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Sports Medicine and Physical Rehabilitation

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health-Related Quality of Life".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 13055

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: physiology of sport; sports medicine; alpine sports; applied exercise physiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, we have learned that the role of sports medicine is not only the treatment of an injured athlete. The key role of sports medicine doctors, physiotherapists, kinesiology specialists, sport scientists and other sport-science-related professions should be directed towards the prevention of injuries, and especially towards the enhancement of all parts of the training process of an athlete. All those stakeholders are obliged to contribute to the athlete’s results to the best of their knowledge.

This actually means that being up-to-date with the most advanced methods of sports diagnostic methods and evaluating performance, involving functional ability testing and interpretation, training design and rehabilitation processes, enables a team doctor and other involved professionals to choose the most appropriate methods in their area of expertise in order to contribute to the safe and successful training process, with one major goal: a remarkable competition performance.

Also of note is that, nowadays, a considerable number of what we might call “top level recreational athletes” use remarkably similar methods of training as the top professional athletes and experience similar problems regarding their health and overall fitness.

In the process of rehabilitation, physical rehabilitation, namely the movement part of rehabilitation involving diverse types of exercise, undoubtably holds major importance. Scientists from the field of sports medicine and the field of sport science (or human movement science/kinesiology as it called in growing number of countries) may significantly contribute with their research to the successful training process, especially if their research is applicable and has a practical application. For that reason, in this Special Issue, we would like all contributors to address the results of their submitted study in a way that might be of use to a coach or athlete who are not necessarily acquainted with scientific methods.

Prof. Dr. Lana Ružić
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sports medicine
  • training process
  • sports diagnostics
  • injury prevention
  • exercise rehabilitation
  • applied physiology of sport
  • applied sport science

