Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Children, Youth and Adults: Risk Factors and Other Associated Variables

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 16148

Special Issue Editors

Departamento de Motricidad Humana y Rendimiento Deportiva, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Sevilla, 41004 Seville, Spain
Interests: physical activity; education; health promotion; psychosocial variables; sport coaching; sport performance; match analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, 28223 Madrid, Spain
Interests: performance analysis; physical activity; sport psychology; cognitive processes
Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Extremadura, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
Interests: education; physical activity; performance; sport; match analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pandemic declared at the beginning of 2020 transformed the lifestyle of the world population, applying restrictions on mobility and social contact. Currently, although society is recovering its lifestyle, it is observed that the lack of physical activity as well as sedentary behavior in children, young people and adults are still evident. Physical activity is a fundamental element for the personal, social and emotional well-being of our society, and that is why it must be present in our lifestyle. In this sense, there are multiple factors related to the lack of physical activity and an increase in sedentary behavior in our society; therefore, it is necessary to know the risk factors and other associated variables to alleviate this problem in children, youth and adults. In addition, these risk factors and other associated variables will give us the keys to create and carry out interventions that cause changes in behavior and healthy lifestyles.

Therefore, through this Special Issue entitled “Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in children, youth and adults. Risk factors and other associated variables”, we invite you with your contributions to support the need to maintain an active lifestyle in children, youth and adults, to know the risk factors and other variables associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors and to the proposal and implementation of interventions to solve this problem. Specifically, we welcome research that provides relevant scientific evidence on the topics including:

  • Physical activity;
  • Sedentary behavior;
  • Health behaviors;
  • New technologies, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle;
  • Interventions to support behavior and lifestyle changes;
  • Risk factors and variables associated with physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle;
  • Psychosocial variables associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behavior;
  • Physical education as a tool to encourage physical activity and avoid sedentary behavior.

Dr. Carmen Fernández Echeverría
Dr. Conejero Suarez Manuel
Dr. Jara Gonzalez-Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • physical activity
  • sedentary behavior
  • health
  • healthcare
  • physical education
  • lifestyle changes

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 537 KiB  
Article
The Longitudinal Mediating Effect of Smartphone Dependency on the Relationship between Exercise Time and Subjective Happiness in Adolescents
by Inwoo Kim and Hyoyeon Ahn
Healthcare 2023, 11(22), 2997; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11222997 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 733
Abstract
The phenomenon of adolescents engaging in less physical activity as they age raises several concerns. Among these, we hypothesized that this trend may negatively impact their mental health and smartphone dependency. Thus, the aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the mediating [...] Read more.
The phenomenon of adolescents engaging in less physical activity as they age raises several concerns. Among these, we hypothesized that this trend may negatively impact their mental health and smartphone dependency. Thus, the aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the mediating effect of smartphone dependency in the relationship between adolescents’ exercise time and subjective well-being. For analysis, publicly available data from the 2018 Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey were utilized, with a total of 2,242 participants’ data included in the analysis. Latent growth modeling results revealed a significant linear decrease in adolescents’ exercise time and subjective well-being each year, while smartphone dependency exhibited an increasing trend. Furthermore, the significance tests of indirect effects indicated that the mediating effect of the changing trend in smartphone dependency between the changing trends in exercise time and subjective happiness in adolescents was statistically significant. These findings suggest that as grade levels increase, reducing exercise time can lead to higher smartphone dependency among adolescents, ultimately resulting in decreased subjective well-being. Full article
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11 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Predicting Quality of Life in Women with Breast Cancer Who Engage in Physical Exercise: The Role of Psychological Variables
by Santiago Fresno-Alba, Marta Leyton-Román, Sara Mesquita da Silva and Ruth Jiménez-Castuera
