Body Image Perception and Body Composition in All Population

A special issue of European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education (ISSN 2254-9625).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2024 | Viewed by 6636

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Body image is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct that includes positive and negative self-perceptions and attitudes (i.e., thoughts, feelings, and behaviors) regarding the body. This global term includes subjective, affective, cognitive, behavioral and perceptual processes.

Self-perception of body size seems not to always be in line with clinical definitions of normal weight, overweight and obesity according to the World Health Organization classification. The effect of self-perception of body size disturbances and body dissatisfaction may be the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa or binge-eating disorder—a major risk factor of obesity development.

Additionally, weight misperception, a perceptual aspect of body image relating to over- or under-estimation of weight, is a separate construct from body dissatisfaction, since one can be quite accurate in the perception of one’s own size and shape, and yet still be dissatisfied.

Concerning body composition, it is important because it measures your overall health and fitness level in terms of your body fat percentage.

Authors are invited to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting original research articles, meta-analyses, and reviews that contribute new knowledge to this area. Papers selected for this Special Issue will be subject to a rigorous peer-review process with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications.

Dr. Georgian Badicu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • body image perception
  • physical and psychological changes
  • physical activity
  • body composition
  • body size
  • self-esteem
  • self-concept

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 616 KiB  
Article
(No) Effects of a Self-Kindness Intervention on Self-Esteem and Visual Self-Perception: An Eye-Tracking Investigation on the Time-Course of Self-Face Viewing
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(11), 2574-2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13110179 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Previous research has suggested a favorable impact of self-kindness on subjective well-being. The present experiment investigated the effects of an app-assisted self-kindness intervention for increasing self-esteem and self-face gaze, and for decreasing depression. We explored self-face processing via a time-course analysis of eye-tracking [...] Read more.
Previous research has suggested a favorable impact of self-kindness on subjective well-being. The present experiment investigated the effects of an app-assisted self-kindness intervention for increasing self-esteem and self-face gaze, and for decreasing depression. We explored self-face processing via a time-course analysis of eye-tracking data. Eighty participants (56 female, 24 male; mean age: 23.2 years) were randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups, each receiving daily instructions to enhance either self-kindness or relaxation (active control). Following a one-week intervention period, both groups reported improved self-esteem (p = .035, ηpart2 = .068) and reduced depression (p < .001, ηpart2 = .17). The duration of self-face gaze increased in both groups (p < .001, ηpart2 = .21). Self-face processing was characterized by an early automatic attention bias toward the self-face, with a subsequent reduction in self-face bias, followed in turn by an attentional self-face reapproach, and then a stable self-face bias. We thus identified a complex temporal pattern of self-face inspection, which was not specifically altered by the intervention. This research sheds light on the potential for app-assisted interventions to positively impact psychological well-being, while also highlighting the complexity of self-face processing dynamics in this context. In the future, we propose the inclusion of personalized self-kindness statements, which may amplify the benefits of these interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Image Perception and Body Composition in All Population)
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19 pages, 948 KiB  
Article
A New Approach Using BMI and FMI as Predictors of Cardio-Vascular Risk Factors among Mexican Young Adults
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(10), 2063-2081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13100146 - 27 Sep 2023
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Abstract
The study aimed to identify accurate cut-off points for waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI), and to determine their effective accuracy to predict cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among Mexican [...] Read more.
The study aimed to identify accurate cut-off points for waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI), and to determine their effective accuracy to predict cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among Mexican young adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1730 Mexican young adults. Adiposity measures and CVRFs were assessed under fasting conditions. The optimal cut-off points were assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used to assess the associations between anthropometric measurements and CVRFs. The cut-off values found, in females and males, respectively, for high WC (≥72.3 and ≥84.9), high BF% (≥30 and ≥22.6), high BMI (≥23.7 and ≥24.4), high FMI (≥7.1 and ≥5.5), and low FFMI (≤16 and ≤18.9) differ from those set by current guidelines. High BMI in women, and high FMI in men, assessed by the 50th percentile, had the best discriminatory power in detecting CVRFs, especially high triglycerides (OR: 3.07, CI: 2.21–4.27 and OR: 3.05, CI: 2.28–4.08, respectively). Therefore, these results suggest that BMI and FMI measures should be used to improve the screening of CVRFs in Mexican young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Image Perception and Body Composition in All Population)
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11 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
Body-Related Attentional Bias in Adolescents Affected by Idiopathic Scoliosis
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(9), 1909-1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13090138 - 18 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Attentional biases toward body-related information increase body dissatisfaction. This can lead at-risk populations to develop psychopathologies. This phenomenon has not been extensively studied in girls affected by idiopathic scoliosis. This work aimed to study the cognitive processes that could contribute to the worsening [...] Read more.
Attentional biases toward body-related information increase body dissatisfaction. This can lead at-risk populations to develop psychopathologies. This phenomenon has not been extensively studied in girls affected by idiopathic scoliosis. This work aimed to study the cognitive processes that could contribute to the worsening and maintaining of body image disorders in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Twenty-eight girls were recruited and tested for body image dissatisfaction through the Scoliosis-Research-Society-22-revised (SRS-22r) questionnaire. Attentional biases towards disease-related body parts were assessed using a computerized visual match-to-sample task: girls were asked to answer as fast and accurately as possible to find the picture matching a target by pressing a button on a computer keyboard. Reaction times (RTs) and accuracy were collected as outcome variables and compared within and between groups and conditions. Lower scores in SRS-22r self-image, function, and total score were observed in scoliosis compared to the control group (p-value < 0.01). Faster response times (p-value = 0.02) and higher accuracy (p-value = 0.02) were detected in the scoliosis group when processing shoulders and backs (i.e., disease-relevant body parts). A self-body advantage effect emerged in the scoliosis group, showing higher accuracy when answering self-body stimuli compared to others’ bodies stimuli (p-value = 0.04). These results provide evidence of body image dissatisfaction and attentional bias towards disease-relevant body parts in girls with scoliosis, requiring clinical attention as highly predisposing to psychopathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Image Perception and Body Composition in All Population)
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11 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Anxiety, Depression, and Stress Levels in High School Students
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(9), 1776-1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13090129 - 13 Sep 2023
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Abstract
This study aims to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression, and stress levels with physical activity level and academic performance in high school students; secondly, this study aims to relate and compare anxiety, depression, and stress levels with physical activity level and academic [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression, and stress levels with physical activity level and academic performance in high school students; secondly, this study aims to relate and compare anxiety, depression, and stress levels with physical activity level and academic performance. This is a quantitative, descriptive, and comparative cross-sectional study, which evaluated 443 high school students (48% female; 15.13 ± 1.59 years) belonging to the Maule region, Chile. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Questionnaire (DASS-21) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were applied. Academic performance was consulted on language, mathematics, and overall grade point average. The results indicate that vigorous physical activity (OR = 0.504; p = 0.017) and high academic performance in mathematics (OR = 0.597; p = 0.027) are associated with a reduced risk of depression. In turn, there is a significant inverse correlation between physical activity with anxiety (r = −0.224; p = 0.000), depression (r = −0.224; p = 0.000) and stress (r = −0.108; p = 0.032), while the performance of mathematics is inversely correlated with depression (r = −0.176; p = 0.000). On the other hand, significant differences (p < 0.05) between anxiety, depression, stress levels, and grade point average were found, with females exhibiting higher scores than males. In conclusion, greater vigorous physical activity and scoring above average in mathematics performance are protective factors against depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Image Perception and Body Composition in All Population)
12 pages, 770 KiB  
Article
Associations of Mediterranean Diet, Psychological Wellbeing and Media Pressure on Physical Complexion and Effect of Weekly Physical Activity Engagement in Higher Education
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(9), 1600-1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13090116 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Nowadays, the media has the power to encourage active and healthy lifestyles; however, it can have a negative impact on body image and psychological wellbeing. The present research aims to analyze Mediterranean diet adherence, media pressure, slim and athletic build ideals and psychological [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the media has the power to encourage active and healthy lifestyles; however, it can have a negative impact on body image and psychological wellbeing. The present research aims to analyze Mediterranean diet adherence, media pressure, slim and athletic build ideals and psychological wellbeing as a function of weekly physical activity engagement. A further aim is to examine the effect of Mediterranean diet adherence, media pressure and psychological wellbeing on the perceived pressure to have an athletic and slim build. The present non-experimental study included a sample of 634 university students. Validated instruments adapted by the scientific community were used for data collection. Gathered data reveal that young people who engage in more than 300 min of physical activity per week are more likely to adhere to a Mediterranean diet, have better psychological wellbeing and feel more pressure to obtain an athletic build. In conclusion, weekly physical activity engagement impacts the variables under study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Image Perception and Body Composition in All Population)
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Review