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 1200 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Intraocular Pressure Alterations during Large Muscle Group Isometric Exercises with Varying Head and Body Positions
by Nina Krobot Cutura, Maksimilijan Mrak, Dominik-Mate Cutura, Ivanka Petric Vickovic and Lana Ruzic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2024, 21(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph21040476 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Performing physical exercise affects intraocular pressure, and its elevation and fluctuations are the main risk factors for glaucoma development or progression. The aim of this study was to examine the acute alterations in intraocular pressure (IOP) during four unweighted isometric exercises and to [...] Read more.
Performing physical exercise affects intraocular pressure, and its elevation and fluctuations are the main risk factors for glaucoma development or progression. The aim of this study was to examine the acute alterations in intraocular pressure (IOP) during four unweighted isometric exercises and to determine whether the different head and body positions taken during exercise additionally affect IOP. Twelve healthy volunteers between the ages of 25 and 33 performed four isometric exercises: wall sit in neutral head and body position, elbow plank in prone head and body position, reverse plank in supine head and body position for 1 min, and right-side plank in lateral head and body position for 30 s. Intraocular pressure was measured by applanation portable tonometry, before performing the exercise, immediately after exercise completion, and after five minutes of rest. A significant acute increase in intraocular pressure was found as a response to the performance of the elbow plank (p < 0.01), the reverse plank (p < 0.001), and the right-side plank (p < 0.001). The wall sit exercise did not reveal a statistically significant IOP elevation (p = 0.232). Different head and body positions had no significant additional influence on IOP (F (3,33) = 0.611; p = 0.613), even though the alteration in IOP was found to be greater in exercises with a lower head and body position. Our data revealed that IOP elevation seems to be affected by the performance of the elbow plank, the reverse plank, and the right-side plank; and not by the wall sit exercise. More different isometric exercises should be examined to find ones that are safe to perform for glaucoma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine and Physical Rehabilitation)
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6 pages, 921 KiB  
Communication
Clinical Outcome of Arthroscopic Repair for Isolated Meniscus Tear in Athletes
by Goran Vrgoč, Filip Vuletić, Grgur Matolić, Alan Ivković, Damir Hudetz, Stjepan Bulat, Frane Bukvić and Saša Janković
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065088 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Increased knowledge of the long-term destructive consequences of meniscectomy has created a shift towards operative repair of isolated meniscus lesions. However, in the literature the results of isolated meniscal repair in athletes currently remain underreported. Our objective was to investigate the clinical and [...] Read more.
Increased knowledge of the long-term destructive consequences of meniscectomy has created a shift towards operative repair of isolated meniscus lesions. However, in the literature the results of isolated meniscal repair in athletes currently remain underreported. Our objective was to investigate the clinical and functional outcomes as well as survival and return to sport in patients who underwent meniscal repair after isolated meniscal tear, with a focus on athletes (both professional and recreational) in the study population. This retrospective study included 52 athletes who underwent knee surgery for isolated meniscal tear between 2014 and 2020. Patients with concomitant ligamentous and/or chondral injury were not included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 25.5 years (ranging from 12 to 57 years). The mean follow-up period of all patients was 33.3 months (ranging 10 to 80 months). The mean purpose of the study was to report the return to sport. The International Knee Documentation Committee rating (IKDC), Lysholm score, the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Tegner activity level were determined at the follow-up. Failure was defined as re-operation with meniscectomy or revision meniscal repair. In total, 44 out of 52 patients (85%) returned to their previous sports activities. At follow-up, the mean Lysholm score was 90, representing a good to excellent result. Assessment of KOOS (mean value 88.8) and IKDC (mean value 89) scores also showed good to excellent results. A mean level of Tegner scale was 6.2, indicating a relatively high level of sports participation. Failure was encountered in 8 out of 52 knees (15%). Therefore, isolated meniscal repair resulted in good to excellent knee function and most athletes can return to their previous level of sports participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine and Physical Rehabilitation)
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12 pages, 2050 KiB  
Article
Management of Glycemia during Acute Aerobic and Resistance Training in Patients with Diabetes Type 1: A Croatian Pilot Study
by Marul Ivandic, Maja Cigrovski Berkovic, Klara Ormanac, Dea Sabo, Tea Omanovic Kolaric, Lucija Kuna, Vjera Mihaljevic, Silvija Canecki Varzic, Martina Smolic and Ines Bilic-Curcic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 4966; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20064966 - 11 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2004
Abstract
(1) Background: The increased risk of developing hypoglycemia and worsening of glycemic stability during exercise is a major cause of concern for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). (2) Aim: This pilot study aimed to assess glycemic stability and hypoglycemic episodes during [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The increased risk of developing hypoglycemia and worsening of glycemic stability during exercise is a major cause of concern for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). (2) Aim: This pilot study aimed to assess glycemic stability and hypoglycemic episodes during and after aerobic versus resistance exercises using a flash glucose monitoring system in patients with T1DM. (3) Participants and Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover prospective study including 14 adult patients with T1DM. Patients were randomized according to the type of exercise (aerobic vs. resistance) with a recovery period of three days between a change of groups. Glucose stability and hypoglycemic episodes were evaluated during and 24 h after the exercise. Growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and lactate levels were determined at rest, 0, 30, and 60 min post-exercise period. (4) Results: The median age of patients was 53 years, with a median HbA1c of 7.1% and a duration of diabetes of 30 years. During both training sessions, there was a drop in glucose levels immediately after the exercise (0′), followed by an increase at 30′ and 60′, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, glucose levels significantly decreased from 60′ to 24 h in the post-exercise period (p = 0.001) for both types of exercise. Glycemic stability was comparable prior to and after exercise for both training sessions. No differences in the number of hypoglycemic episodes, duration of hypoglycemia, and average glucose level in 24 h post-exercise period were observed between groups. Time to hypoglycemia onset was prolonged after the resistance as opposed to aerobic training (13 vs. 8 h, p = NS). There were no nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes (between 0 and 6 a.m.) after the resistance compared to aerobic exercise (4 vs. 0, p = NS). GH and cortisol responses were similar between the two sessions, while lactate levels were significantly more increased after resistance training. (5) Conclusion: Both exercise regimes induced similar blood glucose responses during and immediately following acute exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine and Physical Rehabilitation)
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10 pages, 844 KiB  
Article
Perceived Discomfort and Voluntary Activation of Quadriceps Muscle Assessed with Interpolated Paired or Triple Electrical Stimuli