Healthcare 2023, 11(14), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11142088 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to conduct a descriptive analysis of the primary physiological and psychological factors influencing the quality of life in women with breast cancer who engage in physical exercise. The study examined the key psychological variables predicting patients’ quality of [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to conduct a descriptive analysis of the primary physiological and psychological factors influencing the quality of life in women with breast cancer who engage in physical exercise. The study examined the key psychological variables predicting patients’ quality of life, perceived support from family and friends, and the perception of physical condition. The sample consisted of 46 women from Cáceres (Spain) aged between 30 and 75 years undergoing breast cancer treatment. The Functional Evaluation Scale in Cancer Therapy (FACT-B+4) was used to measure quality of life; the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale was used to measure autonomy, competence, and social relationships; the Behavior Regulation Questionnaire in Exercise (BREQ-3) was used to measure the types of self-determined motivation for sports participation; the General Evaluation of Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem; the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) was used to measure perceived physical condition; and the Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Exercise Settings (PASSES) was used to measure the perceived autonomy support from family and friends. A multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived physical condition and self-esteem were significant positive predictors of a variance in quality of life, while intrinsic motivation did not significantly predict it. The findings underscore the importance of promoting autonomous motivation in patients to enhance their physical and psychological well-being through physical activity. Full article
9 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Little but Intense: Using a HIIT-Based Strategy to Improve Mood and Cognitive Functioning in College Students
by Inmaculada Concepción Martínez-Díaz and Luis Carrasco Páez
Healthcare 2023, 11(13), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11131880 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Looking for useful and motivational strategies for promoting healthy habits and improving cognitive functioning in young populations, the aim of the present study was to determine if a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise could stimulate mood and working memory in college students. [...] Read more.
Looking for useful and motivational strategies for promoting healthy habits and improving cognitive functioning in young populations, the aim of the present study was to determine if a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise could stimulate mood and working memory in college students. A total of 25 male subjects (mean ± SD, age: 21.7 ± 2.1 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m; weight: 72.6 ± 8.4 kg; body mass index: 23.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2; VO2peak: 47.1 ± 9.3 mL/kg/min) participated voluntarily in this study. Participants underwent a high-intensity interval exercise consisting of 10 × 1 min of cycling at VO2peak power output. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and Digit Span Test (DST) were administered at three assessment time points: (a) pre-intervention assessment, (b) post-intervention assessment, and (c) 30 min post-intervention. The mood states decreased significantly after exercise; however, a significant increase in mood was found after 30 min of recovery. A significant post-exercise increase in DST performance was observed; moreover, DST scores obtained 30 min after exercise remained higher than those assessed pre-exercise. In conclusion, a single bout of HIIT induces acute positive changes in mood states in male college students and seems to be a powerful stimulus for cognitive functioning. Full article
10 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity and Emotional Regulation in Physical Education in Children Aged 12–14 Years and Its Relation with Practice Motives
by Jorge Rojo-Ramos, Juan Manuel Franco-García, Noelia Mayordomo-Pinilla, Francesco Pazzi and Carmen Galán-Arroyo
Healthcare 2023, 11(13), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11131826 - 22 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the different types of emotional regulation in first and second year high school students according to sex and age. Many adolescents do not meet the minimum WHO recommendations, at a critical stage in which habits that will later [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the different types of emotional regulation in first and second year high school students according to sex and age. Many adolescents do not meet the minimum WHO recommendations, at a critical stage in which habits that will later be maintained are established. For this reason, physical education is an important means to promote these habits and an understanding of the reasons for their participation in physical education. For this purpose, PLOC-2 was used. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to determine the characteristics of the data, the ANOVA test to explore the differences between sexes, and the Spearman test for correlations between the type of regulation and age. The results showed significant differences in several items and emotional regulation by sex and an inverse correlation between age and demotivation. There are differences between the reasons why both sexes perform physical activity, and we have determined that boys have more intrinsic regulation than girls do. Full article
