The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 55898

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, P.O. Box 11-5020 Riad El Solh, Beirut 11072809, Lebanon
Interests: clinical nutrition; obesity; sarcopenic obesity; type 2 diabetes; eating disorders; weight-related diseases; body composition; weight cycling; physical activity; energy expenditure
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Guest Editor
Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Oxford, Consultant Psychiatrist, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
Interests: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, obesity; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes; eating disorders; psychiatry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diseases is launching a Special Issue entitled “The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases”. Diseases is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, and multidisciplinary journal that focuses on the latest and most outstanding research on diseases and conditions, published quarterly online by MDPI. The first issue was released in 2013.

Hippocrates said “Let food be thy medicine, and let medicine be thy food”, and since then there has been a great and growing interest in studying the potential link between nutrition and diseases, mainly under two disciplines: “Nutritional Epidemiology” and “Lifestyle Medicine”. To date, a wide spectrum of results has confirmed this link; however, many of these need to be interpreted with caution before jumping to conclusions in proposing certain nutrients as preventative and therapeutic strategies for diseases. This is because many of these findings derive from cross-sectional studies that indicate only simple associations between a certain nutrient and a specific disease, and do not provide solid information regarding any causal relationships between the two conditions.

This Special Issue will provide a platform for the presentation of recent advances in knowledge on the “real” relationship between nutrition and diseases, coming from diverse scientific disciplines.

Moreover, this Special Issue is in collaboration with the 1st International Conference of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics (1st ICONSD 2022). Global evidence strongly indicates the need for a substantial shift from current diets to healthier, more sustainable ones. The shift towards sustainable nutrition, facilitated by a digital world and economy, might halt the epidemic of several NCDs, such as obesity, cardiovascular, neurological, and immune-related diseases, but this is yet to be extensively investigated. For more details of the conference, please kindly click the following link: https://iconsd.org/.

Prof. Dr. Marwan El Ghoch
Dr. Agnes Ayton
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cardiovascular diseases
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • cancer dyslipidemia
  • clinical nutrition
  • weight–related morbidities
  • sarcopenia
  • eating disorders
  • gut microbiota
  • anorexia and bulimia nervosa
  • binge eating disorder
  • depression

