Section Collection Series: Recent Advances in Optoelectronics from Lab to Industry

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Optoelectronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2024 | Viewed by 7619

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of the Peloponnese, 26334 Patras, Greece
Interests: nanostructured semiconductors; third-generation photovoltaics including (perovskite, dye sensitized solar cells); organic electronics
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece
Interests: nanophotonics; photon correlation; biomedical applications; energy conversion; gas sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optoelectronics, as a rapidly growing field of technology, plays a crucial role in the development of electronic devices that emit or detect light, encompassing a wide range of applications, including gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, infrared, and visible light. Optoelectronic technology involves the study, design, and manufacturing of hardware apparatuses to facilitate the conversion of electricity into photon signals. Its applications are diverse, ranging from telecommunications and monitoring to medical equipment and general science. Optoelectronics serves as a fundamental technology that enables the smooth functioning of the information industry.

In this Special Issue, we encourage our section Editorial Board Members, Topical Advisory Panel Members, and related outstanding scholars involved in the technology of optoelectronics to discuss key topics in the field and submit innovative articles in emerging subjects of optoelectronics. All papers in this Special Issue will be collected into a printed edition book after the deadline and extensively promoted.

The subject areas include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Optical transmitters;
  • Radiative recombination/ LEDs/OLEDs;
  • Stimulated emission/lasers;
  • Photoconductivity;
  • Photoelectric/photovoltaic conversion of light and applications;
  • Photocouplers;
  • Phototransistors;
  • Optical fibers, waveguides;
  • Transducers;
  • Optical receiver/detectors;
  • Optoelectronic devices (sensing system, solar cells);
  • Optical communication;
  • Photonic integrated circuits (PICs);
  • Manufacturing and fabrication techniques;
  • Nanomaterials for device fabrication.

Prof. Dr. Elias Stathatos
Prof. Dr. Spyros N. Yannopoulos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • optical devices
  • radiative recombination
  • phototransistors
  • optical detectors