15 pages, 1973 KiB  
Article
School-Based TGfU Volleyball Intervention Improves Physical Fitness and Body Composition in Primary School Students: A Cluster-Randomized Trial
by Darko Stojanović, Vladimir Momčilović, Marko Zadražnik, Igor Ilić, Admira Koničanin, Johnny Padulo, Luca Russo and Toplica Stojanović
Healthcare 2023, 11(11), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11111600 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
This study aimed to explore whether a 16-week Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) volleyball intervention could improve primary school students’ physical fitness and body composition. Eighty-eight primary school students (age 13.3 ± 0.3 years) were randomized to a TGfU volleyball intervention group (VG) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore whether a 16-week Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) volleyball intervention could improve primary school students’ physical fitness and body composition. Eighty-eight primary school students (age 13.3 ± 0.3 years) were randomized to a TGfU volleyball intervention group (VG) or a control group (CG). The CG attended three regular physical education (PE) classes per week, while the VG attended two regular PE classes and a TGfU volleyball intervention that was implemented in the third PE class. Body composition components (body weight, body mass index, skinfold thickness, body fat percentage, and muscle mass percentage) and physical fitness (flexibility, vertical jumps (squat and countermovement jump—SJ/CMJ), 30 m sprint, agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness) assessments were performed pre-and post-intervention period. Significant interaction effects between VG and CG and pre- and post-test were found for the sum of five skinfolds (p < 0.0005, ŋp2 = 0.168), body fat % (p < 0.0005, ŋp2 = 0.200), muscle mass % (p < 0.0005, ŋp2 = 0.247), SJ (p = 0.002, ŋp2 = 0.103), CMJ (p = 0.001, ŋp2 = 0.120), 30 m sprint (p = 0.019, ŋp2 = 0.062), agility T-test (p < 0.0005, ŋp2 = 0.238), and VO2max (p < 0.0005, ŋp2 = 0.253). Further examination revealed a greater improvement among VG students compared to CG students in certain body composition and physical fitness outcomes. Implementing a TGfU volleyball intervention in the physical education curriculum appears to have effective stimuli for reducing adiposity and promoting physical fitness levels in seventh-grade primary school students. Full article
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19 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
The Perception of Volleyball Student-Athletes: Evaluation of Well-Being, Sport Workload, Players’ Response, and Academic Demands
by Roberto Vavassori, María Perla Moreno and Aurelio Ureña Espa
Healthcare 2023, 11(11), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11111538 - 25 May 2023
Viewed by 1862
Abstract
Physical activity has been shown to improve the health and well-being of students, athletes and the general population, especially when it is properly monitored and responses are evaluated. However, data are mostly gathered without considering a valuable element, participants’ perceptions. Therefore, the objective [...] Read more.
Physical activity has been shown to improve the health and well-being of students, athletes and the general population, especially when it is properly monitored and responses are evaluated. However, data are mostly gathered without considering a valuable element, participants’ perceptions. Therefore, the objective was to know the perception of volleyball student-athletes when using different monitoring and response tools that assess well-being, workloads, responses to workloads, and academic demands. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with female volleyball student-athletes (n = 22) was used to know players’ perceptions when using a wellness/well-being questionnaire, session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and countermovement jumps (CMJ), and consider academic demands. Results show that the wellness questionnaire and sRPE increased student-athletes’ awareness of well-being and readiness to perform, improved self-evaluation, self-regulation, and self-demand. However, motivation and overcoming challenges were based on the CMJ. Academic demands affected 82% of student-athletes, altering stress, fatigue, and sleep quality. Nonetheless, sport was seen as an activity that helped with academic commitments. Therefore, the wellness questionnaires and the sRPE facilitated self-awareness and positive dispositions toward self-regulation. Simultaneous intensive academic demands and training can produce mutual positive effects if the variables of physical and mental loads are harmonized in the critical academic and sports periods. Full article
12 pages, 766 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity, Body Image, and Its Relationship with Academic Performance in Adolescents
by José Pedro Guimarães, Juan Pedro Fuentes-García, Jara González-Silva and María José Martínez-Patiño
Healthcare 2023, 11(4), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11040602 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
Academic success in adolescence is a strong predictor of well-being and health in adulthood. A healthy lifestyle and moderate/high levels of physical activity can influence academic performance. Therefore, we aimed to assess the relationship between the physical activity levels and body image and [...] Read more.