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17 pages, 613 KiB  
Review
Physical Exercise Methods and Their Effects on Glycemic Control and Body Composition in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM): A Systematic Review
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(11), 2529-2545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13110176 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1121
Abstract
The prevalence of T2DM represents a challenge for health agencies due to its high risk of morbidity and mortality. Physical Activity (PA) is one of the fundamental pillars for the treatment of T2DM, so Physical Exercise (PE) programs have been applied to research [...] Read more.
The prevalence of T2DM represents a challenge for health agencies due to its high risk of morbidity and mortality. Physical Activity (PA) is one of the fundamental pillars for the treatment of T2DM, so Physical Exercise (PE) programs have been applied to research their effectiveness. The objective of the study was to analyze the effects of PE methods on glycemic control and body composition of adults with T2DM. A systematic review without meta-analysis was performed, using the PubMed database. Quasi-experimental and pure experimental clinical trials were included, which were available free of charge and were published during 2010–2020. In the results, 589 articles were found and 25 passed the inclusion criteria. These were classified and analyzed according to the methods identified (AE, IE, RE, COM, and others), duration and variable(s) studied. It is concluded that PE is effective for glycemic control and body composition in adults with T2DM using different methods (AE, IE, RE, COM, and others), both in the short and long term. Adequate organization of PE components such as frequency, duration, volume, and intensity, is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Image Perception and Body Composition in All Population)
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