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2677 KiB  
Article
A 6 Mbps 7 pJ/bit CMOS Integrated Wireless Simultaneous Lightwave Information and Power Transfer System for Biomedical Implants
by Andrea De Marcellis, Guido Di Patrizio Stanchieri, Marco Faccio, Elia Palange and Timothy G. Constandinou
Electronics 2024, 13(9), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13091774 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 424
Abstract
This paper presents a Simultaneous Lightwave Information and Power Transfer (SLIPT) system for implantable biomedical applications composed of an external and internal (i.e., implantable) unit designed at a transistor level in TMSC 0.18 µm standard CMOS Si technology, requiring Si areas of 200 [...] Read more.
This paper presents a Simultaneous Lightwave Information and Power Transfer (SLIPT) system for implantable biomedical applications composed of an external and internal (i.e., implantable) unit designed at a transistor level in TMSC 0.18 µm standard CMOS Si technology, requiring Si areas of 200 × 260 µm2 and 615 × 950 µm2, respectively. The SLIPT external unit employs a semiconductor laser to transmit data and power to the SLIPT internal unit, which contains an Optical Wireless Power Transfer (OWPT) module to supply its circuitry and, in particular, the data receiver module. To enable these operations, the transmitter module of the SLIPT external unit uses a novel reverse multilevel synchronized pulse position modulation technique based on dropping the laser driving current to zero so it produces laser pulses with a reversed intensity profile. This modulation technique allows: (i) the SLIPT external unit to code and transmit data packages of 6-bit symbols received and decoded by the SLIPT internal unit; and (ii) to supply the OWPT module also in the period between the transmission of two consecutive data packages. The receiver module operates for a time window of 12.5 µs every 500 µs, this being the time needed for the OWPT module to fully recover the energy to power the SLIPT internal unit. Post-layout simulations demonstrate that the proposed SLIPT system provides a final data throughput of 6 Mbps, an energy efficiency of 7 pJ/bit, and an OWPT module power transfer efficiency of 40%. Full article
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14 pages, 3455 KiB  
Article
Self-Healing Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System Using Free-Space Optics Link and Machine Learning for Enhancing Temperature Measurement
by Michael Augustine Arockiyadoss, Amare Mulatie Dehnaw, Yibeltal Chanie Manie, Stotaw Talbachew Hayle, Cheng-Kai Yao, Chun-Hsiang Peng, Pradeep Kumar and Peng-Chun Peng
Electronics 2024, 13(7), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13071276 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 653
Abstract
This research investigates the integration of free-space optics (FSO) with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in self-healing ring architectures, aiming to improve reliability and signal-to-noise ratio in temperature sensing within sensor systems. The combination of FSO’s wireless connectivity and FBG sensors’ precision, known [...] Read more.
This research investigates the integration of free-space optics (FSO) with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in self-healing ring architectures, aiming to improve reliability and signal-to-noise ratio in temperature sensing within sensor systems. The combination of FSO’s wireless connectivity and FBG sensors’ precision, known for their sensitivity and immunity to electromagnetic interference, is particularly advantageous in demanding environments such as aerospace and structural health monitoring. The self-healing architecture enhances system resilience, automatically compensating for failures to maintain consistent monitoring capabilities. This study emphasizes the use of intensity wavelength division multiplexing (IWDM) to manage the complexities of increasing the multiplexing number of FBG sensors. Challenges arise with the overlapping spectra of FBGs when multiplexing several sensors. To address this, a hybrid approach combining an unsupervised autoencoder (AE) with a convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed, significantly enhancing the accuracy and efficiency of sensor signal detection. These advancements signify substantial progress in sensor technology, validating the effectiveness of the AE-CNN hybrid model in refining FBG sensor systems and underscoring its potential for robust and reliable applications in critical sectors. Full article
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15 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
High-Power Terahertz Free Electron Laser via Tapering-Enhanced Superradiance
by Leon Feigin, Avraham Gover, Aharon Friedman, Amir Weinberg, Dekel Azar and Ariel Nause
Electronics 2024, 13(7), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13071171 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 743
Abstract
A superradiant FEL in the THz (3 THz) region is currently operating at Ariel University. It is based on the novel ORGAD accelerator, which is a hybrid linear RF photo-cathode 6 MeV electron gun. The hybrid term stands for its unique standing wave [...] Read more.
A superradiant FEL in the THz (3 THz) region is currently operating at Ariel University. It is based on the novel ORGAD accelerator, which is a hybrid linear RF photo-cathode 6 MeV electron gun. The hybrid term stands for its unique standing wave (SW)—traveling wave (TW) structure. The undulator generates spontaneous superradiance, which corresponds to spontaneous emission when the electron bunch duration is shorter than the radiated frequency, resulting in a much higher photon yield. However, the efficiency of this scheme is still quite low. In order to achieve higher emission (by improved efficiency), we intend to implement a new and promising radiative interaction scheme: tapering-enhanced superradiance (TES). This particular undulator design employs a tapered (amplitude) undulator in the zero-slippage condition to obtain a significantly more powerful and efficient THz radiation source. At the current stage, the scheme is designed for emission at approximately 0.5 THz. The design and start-to-end simulations demonstrate significant enhancement of superradiant energy and extraction efficiency using this method compared to a reference uniform case. Full article
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11 pages, 2031 KiB  
Article
Optical Bubble Microflow Meter for Continuous Measurements in a Closed System
by Michał Rosiak, Bartłomiej Stanisławski and Mariusz Kaczmarek
Electronics 2024, 13(5), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13051000 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 597
Abstract
This paper describes the design, operation and test results of a simple microprocessor-based device for measuring slow liquid flows. The device uses a module of 30 digital optical sensors to track the movement of a single air bubble inserted into a tube of [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design, operation and test results of a simple microprocessor-based device for measuring slow liquid flows. The device uses a module of 30 digital optical sensors to track the movement of a single air bubble inserted into a tube of flowing liquid. During a measurement session, the air bubble remains within the sensor module at all times, allowing the instrument to take measurements for any length of time. The liquid whose flow rate is being measured moves only in the closed tube system, without contact with other components of the device. The test of the device itself was carried out using a tube with an inner diameter of less than 1 mm, where the device is capable of measuring flow rates on the order of microliters per minute. Tests of the device showed good agreement between the measured volumetric flow rate and the reference flow rates of the infusion pump over the entire measurement range. The advantages and limitations of the device are discussed, as well as the prospects for developing the method. Full article
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14 pages, 4829 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Electronic Properties of Atomic Layer Deposition-Grown Ge-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films at Elevated Temperatures
by Rafał Knura, Katarzyna Skibińska, Sylvester Sahayaraj, Marianna Marciszko-Wiąckowska, Jakub Gwizdak, Marek Wojnicki, Piotr Żabiński, Grzegorz Sapeta, Sylwester Iwanek and Robert P. Socha
Electronics 2024, 13(3), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13030554 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 633
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the electronic properties of as-deposited ALD-grown Ge-doped zinc oxide thin films annealed at 523 K or 673 K. SEM, EDS, and ellipsometry measurements confirmed that the Ge-doped zinc oxide films with a thickness of around [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the electronic properties of as-deposited ALD-grown Ge-doped zinc oxide thin films annealed at 523 K or 673 K. SEM, EDS, and ellipsometry measurements confirmed that the Ge-doped zinc oxide films with a thickness of around 100 nm and uniform composition were successfully obtained. GI-XRD measurements did not reveal phases other than the expected Wurtzite structure of the ZnO. The electronic properties, i.e., conductivity, charge carrier concentration, and mobility of the films, were evaluated using Hall effect measurements and explained based on corresponding XPS measurements. This work supports the theory that oxygen vacancies act as electron donors and contribute to the intrinsic n-type conductivity of ZnO. Also, it is shown that the effect of oxygen vacancies on the electronic properties of the material is stronger than the effect introduced by Ge doping. Full article
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12 pages, 4747 KiB  
Article
Semi-Analytical Approach versus Finite Element Method for Analysis of Propagation Properties in Rectangular Waveguides: Silica-Titania Technological Platform
by Bartosz Janaszek, Muhammad A. Butt and Ryszard Piramidowicz
Electronics 2024, 13(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13010073 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 546
Abstract
This work explicitly demonstrates a semi-analytical effective index approximation (EIA) approach for the description of the propagation properties of rib and ridge waveguides. By using the example of waveguides realized on a low-cost silica-titania (SiO2:TiO2) technological platform, we present [...] Read more.
This work explicitly demonstrates a semi-analytical effective index approximation (EIA) approach for the description of the propagation properties of rib and ridge waveguides. By using the example of waveguides realized on a low-cost silica-titania (SiO2:TiO2) technological platform, we present that EIA may be successfully applied for the approximate determination of modal effective indices and single mode propagation conditions. All obtained results have been confirmed to be convergent with the finite element method (FEM) simulations at low relative error. Due to the tremendously fast execution time of EIA simulations in comparison with the FEM solver, we believe that the presented approach may be applied in a preliminary step of designing functional blocks in new and existing photonic integrated circuit technologies, which often require complex and multi-parameter calculations. Full article
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Review

