Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Optoelectronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2023) | Viewed by 24250

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of the Peloponnese, 26334 Patras, Greece
Interests: nanostructured semiconductors; third-generation photovoltaics including (perovskite, dye sensitized solar cells); organic electronics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optoelectronics, as a specific discipline of electronics that focuses on light-emitting or light-detecting devices, is one of the fast emerging technology fields that deals with applying electronic devices to the sourcing, detection and control of light. This includes gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, infrared and visible light. It also encompasses the study, design and manufacture of hardware apparatus that facilitate the conversion of electricity to photon signals. Optoelectronic technology is used for numerous purposes, like telecommunications, monitoring and sensing, long wavelength LiDAR, microwave photonic links, medical equipment and general science. Optoelectronics is a vital foundation technology that is enabling the seamless functioning of the information industry. Academically, optoelectronics has encompassed the study of electronic devices for the transmission, emission and modulation of light signals. However, its scope has widened, and it includes electro-optics and photonics as well. Commercially significant technologies for material science, communication, computing, and medicine are leaping onwards due to advancements in optoelectronics. In this Special Issue, we encourage our section’s EBMs and outstanding scholars involved in the technology of optoelectronics to discuss key topics in the field, while review articles in emerging subjects of optoelectronics are also welcome. We expect these papers to be widely read and highly influential within the field. All papers in this Special Issue will be collected into a printed edition book after the deadline and will be well promoted.

In particular, topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following subject areas:

  • Optical transmitters
  • Radiative recombination/ LEDs
  • Stimulated emission/lasers
  • Photoconductivity
  • Photoelectric/photovoltaic conversion of light and applications
  • Photocouplers
  • Optical fibers, waveguides
  • Transducers
  • Optical receiver/detectors
  • Optoelectronic devices (sensing system, solar cells)
  • Optical communication

Prof. Dr. Elias Stathatos
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • optoelectronic devices
  • transmitters
  • lasers
  • solar cells
  • optical fibers
  • optical communication

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

3 pages, 165 KiB  
Editorial
Featured Articles in the Section of Optoelectronics
by Elias Stathatos
Electronics 2023, 12(23), 4814; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12234814 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Optoelectronics, as a rapidly growing field of technology, plays a crucial role in the development of electronic devices that emit or detect light [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)