by Petra Prevc, Nina Misotic, Igor Stirn and Katja Tomazin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 4799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20064799 - 9 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Voluntary drive of the exercising muscle is usually assessed with the interpolated twitch technique (ITT), using paired supramaximal electrical stimuli. The aim of this study was to directly compare voluntary activation (VA) of the quadriceps muscle (QM) measured with the ITT, using paired [...] Read more.
Voluntary drive of the exercising muscle is usually assessed with the interpolated twitch technique (ITT), using paired supramaximal electrical stimuli. The aim of this study was to directly compare voluntary activation (VA) of the quadriceps muscle (QM) measured with the ITT, using paired and triple electrical stimuli during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). In addition, perceived discomfort was compared with the use of paired and triple electrical stimuli during ITT. Ten healthy participants (23.6 ± 1.6 years) were included. They performed four MVIC, with paired or triple stimuli, in random order. MVIC torque, superimposed evoked torque, evoked torque at rest, VA, and visual analogue scale for pain (VAS-pain), were analysed. The amplitude of the triplet-evoked torque was higher than doublet-evoked torque, i.e., the signal-to-noise ratio increased. However, the differences between the estimation of VA with paired and triple stimuli were not significant (p = 0.136). Triple stimuli yielded higher VAS-pain scores than paired stimuli (p = 0.016). The limits of agreement for the VA using the Bland–Altman method were 7.66/0.629. It seems that the use of additional electrical stimuli is not a recommended solution for the evaluation of VA, because the advantages (i.e., better signal-to-noise ratio) do not outweigh the disadvantages (i.e., an increase in pain). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine and Physical Rehabilitation)
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12 pages, 1363 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Relevant Training Control Parameters at Individual Anaerobic Threshold without Blood Lactate Measurement
by Claudia Römer and Bernd Wolfarth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054641 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Background: Active exercise therapy plays an essential role in tackling the global burden of obesity. Optimizing recommendations in individual training therapy requires that the essential parameters heart rate HR(IAT) and work load (W/kg(IAT) at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) are known. Performance diagnostics with [...] Read more.
Background: Active exercise therapy plays an essential role in tackling the global burden of obesity. Optimizing recommendations in individual training therapy requires that the essential parameters heart rate HR(IAT) and work load (W/kg(IAT) at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) are known. Performance diagnostics with blood lactate is one of the most established methods for these kinds of diagnostics, yet it is also time consuming and expensive. Methods: To establish a regression model which allows HR(IAT) and (W/kg(IAT) to be predicted without measuring blood lactate, a total of 1234 performance protocols with blood lactate in cycle ergometry were analyzed. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to predict the essential parameters (HR(IAT)) (W/kg(IAT)) by using routine parameters for ergometry without blood lactate. Results: HR(IAT) can be predicted with an RMSE of 8.77 bpm (p < 0.001), R2 = 0.799 (|R| = 0.798) without performing blood lactate diagnostics during cycle ergometry. In addition, it is possible to predict W/kg(IAT) with an RMSE (root mean square error) of 0.241 W/kg (p < 0.001), R2 = 0.897 (|R| = 0.897). Conclusions: It is possible to predict essential parameters for training management without measuring blood lactate. This model can easily be used in preventive medicine and results in an inexpensive yet better training management of the general population, which is essential for public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine and Physical Rehabilitation)
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9 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
Effects of Plyometric Training with Resistance Bands on Neuromuscular Characteristics in Junior Tennis Players
by Dario Novak, Iva Loncar, Filip Sinkovic, Petar Barbaros and Luka Milanovic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021085 - 7 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 6 weeks (conducted twice per week for a total of 12 sessions) of plyometric training with resistance bands on different neuromuscular characteristics among the sample of junior tennis players. Thirty junior tennis [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 6 weeks (conducted twice per week for a total of 12 sessions) of plyometric training with resistance bands on different neuromuscular characteristics among the sample of junior tennis players. Thirty junior tennis players between the ages of 12 and 14 years (age 13.5 ± 1.8 years; weight 51.3 ± 12.5 kg; height 162.7 ± 12.6 cm) were allocated to either the control group (standard in-season regimen) (CG; n = 15) or the experimental group, which received additional plyometric training with resistance bands (TG; n = 15). Pre- and post-tests included: anthropometric measures; 20 m sprint time (with 5, 10, and 20 m splits), squat jump (SQ Jump); vertical countermovement jump (CMJ); vertical countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ_free arms); single leg (left) countermovement jump (CMJ_L); single leg (right) countermovement jump (CMJ_R); standing long jump (L_Jump); single leg (left) triple jump (SLTH-L); single leg (right) triple jump (SLTH-R); generic change of direction speed (CODS) (20Y test and T-test); reactive agility test (WS-S). After the training intervention, the TG showed significant (“p < 0.05”) improvements in CMJ (F = 7.90, p = 0.01), CMJ_L (F = 5.30, p = 0.03), CMJ_R (F = 11.45, p = 0.00), and SLTH-L (F = 4.49, p = 0.04) tests. No significant changes were observed in the CG after the training intervention. Our findings provide useful information for coaches to create a wide range of tennis-specific situations to develop a proper performance, especially for their player’s neuromuscular fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine and Physical Rehabilitation)
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10 pages, 957 KiB  
Article
Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) Is Not a Singular Predictor for Physical Fitness
by Claudia Römer and Bernd Wolfarth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010792 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
Background: For optimal recommendations in cardiovascular training for the general population, knowing the essential parameters for physical fitness is required. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is an easy-to-measure parameter and is discussed to derive the physical fitness of an individual subject. This study evaluates [...] Read more.
Background: For optimal recommendations in cardiovascular training for the general population, knowing the essential parameters for physical fitness is required. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is an easy-to-measure parameter and is discussed to derive the physical fitness of an individual subject. This study evaluates HRR as a potential physical fitness parameter for public health programs, as it is measured in every ergometry. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we analyzed HRR regarding physical fitness (W/kg (IAT: individual anaerobic threshold)). In total, we analyzed 1234 performance protocols in cycle ergometry. Significance tests (p < 0.001) and multiple linear regression were performed. Results: The analysis of HRR and weight-related performance showed a significant correlation with a moderate coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.250). The coefficient of determination increases from very weak correlation levels at 1 min post-workout towards weak to moderate levels of correlation at 5 min post-workout. Conclusions: In this study HRR and the weight-related performance at the IAT showed a significant correlation with a mean strength. Thus, a prediction or conclusion on physical performance based singularly on HRR decrease is not recommended. However, in preventive medicine, HRR should be measured and observed on a long-term basis, for analysis of vagal activity and to draw to inferences of mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine and Physical Rehabilitation)
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