Key Enabling Technologies for Beyond 5G Networks

A special issue of Future Internet (ISSN 1999-5903). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 8205

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Information Engineering, University of Firenze, Via S. Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy
Interests: wireless communications; wireless resource management; heterogeneous networks; transmission techniques

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Information Engineering, University of Firenze, Via S. Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy
Interests: physical layer security; UWB positioning systems; visible light communications; molecular communications; body area networks; 6G; 5G; networks for healthcare applications
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our society is increasingly digitized, hyper-connected, and data driven; hence, new systems and technologies are emerging and introducing paradigm shifts in wireless communi­cation.

The spectrum utilization will be improved and extended towards the THz, thus requiring new transceiver architectures, modulation schemes, and new paradigms for facing the challenging propagation conditions. At such high-frequencies, communications will be based on very narrow and pencil-beam signal propagation with the help of intelligent reflecting surfaces. Energy resources must be efficiently managed at a network-wide scale, also integrating self-sustainable solutions, and new access methods will be needed for truly massive machine-type communications. In addition, machine learning and artificial intelligence technologies will strongly impact the design of communication systems across all the layers of the communication architecture, operating both at the link- and system level. These technologies further accelerate the trends of cognition and self-organization, smart spectrum access, physical and medium access layers operation up to resource allocation, and network organization. New communication systems will also constitute a framework for providing services thanks to new computing architectures and the intelligence that spreads across the network. New applications will be provided integrating the communication capabilities with sensing, positioning, imaging, and mobility. In such a scenario, the security should be provided at all levels for a network with embedded trust, also providing protection at the physical layer.

This Special Issue aims at investigating emerging and future key technologies for wireless communication systems in the 5G-and-beyond era.

Dr. Dania Marabissi
Dr. Lorenzo Mucchi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • THz and visible light communications
  • intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRS)
  • cognitive and dynamic spectrum access
  • machine learning and artificial intelligence for wireless communications system
  • energy-efficient wireless communications and networking
  • network softwarization and virtualization
  • network security
  • physical layer security
  • zero-touch networks
  • massive IoT communication