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 339 KiB  
Article
Mediterranean Diet, a Posteriori Dietary Patterns, Time-Related Meal Patterns and Adiposity: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in University Students
by Paraskevi Detopoulou, Vassilis Dedes, Dimitra Syka, Konstantinos Tzirogiannis and Georgios I. Panoutsopoulos
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030064 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
The transition to university is connected to potentially obesogenic dietary changes. Our aim was to assess the relation of Mediterranean diet adherence, and a posteriori dietary and meal patterns with adiposity in Greek students at the University of the Peloponnese. A total of [...] Read more.
The transition to university is connected to potentially obesogenic dietary changes. Our aim was to assess the relation of Mediterranean diet adherence, and a posteriori dietary and meal patterns with adiposity in Greek students at the University of the Peloponnese. A total of 346 students (269 women) participated. Anthropometry was performed, and a food frequency questionnaire was administered. The MedDietScore was higher in women and was not linearly related to adiposity. Principal component analysis revealed six patterns: (1) legumes/vegetables/fruits/tea/dairy/whole grains, (2) juice/sodas/liquid calories, (3) olive oil/fats, (4) meat/poultry/fish, (5) alcohol/eggs/dairy and (6) fast foods/sweets. Patterns 4 and 6 were related to overweight/obesity probability (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.995–2.538 and OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.07–6.06, respectively) and higher waist circumference (men). Men “early eaters” (breakfast/morning/afternoon snack) had a higher MedDietScore and lower overweight probability (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.220–1.020). Poor meal and dietary patterns relate to overweight and central obesity, which is important for targeted health promotion programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
10 pages, 553 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Use of Long-Term Second-Generation Antipsychotics on Liver and Kidney Function: A Prospective Study
by Evangelia Papatriantafyllou, Dimitris Efthymiou, Maria Markopoulou, Efthymia-Maria Sakellariou and Emilia Vassilopoulou
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030048 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3788
Abstract
(1) Background: The second-generation antipsychotics (SGAPs) induce metabolic and inflammatory side effects, but documentation of their effects on the liver and kidneys is scarce. Aim: To study the three-year fluctuation of selected markers of renal and hepatic function in forensic psychiatric patients receiving [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The second-generation antipsychotics (SGAPs) induce metabolic and inflammatory side effects, but documentation of their effects on the liver and kidneys is scarce. Aim: To study the three-year fluctuation of selected markers of renal and hepatic function in forensic psychiatric patients receiving SGAPs for more than five years. (2) Methods: Thirty-five forensic psychiatric patients (N = 35) were classified into two groups according to the type of SGAPs used for their treatment and the relevant risk of weight gain and metabolic complications. The three-year medication history, anthropometric data and biochemical data relevant to renal and hepatic function were retrieved from the individual medical files, specifically: serum levels of urea, uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase and amylase; the liver function enzymes, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase(γ-GT), and also the inflammatory index C-reactive protein (CRP). (3) Results: The patients receiving the SGAPs with a low risk for weight gain showed no significant fluctuation in the biochemical markers over the three-year period. The patients receiving the SGAPs with a high risk for weight gain showed significant differences between at least two measurements of uric acid (p = 0.015), SGOT (p = 0.018) and SGPT (p = 0.051). They showed significantly higher levels of creatinine in the third year compared to the second year (p = 0.029), and SGOT in the second year compared to the first (p = 0.038), and lower levels of SGPT in the third year compared to the second (p = 0.024). (4) Conclusion:In addition to consideration of possible metabolic and inflammatory complications, the choice of an antipsychotic drug for long-term treatment should also take into account the risk of hepatotoxicity and kidney damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
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11 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Clinical Application of the Food Compass Score: Positive Association to Mediterranean Diet Score, Health Star Rating System and an Early Eating Pattern in University Students
by Paraskevi Detopoulou, Dimitra Syka, Konstantina Koumi, Vasileios Dedes, Konstantinos Tzirogiannis and Georgios I. Panoutsopoulos
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030043 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
Nutrient profiling systems (NPS) assist consumers in food choices. Several scores based on NPS have been proposed, but data on their clinical application are lacking. The food compass score (FCS) is a newly developed NPS per 100 kcal (from 1 “least healthy” to [...] Read more.
Nutrient profiling systems (NPS) assist consumers in food choices. Several scores based on NPS have been proposed, but data on their clinical application are lacking. The food compass score (FCS) is a newly developed NPS per 100 kcal (from 1 “least healthy” to 100 “most healthy”). We examined the correlations of FCS with other indices, food groups, and meal patterns. A total of 346 students of the University of the Peloponnese (269 women and 77 men) participated. Dietary habits were evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire, and FCS, health star rating score (HSR), and MedDietScore were computed. Meal and snack frequency consumption was reported. Principal component analysis revealed three meal patterns: “early eater” (breakfast, morning snack and afternoon snack), “medium eater” (lunch and dinner), and “late eater” (bedtime snack). Pearson partial correlations between ranked variables were used to test the correlation coefficients between FCS, other scores, and meal patterns, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and underreporting. FCS was positively correlated to HSR (rho = 0.761, p ≤ 0.001) in a multi-adjusted analysis. In the highest tertile of MedDietScore FCS was also positively correlated to MedDietScore (rho = 0.379, p < 0.001). The FCS was positively correlated with juices, high-fat dairy, vegetables, legumes, fruits, and olive oil and negatively correlated with sodas, alcoholic drinks, red meat, refined grains, sweets, fats other than olive oil, fast foods, and coffee. In addition, it related positively to the “early eater” pattern (rho = 0.207, p < 0.001). The FCS was associated with other quality indices and better nutritional habits, such as being an early eater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
10 pages, 697 KiB  
Article
Are We Identifying Malnutrition in Hospitalized Patients with Hematologic Malignancies? Results from a Quality Clinical Audit
by Eftychia Kanioura, Ioannis-Georgios Tzanninis, Kalliopi-Anna Poulia, Aliki Stamou, Athanasios Liaskas, Dimitrios Politis, Athina Kaoura, Georgios Garefalakis, Nora Athina Viniou and Panagiotis Diamantopoulos
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030040 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
Disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is highly prevalent among patients with hematologic malignancies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of DRM in hospitalized patients with hematologic malignancies and investigate the level of awareness of DRM among the medical team treating [...] Read more.
Disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is highly prevalent among patients with hematologic malignancies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of DRM in hospitalized patients with hematologic malignancies and investigate the level of awareness of DRM among the medical team treating this group of patients. A cross sectional quality clinical audit took place in two hematology units of a tertiary university hospital. Inpatients were screened within 48 h of their admission using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) to identify their nutritional risk, and they were reassessed to identify the implemented interventions during their hospitalization. One hundred eighty-five patients were included in the audit analysis. On admission, 37.3% of the audited population was identified as being at high risk of malnutrition according to the MUST score. Forty-nine (26.5%) patients reported reduced food intake during the past 5 days, while four (2.2%) reported no food intake. During the hospitalization, only five patients (2.7%) received nutritional support, as indicated. Low levels of awareness of the early detection and treatment of DMS were found. Moreover, the prevalence of DRM and low nutritional intake was reported to be low. Measures to increase awareness of DMR in the medical team and better coordination of the nutrition support teams is vital to ensure better management and early nutrition intervention in hematological patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
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9 pages, 569 KiB  
Article
Neck Circumference as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome among Lebanese College Students
by Suzan A. Haidar, Nanne de Vries, Kalliopi-Anna Poulia, Hussein Hassan, Mohammad Rached and Mirey Karavetian
Diseases 2022, 10(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10020031 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of symptoms that, when present, increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. There is a need for reliable screening tools that are ethnically sensitive. Two hundred and sixty-six college students were assessed anthropometrically. They had a fasting blood [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of symptoms that, when present, increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. There is a need for reliable screening tools that are ethnically sensitive. Two hundred and sixty-six college students were assessed anthropometrically. They had a fasting blood sample drawn, and blood pressure measured. They then completed a demographic questionnaire and The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The prevalence of MetS was found to be 10.1% in males and 4.5% in females. Neck circumference (NC) was positively associated with BMI in males (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and females (r = 0.53, p < 0.001) and was positively associated with hip circumference in both males (r = 0.47, p < 0.001) and females (r = 0.50, p < 0.001) and with waist circumference in males (r = 0.46, p < 0.001) and females (r = 0.49, p < 0.001.) An area under the curve (AUC) was calculated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC), and NC > 38 cm in males and NC> 36 cm in females were found to be appropriate cut-offs for diagnosing MetS. NC is a reliable and non-invasive screening tool that can be used to screen for MetS in males. NC could also serve as an anthropometric instrument to assess abdominal obesity and could be valuable for college students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
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11 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Clinical Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) via Anthropometric and Biochemical Variations in Prakriti
by Shriti Singh, Neeraj Kumar Agrawal, Girish Singh, Sangeeta Gehlot, Santosh Kumar Singh and Rajesh Singh
Diseases 2022, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10010015 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3078
Abstract
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a complicated multifactorial illness involving hereditary and external environmental variables. The symptoms typically appear gradually over a number of years without realizing it. This viewpoint is further supported by the Ayurvedic constitution concept (Prakriti). Prakriti [...] Read more.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a complicated multifactorial illness involving hereditary and external environmental variables. The symptoms typically appear gradually over a number of years without realizing it. This viewpoint is further supported by the Ayurvedic constitution concept (Prakriti). Prakriti explains the biological variability that is observed in different individuals. This study was conducted a retrospective investigation to examine if there was a link between type 2 diabetes and an individual’s constitution based on anthropometric and biochemical characteristics. Physical and mental characteristics and anthropometric and biochemical markers were used to determine reported cases’ prevailing Dosha Prakriti (constitution). Based on biochemical and anthropometric data, significant differences in Prakriti were found between the case (T2DM patients) and control (person without diabetes) groups. The incidence of numerous secondary problems linked with T2DM patients was also evaluated according to their Prakriti types, which revealed a positive relationship. The three primary contributing parameters, such as waist-hip ratio, postprandial blood sugar, and serum creatinine, were correctly classified all person with or without diabetes subjects to 90.6% of the time, whereas the constitution-wise study classified person with diabetes and without diabetes individuals of Pitta and Kapha Prakriti to 94.3% and 90%, respectively. A discriminant function was created to predict a person with diabetes and without diabetes based on these three contributing factors. The primary contributing biochemical parameters discovered by Prakriti in the current study could be used as a biochemical disease diagnostic for predicting type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
12 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Nutrition Literacy among Adolescents and Its Association with Eating Habits and BMI in Tripoli, Lebanon
by Sara Taleb and Leila Itani
Diseases 2021, 9(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases9020025 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5022
Abstract
(1) Background: Adolescence is a period of increased autonomy and independent decision making; it determines health behaviors that can persist into the future. Individual factors like food choices and unhealthy lifestyle have an essential role in the development and prevention of obesity among [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Adolescence is a period of increased autonomy and independent decision making; it determines health behaviors that can persist into the future. Individual factors like food choices and unhealthy lifestyle have an essential role in the development and prevention of obesity among adolescents and are associated with the nutrition literacy of parents and other adults. While the association of parents’ nutrition literacy with adolescent BMI has been addressed, there is still a scarcity of studies that examine the effect of adolescents’ nutrition literacy on their eating habits and body mass index (BMI) status. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 189 adolescents (68 with overweight and obesity and 121 with normal weight) aged between 14–19 years from four private schools in Tripoli, Lebanon. A self-administered questionnaire that included the Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument (NLAI) and the Adolescent Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) was used. Anthropometrics were measured using standardized procedures. The association between nutrition literacy, food habits and BMI was assessed using a chi squared test for independence and Poisson regression analysis where suitable. (3) Results: Results indicated no association between all five components of nutrition literacy and body mass index categories. Furthermore, there was no association between the Adolescent Food Habits Checklist and overweight or obese BMI status (RR = 0.947, 95%CI: 0.629–1.426) (p = 0.796). No association was observed between nutrition literacy and food habits, except for an inverse association with macronutrients literacy. (4) Conclusions: In conclusion, the study indicated that there was no association between the components of nutrition literacy with body mass index or with food habits, except for macronutrient literacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)