Research

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7 pages, 2189 KiB  
Communication
Near-Infrared CMOS Image Sensors Enabled by Colloidal Quantum Dot-Silicon Heterojunction
by Qiwei Xu, Xinghao Tong, Jiangwen Zhang and Xihua Wang
Electronics 2023, 12(12), 2695; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12122695 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
The solution processibility of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) promises a straightforward integration with Si readout integrated circuits (Si-ROCIs), which enables a near-infrared (NIR) CMOS image sensor (CIS; CMOS stands for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor). Previously demonstrated CQD NIR CISs were achieved through integrating CQD [...] Read more.
The solution processibility of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) promises a straightforward integration with Si readout integrated circuits (Si-ROCIs), which enables a near-infrared (NIR) CMOS image sensor (CIS; CMOS stands for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor). Previously demonstrated CQD NIR CISs were achieved through integrating CQD photodiode or PhotoFET with Si-ROCIs. Here, we conduct a simulation study to investigate the feasibility of a NIR CIS enabled by another integration strategy, that is, by forming a CQD-Si heterojunction. Simulation results clearly show that each active pixel made of CQD-Si heterojunction photodiode on the CIS sensitively responds to NIR light, and generated photocarriers induce changes in electrostatic potentials in the active pixel. The potential changes are read out through the integrated circuits as validated by the readout timing sequence simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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9 pages, 1916 KiB  
Article
Observation of Large Threshold Voltage Shift Induced by Pre-applied Voltage to SiO2 Gate Dielectric in Organic Field-Effect Transistors
by Yifu Guo, Junyang Deng, Jiebin Niu, Chunhui Duan, Shibing Long, Mengmeng Li and Ling Li
Electronics 2023, 12(3), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030540 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Field-effect transistors based on organic semiconducting materials (OFETs) have unique advantages of intrinsically mechanical flexibility, simple preparation process, low manufacturing cost, and large-area preparation. Through the innovation of new material design and device structures, the performance of device parameters such as mobility, on–off [...] Read more.
Field-effect transistors based on organic semiconducting materials (OFETs) have unique advantages of intrinsically mechanical flexibility, simple preparation process, low manufacturing cost, and large-area preparation. Through the innovation of new material design and device structures, the performance of device parameters such as mobility, on–off current ratio, and the threshold voltage (VTH) of OFETs continues to improve. However, the VTH shift of OFETs has always been an important problem restricting their practical applications. In this work, we observe that the VTH of polymer OFETs with the widely investigated device structure of a SiO2 bottom-gate dielectric is noticeably shifted by pre-applying a large gate voltage. Such a shift in VTH remains to a large extent, even after modifying the surface of the SiO2 dielectric using a hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) self-assembled monolayer. This behavior of VTH can be ascribed to the charge trappings at the bulk of the SiO2. In addition, the generality of this observation is further proven by using two other conjugated polymers including p-type PDPP3T and n-type PTzNDI-2FT, and a similar trend is obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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11 pages, 8323 KiB  
Article
Dual-Channel Secure Communication Based on Wideband Optical Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers Subject to Intensity Modulation Optical Injection
by Youming Wang, Yu Huang, Pei Zhou and Nianqiang Li
Electronics 2023, 12(3), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030509 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Chaotic optical communication was initially proposed to provide advanced physical layer security for optical communication. Here, we propose and numerically demonstrate an optical chaos communication scheme based on semiconductor lasers subject to intensity modulation optical injection for secure transmission of quadrature amplitude modulation [...] Read more.
Chaotic optical communication was initially proposed to provide advanced physical layer security for optical communication. Here, we propose and numerically demonstrate an optical chaos communication scheme based on semiconductor lasers subject to intensity modulation optical injection for secure transmission of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) messages. In this scheme, two chaotic sources were generated with different modulation parameters and acted as chaotic carriers at the transmitter side, which were subsequently used to drive two receivers in two separate channels. Numerical results demonstrate that this scheme allows for broadband chaos generation and high-quality chaos synchronization can be achieved to simultaneously encrypt two messages for secure communication; a 20 GBaud 16-QAM message was recovered correctly with a transmission distance in standard single mode fiber (SMF) over 120-km, while the other 20 GBaud 64-QAM message was limited to a 20-km fiber transmission distance. The system performance was systematically evaluated by analyzing the bit error ratio (BER) of the recovered message versus the masking coefficient and the transmission distance. Furthermore, our simulations justify the robustness against the mismatch of parameters. Therefore, we hope that this scheme can be experimentally implemented for high-speed chaos communication and secure key distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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9 pages, 1585 KiB  
