot Study
by Andrea Fontana, Concetta Panebianco, Andrea Picchianti-Diamanti, Bruno Laganà, Duccio Cavalieri, Adele Potenza, Riccardo Pracella, Elena Binda, Massimiliano Copetti and Valerio Pazienza
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214065 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4493
Abstract
Background and aims: Microbiota heterogeneity among humans is mainly due to genetic background, age, dietary habits, lifestyle and local environments. In this study we investigated whether the gut microbiota profile of Italian healthy volunteers could differ based on their geographical origin. Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and aims: Microbiota heterogeneity among humans is mainly due to genetic background, age, dietary habits, lifestyle and local environments. In this study we investigated whether the gut microbiota profile of Italian healthy volunteers could differ based on their geographical origin. Materials and Methods: 16S rRNA gene sequencing was employed to analyze the gut microbiota of 31 healthy volunteers from three different Italian regions: Apulia (South), Lazio (Center) and Lombardy (North). Results: Differences in microbiota composition were detected when the study participants were grouped by their region of origin and when they were classified based on age classes (p-values < 0.05). Also species richness was significantly different both according to Italian Regions (median richness: 177.8 vs. 140.7 vs. 168.0 in Apulia, Lazio and Lombardy; p < 0.001) and according to age classes (median richness: 140.1 vs. 177.8 vs. 160.0 in subjects < 32, 32–41 and > 41 years; p < 0.001), whereas the Shannon index and beta diversity did not change. Conclusions: This study identified differences in the gut microbiota composition and richness among individuals with the same ethnicity coming from three different Italian regions. Our results underline the importance of studies on population-specific variations in human microbiota composition leading to geographically tailored approaches to microbiota engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Human Health)
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12 pages, 925 KiB  
Article
Effect of Native and Acetylated Dietary Resistant Starches on Intestinal Fermentative Capacity of Normal and Stunted Children in Southern India
by Ramadass Balamurugan, Srinivasan Pugazhendhi, Gowri M. Balachander, Tamilselvan Dharmalingam, Elissa K Mortimer, Geetha L. Gopalsamy, Richard J. Woodman, Rosie Meng, David H. Alpers, Mark Manary, Henry J. Binder, Ian L. Brown, Graeme P. Young and Balakrishnan S. Ramakrishna
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203922 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3723
Abstract
The health benefits of dietary amylase resistant starch (RS) arise from intestinal microbial fermentation and generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). We compared the intestinal fermentative capability of stunted and nonstunted (‘healthy’) children in southern India using two types of RS: high [...] Read more.
The health benefits of dietary amylase resistant starch (RS) arise from intestinal microbial fermentation and generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). We compared the intestinal fermentative capability of stunted and nonstunted (‘healthy’) children in southern India using two types of RS: high amylose maize starch (HAMS) and acetylated HAMS (HAMSA). Twenty children (10 stunted and 10 healthy) aged 2 to 5 years were fed biscuits containing HAMS (10 g/day) for two weeks followed by a 2-week washout and then HAMSA biscuits (10 g/day) for 2 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at 3-4 day intervals and pH and SCFA analyzed. At entry, stunted children had lower SCFA concentrations compared to healthy children. Both types of RS led to a significant decrease in fecal pH and increase in fecal acetate and propionate in both healthy and stunted children. However, while HAMS increased fecal butyrate in both groups of children, HAMSA increased butyrate in healthy but not stunted children. Furthermore, healthy children showed a significantly greater increase than stunted children in both acetate and butyrate when fed either RS. No adverse effects were reported with either RS. Stunted children have impaired capacity to ferment certain types of RS which has implications for choice of RS in formulations aimed at improving microbial function in stunted children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Human Health)
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