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39 pages, 5328 KiB  
Review
Overcoming Challenges in OLED Technology for Lighting Solutions
by Rosalba Liguori, Fiorita Nunziata, Salvatore Aprano and Maria Grazia Maglione
Electronics 2024, 13(7), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13071299 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 645
Abstract
In academic research, OLEDs have exhibited rapid evolution thanks to the development of innovative materials, new device architectures, and optimized fabrication methods, achieving high performance in recent years. The numerous advantages that increasingly distinguish them from traditional light sources, such as a large [...] Read more.
In academic research, OLEDs have exhibited rapid evolution thanks to the development of innovative materials, new device architectures, and optimized fabrication methods, achieving high performance in recent years. The numerous advantages that increasingly distinguish them from traditional light sources, such as a large and customizable emission area, color tunability, flexibility, and transparency, have positioned them as a promising candidate for various applications in the lighting market, including the residential, automotive, industrial, and agricultural sectors. However, despite these promising attributes, the widespread industrial production of OLEDs encounters significant challenges. Key considerations center around efficiency and lifetime. In the present review, after introducing the theoretical basis of OLEDs and summarizing the main performance developments in the industrial field, three crucial aspects enabling OLEDs to establish a competitive advantage in terms of performance and versatility are critically discussed: the quality and stability of the emitted light, with a specific focus on white light and its tunability; the transparency of both electrodes for the development of fully transparent and integrable devices; and the uniformity of emission over a large area. Full article
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23 pages, 8425 KiB  
Review
Heterostructure-Based Optoelectronic Neuromorphic Devices
by Jisoo Park, Jihyun Shin and Hocheon Yoo
Electronics 2024, 13(6), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13061076 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 920
Abstract
The concept of neuromorphic devices, aiming to process large amounts of information in parallel, at low power, high speed, and high efficiency, is to mimic the functions of human brain by emulating biological neural behavior. Optoelectronic neuromorphic devices are particularly suitable for neuromorphic [...] Read more.
The concept of neuromorphic devices, aiming to process large amounts of information in parallel, at low power, high speed, and high efficiency, is to mimic the functions of human brain by emulating biological neural behavior. Optoelectronic neuromorphic devices are particularly suitable for neuromorphic applications with their ability to generate various pulses based on wavelength and to control synaptic stimulation. Each wavelength (ultraviolet, visible, and infrared) has specific advantages and optimal applications. Here, the heterostructure-based optoelectronic neuromorphic devices are explored across the full wavelength range (ultraviolet to infrared) by categorizing them on the basis of irradiated wavelength and structure (two-terminal and three-terminal) with respect to emerging optoelectrical materials. The relationship between neuromorphic applications, light wavelength, and mechanism is revisited. Finally, the potential and challenging aspects of next-generation optoelectronic neuromorphic devices are presented, which can assist in the design of suitable materials and structures for neuromorphic-based applications. Full article
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21 pages, 8312 KiB  
Review
Active-Matrix Array Based on Thin-Film Transistors Using Emerging Materials for Application: From Lab to Industry
by Seongjae Kim and Hocheon Yoo
Electronics 2024, 13(1), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13010241 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1730
Abstract
The active-matrix technology incorporates a transistor to exert precise control over each pixel within a pixel array, eliminating the issue of crosstalk between neighboring pixels that is prevalent in the passive-matrix approach. Consequently, the active-matrix method facilitates the realization of high-resolution arrays, and [...] Read more.
The active-matrix technology incorporates a transistor to exert precise control over each pixel within a pixel array, eliminating the issue of crosstalk between neighboring pixels that is prevalent in the passive-matrix approach. Consequently, the active-matrix method facilitates the realization of high-resolution arrays, and this inherent advantage has propelled its widespread adoption, not only in display applications but also in diverse sensor arrays from lab to industry. In this comprehensive review, we delve into instances of active-matrix arrays utilizing thin-film transistors (TFTs) that leverage emerging materials such as organic semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductors, two-dimensional materials, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Our examination encompasses a broad classification of active-matrix research into two main categories: (i) displays and (ii) sensors. We not only assess the performance of TFTs based on emerging materials within the active-matrix framework, but also explore the evolving trends and directions in active-matrix-based displays and sensors. Full article
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