Article
Quasi-BIC-Based High-Q Perfect Absorber with Decoupled Resonant Wavelength and Q Factor
by Weiyi Zha, Yun Huang, Pintu Ghosh and Qiang Li
Electronics 2022, 11(15), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11152313 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
The Q factor in a quasi-BIC-based optical device can approach infinity and has therefore been attracting the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, this mode is barely applied to absorbers since it mainly tunes the radiative loss. The resonant wavelength of [...] Read more.
The Q factor in a quasi-BIC-based optical device can approach infinity and has therefore been attracting the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, this mode is barely applied to absorbers since it mainly tunes the radiative loss. The resonant wavelength of quasi-BICs normally couples with the Q factor, and it is difficult to independently tune one of them while maintaining the other, which weakens the flexibility of tuning. In this work, a quasi-BIC-based high-Q perfect absorber with some unique features is proposed. It shows a decoupled relationship between the resonant wavelength and the Q factor such that these two properties can be independently tuned by changing different structure parameters. In addition, both radiative and resistive losses are tunable. An easy method is proposed to design a perfect absorber with different resonant wavelengths and different Q factors, and a near-infrared perfect absorber with a Q factor as high as 5.13 × 105 is designed. This work proposes a method to tune the quasi-BIC mode, thereby introducing a new paradigm for the design of a high-Q perfect absorber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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16 pages, 4660 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of a PET of 7T Bruker Micro-PET/MR Based on NEMA NU 4-2008 Standards
by Kishore Krishnagiri Manoj Doss, Pei En Mion, Yu-Chieh Jill Kao, Tsung-Ter Kuo and Jyh-Cheng Chen
Electronics 2022, 11(14), 2194; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11142194 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1916 | Correction
Abstract
Purpose: This study aimed to measure the performance evaluation of the Bruker sequential micro-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) scanner by following National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 4-2008 standards’ protocol. The system consists of a high-performance silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) advanced technology detector [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study aimed to measure the performance evaluation of the Bruker sequential micro-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) scanner by following National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 4-2008 standards’ protocol. The system consists of a high-performance silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) advanced technology detector and a continuous lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal. Methods: A 22Na (sodium-22) point source was utilized to assess the spatial resolution and system sensitivity, and the Micro-PET scatter phantom measurements were conducted to measure count rate measurements and scatter fractions (SF). A mouse-like Micro-PET image quality (IQ) phantom was utilized as a model to analyze the uniformity, recovery coefficient (RC), and spillover ratio (SOR). A small animal PET/MRI imaging study was performed in a rat. Results: We calculated the spatial resolutions of filtered back-projection (FBP), and used 3D-MLEM to reconstruct PET images at the axial center and ¼ of the axial field of view (FOV) in axial, radial, and tangential directions. The best observed spatial resolutions in both reconstructed images were obtained in the tangential direction, and the values were 0.80 mm in 3D-MLEM and 0.94 mm in FBP. The peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) in the 358–664 keV energy window was 477.30 kcps at 95.83 MBq and 774.45 kcps at 103.6 MBq for rat and mouse-sized scatter phantoms, respectively. The rat and mouse-sized phantoms scatter fractions (SF) were 14.2% and 6.9%, respectively. Conclusions: According to our results, the performance characteristics of the scanner are high sensitivity, good spatial resolution, low scatter fraction, and good IQ, indicating that it is suitable for preclinical imaging studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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11 pages, 3074 KiB  
Communication
Integrated Fiber-FSO WDM Access System with Fiber Fault Protection
by Chien-Hung Yeh, Wen-Piao Lin, Syu-Yang Jiang, Shang-En Hsieh, Ching-Hsuan Hsu and Chi-Wai Chow
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11132101 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
In this study, we propose a new wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) system to support the blended fiber-free space optics (FSO) signal access. To provide the fiber and FSO traffics simultaneously, the C- and L-band channels are applied in the presented PON, respectively. [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose a new wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) system to support the blended fiber-free space optics (FSO) signal access. To provide the fiber and FSO traffics simultaneously, the C- and L-band channels are applied in the presented PON, respectively. Moreover, to avoid the fiber breakpoint in the fiber access traffic, the proposed WDM access architecture also can provide the self-restored mechanism by applying simple fiber routing path. In addition, the corresponding signal performances of fiber and FSO channels are also executed experimentally for demonstration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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Review