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
The Multiband over Spatial Division Multiplexing Sliceable Transceiver for Future Optical Networks
by Laia Nadal, Mumtaz Ali, Francisco Javier Vílchez, Josep Maria Fàbrega and Michela Svaluto Moreolo
Future Internet 2023, 15(12), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi15120381 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
In the last 15 years, global data traffic has been doubling approximately every 2–3 years, and there is a strong indication that this pattern will persist. Hence, also driven by the emergence of new applications and services expected within the 6G era, new [...] Read more.
In the last 15 years, global data traffic has been doubling approximately every 2–3 years, and there is a strong indication that this pattern will persist. Hence, also driven by the emergence of new applications and services expected within the 6G era, new transmission systems and technologies should be investigated to enhance network capacity and achieve increased bandwidth, improved spectral efficiency, and greater flexibility to effectively accommodate all the expected data traffic. In this paper, an innovative transmission solution based on multiband (MB) over spatial division multiplexing (SDM) sliceable bandwidth/bitrate variable transceiver (S-BVT) is implemented and assessed in relation to the provision of sustainable capacity scaling. MB transmission (S+C+L) over 25.4 km of 19-cores multicore fibre (MCF) is experimentally assessed and demonstrated achieving an aggregated capacity of 119.1 Gb/s at 4.62×103 bit error rate (BER). The proposed modular sliceable transceiver architecture arises as a suitable option towards achieving 500 Tb/s per fibre transmission, by further enabling more slices covering all the available S+C+L spectra and the 19 cores of the MCF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Enabling Technologies for Beyond 5G Networks)
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15 pages, 1256 KiB  
Article
Ambient Environmental Parameter Estimation for Reliable Diffusive Molecular Communications
by Shota Toriyama, Shoma Hasegawa, Jens Kirchner, Georg Fischer and Daisuke Anzai
Future Internet 2022, 14(11), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi14110311 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Molecular communication is a promising communication technology that uses biomolecules such as proteins and ions to establish a communication link between nanoscale devices. In diffusive molecular communication, which uses diffusion characteristics of transfer molecules, the diffusion mechanism is mathematically derived as a Channel [...] Read more.
Molecular communication is a promising communication technology that uses biomolecules such as proteins and ions to establish a communication link between nanoscale devices. In diffusive molecular communication, which uses diffusion characteristics of transfer molecules, the diffusion mechanism is mathematically derived as a Channel Impulse Response (CIR) to design an optimal detector structure. However, an ideal environment is assumed for deriving a CIR. Hence there is a concern that developed systems based on the derived CIR may not operate well in a realistic environment. In this study, based on the finite element method (FEM), we constructed a model of the environment with heterogeneous temperature distribution and actual volume of transmitting molecules to not only demodulate the bit information via maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) but also to estimate the temperature and volume of the transmitting molecules. Furthermore, in this study, we evaluated the performance of the MLSE method and investigated the effects of ambient environmental temperature distribution and volume of the transmitted molecules on diffusive molecular communication. The evaluation results demonstrated that the proposed method can improve the communication performance by approximately 9 dB by estimating the temperature and transmit molecule volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Enabling Technologies for Beyond 5G Networks)
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18 pages, 1269 KiB  
Article
Joint Scalable Video Coding and Transcoding Solutions for Fog-Computing-Assisted DASH Video Applications
by Majd Nafeh, Arash Bozorgchenani and Daniele Tarchi
Future Internet 2022, 14(9), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi14090268 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Video streaming solutions have increased their importance in the last decade, enabling video on demand (VoD) services. Among several innovative services, 5G and Beyond 5G (B5G) systems consider the possibility of providing VoD-based solutions for surveillance applications, citizen information and e-tourism applications, to [...] Read more.
Video streaming solutions have increased their importance in the last decade, enabling video on demand (VoD) services. Among several innovative services, 5G and Beyond 5G (B5G) systems consider the possibility of providing VoD-based solutions for surveillance applications, citizen information and e-tourism applications, to name a few. Although the majority of the implemented solutions resort to a centralized cloud-based approach, the interest in edge/fog-based approaches is increasing. Fog-based VoD services result in fulfilling the stringent low-latency requirement of 5G and B5G networks. In the following, by resorting to the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) technique, we design a video-segment deployment algorithm for streaming services in a fog computing environment. In particular, by exploiting the inherent adaptation of the DASH approach, we embed in the system a joint transcoding and scalable video coding (SVC) approach able to deploy at run-time the video segments upon the user’s request. With this in mind, two algorithms have been developed aiming at maximizing the marginal gain with respect to a pre-defined delay threshold and enabling video quality downgrade for faster video deployment. Numerical results demonstrate that by effectively mapping the video segments, it is possible to minimize the streaming latency while maximising the users’ target video quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Enabling Technologies for Beyond 5G Networks)
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21 pages, 688 KiB  
Article
IoT Nodes Authentication and ID Spoofing Detection Based on Joint Use of Physical Layer Security and Machine Learning
by Dania Marabissi, Lorenzo Mucchi and Andrea Stomaci
Future Internet 2022, 14(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi14020061 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2692
Abstract
The wide variety of services and applications that shall be supported by future wireless systems will lead to a high amount of sensitive data exchanged via radio, thus introducing a significant challenge for security. Moreover, in new networking paradigms, such as the Internet [...] Read more.
The wide variety of services and applications that shall be supported by future wireless systems will lead to a high amount of sensitive data exchanged via radio, thus introducing a significant challenge for security. Moreover, in new networking paradigms, such as the Internet of Things, traditional methods of security may be difficult to implement due to the radical change of requirements and constraints. In such contexts, physical layer security is a promising additional means to realize communication security with low complexity. In particular, this paper focuses on node authentication and spoofing detection in an actual wireless sensor network (WSN), where multiple nodes communicate with a sink node. Nodes are in fixed positions, but the communication channels varies due to the scatterers’ movement. In the proposed security framework, the sink node is able to perform a continuous authentication of nodes during communication based on wireless fingerprinting. In particular, a machine learning approach is used for authorized nodes classification by means of the identification of specific attributes of their wireless channel. Then classification results are compared with the node ID in order to detect if the message has been generated by a node other than its claimed source. Finally, in order to increase the spoofing detection performance in small networks, the use of low-complexity sentinel nodes is proposed here. Results show the good performance of the proposed method that is suitable for actual implementation in a WSN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Enabling Technologies for Beyond 5G Networks)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Approximate Session Service Process Model for mmWave/sub-THz 5G/6G Cellular Systems
Authors: Eduard Sopin; Vyacheslav Begishev; Konstantin Samouylov
Affiliation: Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia
Abstract: The uncertainty in user locations in the coverage area of 5G/6G millimeter wave (mmWave, 30-100 GHz) and sub-terahertz (sub-THz, 100-300 GHz) base stations (BS) force researchers to utilize complex queuing systems for modeling the service process of arriving sessions. Such systems need to account not only for blockage events that change the amount of resource requirements, but for random resource requirements of sessions even when the requested rate is constant. In this paper, we will assess the approximation induced by the use of model that captures only the mean session requirements. We evaluate the accuracy of the approximation by utilizing the use- and system-centric performance measures -- the new session loss probability and the mean system resource utilization. Our numerical results illustrate that the proposed approximation based on the Erlang queuing model with mean session resource requirements allows to closely capture the considered metric of interest. Specifically, for the operational service regime, where the session loss probability is less than 5\% the approximation for the considered parameters is bounded by 10\%. The proposed approximation can be utilized to study mmWave/sub-THz 5G/6G deployments with advanced functionalities such as multiconectivity and resource reservation.

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