Academic success in adolescence is a strong predictor of well-being and health in adulthood. A healthy lifestyle and moderate/high levels of physical activity can influence academic performance. Therefore, we aimed to assess the relationship between the physical activity levels and body image and academic performance in public school adolescents. The sample consisted of 531 secondary school students in Porto (296 girls and 235 boys) aged between 15 and 20 years. The study variables and instruments were satisfaction with body image (The Body Image Rating Scale), assessment of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (IPAQ-A), assessment of academic performance (academic achievement), school motivation (Academic Scale Motivation). The statistical analysis performed was descriptive analysis, an analysis of covariance, and a logistic regression. Regarding the results obtained, although there was no association between physical activity level and academic performance, it was observed in 10th grade students that the school average was higher for those practicing group or individual sports compared to students practicing artistic expression. Regarding the level of satisfaction with body image, we found different results in both genders. Our results support the importance of an active lifestyle, with the presence of regular physical activity being an important factor in improving academic performance. Full article
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13 pages, 642 KiB  
Article
Differential Patterns in Motivations for Practicing Sport and Their Effects on Physical Activity Engagement across the Lifespan
by Marcelo de Maio Nascimento, Élvio Rúbio Gouveia, Bruna R. Gouveia, Adilson Marques, Cíntia França, Pedro Campos, Francisco Martins, Jesús García-Mayor and Andreas Ihle
Healthcare 2023, 11(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11020274 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
This study aims to report what motivates individuals to be physically active, to determine whether motivating factors influence physical activity (PA) levels, and whether this differs across the lifespan. This is a cross-sectional study with 498 individuals: 117 adolescents, 306 adults, and 75 [...] Read more.
This study aims to report what motivates individuals to be physically active, to determine whether motivating factors influence physical activity (PA) levels, and whether this differs across the lifespan. This is a cross-sectional study with 498 individuals: 117 adolescents, 306 adults, and 75 older adults. PA was assessed using Baecke’s questionnaire, and motivating factors for practicing sports were investigated using a scale with twelve questions. The factor analysis identified three motivating factors for sports practice: psychosocial, bodily, and well-being. The scale’s overall reliability and internal consistency indicated a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.885. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for sex indicated the three factors as having a significant effect on PA (p < 0.050); however, only the well-being factor showed a significant interaction with age groups (p = 0.023, ηp2 = 0.030). Subsequently, the effect of the well-being factor on PA scores in each age group was explored through regression analyses. Only older adults showed a significant association in the unadjusted [OR = 0.378, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.243] and the sex-adjusted analysis [OR = 0.377, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.288]. These results help us to better understand the underlying motivational reasons in different age groups for engaging in sports. Full article
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13 pages, 584 KiB  
Article
Development of a Physical Activity Triggers Questionnaire
by Yunbo Wang and Hyoung-Kil Kang
Healthcare 2023, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010025 - 22 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to develop a Physical Activity Triggers Questionnaire for Chinese college students and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: On the theoretical basis of the Fogg behavior model and semi-open interviews, an initial questionnaire with 18 items was compiled. [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to develop a Physical Activity Triggers Questionnaire for Chinese college students and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: On the theoretical basis of the Fogg behavior model and semi-open interviews, an initial questionnaire with 18 items was compiled. The initial questionnaire was administered to 575 students, and to examine its reliability and validity, item discrimination analysis, correlation analysis, homogeneity test, and exploratory factor analysis were conducted using SPSS 26.0. After the examination of the initial questionnaire, the initial 18 items were reduced to 14. The 14-item questionnaire was administered to 621 college students, and with the data, correlation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, validity test, and reliability test were conducted. Results: To examine the psychometric properties of the 18 items, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted, and their reliability and validity were examined. After the first round of item development analysis, four items were removed, and a triggers questionnaire with 14 items was developed. The 14 items had three dimensions, including spark, signal, and facilitator triggers, and the cumulative explained variance of the three dimensions was 61.21%. The confirmatory factor analysis of the three dimensions of the 14 items indicated appropriate scale fit indices. The internal consistency reliability, split-half reliability, and test–retest reliability of the 14 items were 0.925, 0.821, and 0.860, respectively, showing that the items have appropriate reliability. Conclusions: The Physical Activity Triggers Questionnaire of the study has acceptable reliability and validity. It is the first questionnaire to measure Chinese college students’ triggers of physical activity and will provide a new basis for the understanding of psychometric properties of physical activity triggers. In addition, the future findings collected from the developed triggers questionnaire can be used to develop strategies to promote health among college students. Full article