Review

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13 pages, 306 KiB  
Review
Nutritional and Nutrition-Related Biomarkers as Prognostic Factors of Sarcopenia, and Their Role in Disease Progression
by Sousana K. Papadopoulou, Gavriela Voulgaridou, Foivi S. Kondyli, Mariella Drakaki, Kyriaki Sianidou, Rozalia Andrianopoulou, Nikolaos Rodopaios and Agathi Pritsa
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030042 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4173
Abstract
Due to the multifactorial pathogenesis of sarcopenia, it is crucial to identify biomarkers that are risk factors for sarcopenia, and which therefore have a prognostic function. Aim: This narrative review aims to define a set of biomarkers associated with nutrition and sarcopenia. [...] Read more.
Due to the multifactorial pathogenesis of sarcopenia, it is crucial to identify biomarkers that are risk factors for sarcopenia, and which therefore have a prognostic function. Aim: This narrative review aims to define a set of biomarkers associated with nutrition and sarcopenia. These biomarkers could contribute to individualized monitoring and enable preventive and therapeutic methods. Methods: Two electronic databases, PubMed and Google Scholar, were used. The search strategy was based on a controlled vocabulary (MeSH) and includes studies published up to February 2022. Discussion: Higher levels of serum uric acid are associated with higher handgrip strength and better muscle function in elderly people and, thus, may slow the progression of sarcopenia. Leptin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, promotes the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn lead to sarcopenia. This makes leptin a significant indirect biomarker for physical disability and sarcopenic obesity. Additionally, creatinine is a reliable biomarker for muscle mass status because of its easy accessibility and cost-effectiveness. Vitamin D status acts as a useful biomarker for predicting total mortality, hip fractures, early death, and the development of sarcopenia. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in dietary antioxidants and their effects on age-related losses of muscle mass and function. On the other hand, 3-Methylhistidine is a valuable biomarker for detecting increased muscle catabolism, as it is excreted through urine during muscle degradation. In addition, IGF-1, whose concentration in plasma is stimulated by food intake, is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass, which probably plays a crucial role in the progression of sarcopenia. Conclusions: Many nutritional biomarkers were found to be associated with sarcopenia, and can therefore be used as prognostic indexes and risk factors. Nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and management of sarcopenia, affecting muscle mass, strength, and function in elderly people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
16 pages, 1013 KiB  
Review
Quercetin: A Molecule of Great Biochemical and Clinical Value and Its Beneficial Effect on Diabetes and Cancer
by Aikaterini-Spyridoula Michala and Agathi Pritsa
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030037 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4437
Abstract
Quercetin belongs to the broader category of polyphenols. It is found, in particular, among the flavonols, and along with kaempferol, myricetin and isorhamnetin, it is recognized as a foreign substance after ingestion in contrast to vitamins. Quercetin occurs mainly linked to sugars with [...] Read more.
Quercetin belongs to the broader category of polyphenols. It is found, in particular, among the flavonols, and along with kaempferol, myricetin and isorhamnetin, it is recognized as a foreign substance after ingestion in contrast to vitamins. Quercetin occurs mainly linked to sugars with the most common compounds being quercetin-3-O-glucoside or as an aglycone, especially in the plant population. The aim of this review is to present a recent bibliography on the mechanisms of quercetin absorption and metabolism, bioavailability, and antioxidant and the clinical effects in diabetes and cancer. The literature reports a positive effect of quercetin on oxidative stress, cancer, and the regulation of blood sugar levels. Moreover, research-administered drug dosages of up to 2000 mg per day showed mild to no symptoms of overdose. It should be noted that quercetin is no longer considered a carcinogenic substance. The daily intake of quercetin in the diet ranges 10 mg–500 mg, depending on the type of products consumed. This review highlights that quercetin is a valuable dietary antioxidant, although a specific daily recommended intake for this substance has not yet been determined and further studies are required to decide a beneficial concentration threshold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
19 pages, 3827 KiB  
Review
Overview of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Clinical Features, Treatment, and Nutritional Aspects
by Merve Öztekin, Birsen Yılmaz, Duygu Ağagündüz and Raffaele Capasso
Diseases 2021, 9(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases9040066 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 14811
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a 0.5–1 µm wide, 2–4 µm long, short helical, S-shaped Gram-negative microorganism. It is mostly found in the pyloric region of the stomach and causes chronic gastric infection. It is estimated that these bacteria infect more [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a 0.5–1 µm wide, 2–4 µm long, short helical, S-shaped Gram-negative microorganism. It is mostly found in the pyloric region of the stomach and causes chronic gastric infection. It is estimated that these bacteria infect more than half of the world’s population. The mode of transmission and infection of H. pylori is still not known exactly, but the faecal–oral and oral–oral routes via water or food consumption are thought to be a very common cause. In the last three decades, research interest has increased regarding the pathogenicity, microbial activity, genetic predisposition, and clinical treatments to understand the severity of gastric atrophy and gastric cancer caused by H. pylori. Studies have suggested a relationship between H. pylori infection and malabsorption of essential micronutrients, and noted that H. pylori infection may affect the prevalence of malnutrition in some risk groups. On the other hand, dietary factors may play a considerably important role in H. pylori infection, and it has been reported that an adequate and balanced diet, especially high fruit and vegetable consumption and low processed salty food consumption, has a protective effect against the outcomes of H. pylori infection. The present review provides an overview of all aspects of H. pylori infection, such as clinical features, treatment, and nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
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10 pages, 977 KiB  
Review
Fertility and Reproduction after Recovery from Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Follow-Up Studies
by Rayane Chaer, Nour Nakouzi, Leila Itani, Hana Tannir, Dima Kreidieh, Dana El Masri and Marwan El Ghoch
Diseases 2020, 8(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases8040046 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4847
Abstract
Reproductive health is compromised during anorexia nervosa (AN). However, it is still unclear whether this medical complication is reversible after recovery from AN. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the major reproductive health outcomes in females after [...] Read more.
Reproductive health is compromised during anorexia nervosa (AN). However, it is still unclear whether this medical complication is reversible after recovery from AN. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the major reproductive health outcomes in females after recovery from AN. The review was conducted in adherence to preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data were collated using meta-analysis and a narrative approach. Of the 1186 articles retrieved, five studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. These studies monitored weight-restored females who had recovered from AN for a follow-up period of between six and 18 years. Their narrative analysis revealed that appropriate treatment of AN leads to the normalization of reproductive function, especially in terms of fertility, pregnancy, and childbirth rates. The meta-analysis confirmed this finding, where the pooled odds of childbirth rates between the AN group and the general population was not statistically significant (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.43–1.29, p = 0.41). We conclude that if patients undergo appropriate eating-disorder treatment and weight restoration, it appears to be unlikely that reproductive health is affected by AN. However, since this finding is derived from only a few studies, it requires replication and confirmation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
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Other