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19 pages, 3867 KiB  
Review
Performance Enhancement and Stability Improvement in Perovskite Solar Cells via Interface Functionalization
by Christos Falaras and Elias Stathatos
Electronics 2023, 12(15), 3319; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12153319 - 03 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have revolutionized the field of photovoltaics, achieving certified power conversion efficiencies reaching 26% at the laboratory scale. High performance, enhanced stability, and long lifetime are prerequisites for the industrialization and commercialization of this class of third-generation photovoltaic technology. Toward [...] Read more.
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have revolutionized the field of photovoltaics, achieving certified power conversion efficiencies reaching 26% at the laboratory scale. High performance, enhanced stability, and long lifetime are prerequisites for the industrialization and commercialization of this class of third-generation photovoltaic technology. Toward the development of well-performing and robust PSCs against environmental stresses, advanced engineering strategies have been employed, targeting the preparation of perovskite absorbing layers with minimal defects and energy-level fine-tuning hydrophobic contacts. Focusing on both the electron transport layer/perovskite and perovskite/hole transport layer interfaces, this review work encompasses some of the most promising engineering methodologies that were recently proposed in order to optimize the device architecture. Machine learning approaches have also been used to validate experimental data and predict with accuracy solar cell parameters, further confirming the significance and justifying the application potential of the proposed innovative interface functionalization approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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33 pages, 5804 KiB  
Review
Evolution of Bioamplifiers: From Vacuum Tubes to Highly Integrated Analog Front-Ends
by Aleksei A. Anisimov, Alexander V. Belov, Timofei V. Sergeev, Elizaveta E. Sannikova and Oleg A. Markelov
Electronics 2022, 11(15), 2402; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11152402 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2997
Abstract
The past century has seen the ongoing development of amplifiers for different electrophysiological signals to study the work of the heart. Since the vacuum tube era, engineers and designers of bioamplifiers for recording electrophysiological signals have been trying to achieve similar objectives: increasing [...] Read more.
The past century has seen the ongoing development of amplifiers for different electrophysiological signals to study the work of the heart. Since the vacuum tube era, engineers and designers of bioamplifiers for recording electrophysiological signals have been trying to achieve similar objectives: increasing the input impedance and common-mode rejection ratio, as well as reducing power consumption and the size of the bioamplifier. This review traces the evolution of bioamplifiers, starting from circuits on vacuum tubes and discrete transistors through circuits on operational and instrumental amplifiers, and to combined analog-digital solutions on analog front-end integrated circuits. Examples of circuits and their technical features are provided for each stage of the bioamplifier development. Special emphasis is placed on the review of modern analog front-end solutions for biopotential registration, including their generalized structural diagram and table of comparative characteristics. A detailed review of analog front-end circuit integration in various practical applications is provided, with examples of the latest achievements in the field of electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, and electromyogram registration. The review concludes with key points and insights for the future development of the analog front-end concept applied to bioelectric signal registration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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23 pages, 2246 KiB  
Review
Halide Segregation in Mixed Halide Perovskites: Visualization and Mechanisms
by Liuwen Tian, Jingjing Xue and Rui Wang
Electronics 2022, 11(5), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11050700 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5455
Abstract
Photoinduced halide segregation in mixed halide perovskites is an intriguing phenomenon and simultaneously a stability issue. In-depth probing this effect and unveiling the underpinning mechanisms are of great interest and significance. This article reviews the progress in visualized investigation of halide segregation, especially [...] Read more.
Photoinduced halide segregation in mixed halide perovskites is an intriguing phenomenon and simultaneously a stability issue. In-depth probing this effect and unveiling the underpinning mechanisms are of great interest and significance. This article reviews the progress in visualized investigation of halide segregation, especially light-induced, by means of spatially-resolved imaging techniques. Furthermore, the current understanding of photoinduced phase separation based on several possible mechanisms is summarized and discussed. Finally, the remained open questions and future outlook in this field are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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Other

1 pages, 157 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Doss et al. Performance Evaluation of a PET of 7T Bruker Micro-PET/MR Based on NEMA NU 4-2008 Standards. Electronics 2022, 11, 2194
by Kishore Krishnagiri Manoj Doss, Pei En Mion, Yu-Chieh Jill Kao, Tsung-Ter Kuo and Jyh-Cheng Chen
Electronics 2022, 11(19), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11192975 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 681
Abstract
In the original publication, the Institutional Review Board Statement was not included [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in the Optoelectronics Section)
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