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18 pages, 1332 KiB  
Article
Changes in Physical Activity and Health Indicators among Koreans during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Comparison between 2019 and 2020
by Kyungsik Kim, Shuai Zhang, Pan Ding, Yongdi Wang, Brain H. Yim, Zheming Hu and Sihong Sui
Healthcare 2022, 10(12), 2549; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122549 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the changes in physical activity (PA), chronic disease, and mental health indicators of Koreans before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, using raw data from more than 400,000 representative samples from the 2019–2020 Community Health Survey by the Korea [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the changes in physical activity (PA), chronic disease, and mental health indicators of Koreans before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, using raw data from more than 400,000 representative samples from the 2019–2020 Community Health Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and to explore the correlations among them. We used two-way ANOVA to analyze changes and differences in PA and obesity levels. We assessed the influence of gender and recurrent PA using chi-square tests for mental health status and chronic disease. Finally, we performed a correlation analysis to determine the relationships among PA days, mental health, and chronic disease. The results showed that, compared to the levels before the COVID-19 period, moderate-intensity (Days: 1.415~1.217; Time: 114.688~107.321) and high-intensity (Days: 0.798~0.671; Time: 112.866~106.110) PA significantly decreased in Koreans during the COVID-19 period, while low-intensity (Time: 60.305~61.735) PA increased. Before and during the COVID-19 period, men (18,436 (8.1%)~16,124 (7.0%)) performed PA more regularly than women (13,207 (5.8%)~9382 (4.1%)). Compared to the number of regular PA participants before the COVID-19 period, regular PA participants (male, female) decreased from 31,643 (13.8%) to 25,506 (11.1%) during the COVID-19 period. Compared with the levels before the COVID-19 period, the experience rates of stress (3.1%~2.6%), depression (0.8%~0.6%), HBP (3.0%~2.2%), and diabetes (1.2%~0.9%) significantly changed under different levels of conventional PA intervention. In addition, the obesity rate during the COVID-19 period (23.957) was higher than it was before COVID-19 (23.477). During the COVID-19 period, the PA of Koreans was greatly restricted, but low-intensity PA was maintained and increased. PA is an effective activity for maintaining mental health and for preventing and reducing chronic diseases. Recommendations for appropriate intensity or a combination of high-, moderate-, and low-intensity PA should be based on the health status of Koreans to help them maintain mental health and to reduce the risk of chronic diseases during COVID-19 social distancing. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 3209 KiB  
Review
Documents Publication Evolution (1990–2022) Related to Physical Activity and Healthy Habits, a Bibliometric Review
by Víctor Hernández-Beltrán, Mário C. Espada, Fernando J. Santos, Cátia C. Ferreira and José M. Gamonales
Healthcare 2023, 11(12), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11121669 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
This research aims to provide an overview of the growing number of scientific literature publications related to Physical Activity and Healthy Habits. A bibliometric analysis between 1990 and 2022 in the Web of Science was carried out, following the bibliometric analysis law, using [...] Read more.
This research aims to provide an overview of the growing number of scientific literature publications related to Physical Activity and Healthy Habits. A bibliometric analysis between 1990 and 2022 in the Web of Science was carried out, following the bibliometric analysis law, using Microsoft Excel and VosViewer Software for analysis and data processing. A total of 276 documents (262 primary studies and 14 revisions) related to the topic under study were located. The results reveal an exponential growth of scientific production by 48% between 2006 and 2022. Public Environmental Occupational Health, Kaprio, J., and the USA were the knowledge field, author, and country most productive, respectively. A great thematic diversity was found related to the most used keywords by the authors, such as “physical activity”, “health habits”, “exercise”, and “obesity”. Thus, the research related to this theme is really in an exponential phase, with great interest in the importance of physical activity and healthy habits, implying practical decisions in policies to develop programs to promote physical activity and healthy habits. Full article
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