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10 pages, 756 KiB  
Perspective
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Pulmonary Edema, and Sodium Toxicity: A Grounded Theory
by Ronald B. Brown
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030059 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3094
Abstract
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) occurs unexpectedly in an otherwise healthy infant with no identifiable cause of death following a thorough investigation. A general hypervolemic state has been identified in SIDS, and fluid in the lungs suggests the involvement of pulmonary edema and [...] Read more.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) occurs unexpectedly in an otherwise healthy infant with no identifiable cause of death following a thorough investigation. A general hypervolemic state has been identified in SIDS, and fluid in the lungs suggests the involvement of pulmonary edema and hypoxia as the cause of death. The present perspective paper reviews pathophysiological, epidemiological, and dietary evidence in SIDS. A grounded theory is presented that proposes an association of SIDS with sodium toxicity from excessive sodium chloride intake, mediated by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxia, and alveolar damage. The peak of SIDS cases occurs in infants 2–4 months of age, who are less efficient in excreting excessive dietary sodium load. Evidence implicating sodium toxicity in SIDS includes increased levels of sodium associated with fever and with inflammatory/immune responses in the lungs. Conditions in near-miss SIDS cases are linked to dysregulated sodium, and increased sodium dietary intake suggests that sodium toxicity from a high-salt diet potentially mediates the association of seasonality and socioeconomic status with SIDS incidence. In addition, exposure to sodium toxicity meets three main criteria of the triple risk model of SIDS. The proposed pathophysiological effects of pulmonary edema related to sodium toxicity in SIDS merit further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Diseases)
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