Recent Updates on the Diagnosis of Dental and Oral Diseases

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Laboratory Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 4491

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Division for Globalization Initiative, Liaison Center for Innovative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
2. Pediatric Dentistry, Dr. Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital, Ar Rayyan, Riyadh 14212, Saudi Arabia
Interests: dental anomalies; hospital dentistry; preventive orthodontics; special care dentistry; dental materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Significant advancements have been made in the field of oral diagnostics over the past few years. Early diagnosis would allow the clinician to follow a conservative treatment plan with a favourable prognosis. In dentistry, both diagnosis and treatment are determined by the results of a patient's clinical examination. In light of the fact that the majority of oral diseases are caused by microbial biofilms, it is reasonable to anticipate that conducting a microbiological analysis on samples collected from a patient will be able to deliver supportive evidence that will help the clinician with the decision-making process. Microscopy, culture, and molecular techniques are all examples of applicable microbiological methods. These methods can be easily performed within dedicated laboratories proximal to the clinics, such as those found in academic dental institutions. Other applicable microbiological methods include techniques such as PCR and sequencing. Infections of the periodontium and endodontic infections, as well as odontogenic abscesses, have been singled out as conditions in which the application of clinical microbiology could potentially be advantageous for the patient. With regard to refractory or early-onset forms of periodontitis, the administration of antimicrobial drugs that are supported by microbiological investigation can produce treatment outcomes that are more predictable. During endodontic therapy, confirming the sterility of the root canal with a sample that has tested negative for bacteria can help to ensure the treatment's long-term success and avoid further infections.

Dr. Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • clinical photographs
  • conbeam computerized tomography
  • imaging in dentistry
  • micro CT
  • periodontal disease
  • pulpitis
  • radiographs
  • root canal treatment
  • saliva
  • PCR
  • biofilms
  • malocclusions
  • digital dentistry

Published Papers (4 papers)

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14 pages, 1371 KiB  
Article
Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva and Its Correlation with pH Levels among Dental Students under Different Stressful Conditions
by Christoph Schwarz, Octavia Balean, Ramona Dumitrescu, Paula Diana Ciordas, Catalin Marian, Marius Georgescu, Vanessa Bolchis, Ruxandra Sava-Rosianu, Aurora Doris Fratila, Iulia Alexa, Daniela Jumanca and Atena Galuscan
Diagnostics 2023, 13(24), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13243648 - 12 Dec 2023
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Abstract
(1) Background: This cross-sectional study conducted at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Timisoara, Romania, between December 2022 and February 2023 aims to assess salivary total antioxidant capacity and pH levels in dental students experiencing non-stressful and stressful situations and explore potential correlations between [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This cross-sectional study conducted at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Timisoara, Romania, between December 2022 and February 2023 aims to assess salivary total antioxidant capacity and pH levels in dental students experiencing non-stressful and stressful situations and explore potential correlations between these factors. (2) Methods: Saliva samples were collected during two different periods: before an Oral Health course and before the Oral Health exam, under stressful conditions. Ethical principles were followed, and informed consent was obtained. Data on age, gender, health status, drug use, smoking habits, and anxiety levels were recorded. Saliva was collected using the draining method and pH was measured using indicator paper strips. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was determined using a commercial assay kit. Statistical analysis involved descriptive statistics, Student’s t-test to compare pH and TAC between study groups, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient to analyze the correlation between salivary pH and TAC within each group, with p < 0.05 indicating significance. (3) Results: This study involved 80 participants, comprising 26 males and 54 females, all enrolled in the 5th year of the Oral Health course, with ages ranging from 20 to 53 and a mean age of 23.62 (±4.19) years. Pearson’s correlation results show a statistically significant negative relationship between the STAI test and TAC during the stress-free period (−0.02 **, N = 80, p < 0.01). (4) Conclusions: There are variations in saliva’s antioxidant capacity in response to different stress conditions. Dental students experienced a higher level of stress before academic assessments compared to the non-stress period during the course. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Updates on the Diagnosis of Dental and Oral Diseases)
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13 pages, 8643 KiB  
Article
Study Regarding the Monitoring of Nocturnal Bruxism in Children and Adolescents Using Bruxoff Device
by Adriana Elena Crăciun, Diana Cerghizan, Kinga Mária Jánosi, Sorin Popșor and Cristina Ioana Bica
Diagnostics 2023, 13(20), 3233; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13203233 - 17 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Bruxism is a parafunctional activity represented by the gnashing and clenching of one’s teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of screening and monitoring with a Bruxoff device during nocturnal bruxism in 51 children and adolescents (36 with bruxism [...] Read more.
Bruxism is a parafunctional activity represented by the gnashing and clenching of one’s teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of screening and monitoring with a Bruxoff device during nocturnal bruxism in 51 children and adolescents (36 with bruxism and 15 without bruxism) by assessing the variations in the intensity and duration of parafunctional activity in each patient. Bruxoff measurements were recorded for at least 60 min for three consecutive nights for each subject. All the parameters recorded using Bruxoff in the control and the study groups showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). The differences found by comparing the values recorded in the male and female study groups are significant for heart rate, the number of masseter muscle contractions during one night, and mixed contractions. The Bruxoff device proved to be important in diagnosing patients with bruxism in our practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Updates on the Diagnosis of Dental and Oral Diseases)
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11 pages, 2953 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Performance of Visual Criteria, Laser-Induced Fluorescence, and Light-Induced Fluorescence for Early Caries Detection
by Antonis Perdiou, Aurora Doris Fratila, Ruxandra Sava-Rosianu, Vlad Tiberiu Alexa, Dacian Lalescu, Daniela Jumanca and Atena Galuscan
Diagnostics 2023, 13(20), 3170; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13203170 - 11 Oct 2023
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Abstract
This study aims to compare the diagnostic reliability of ICDAS-II visual criteria, light-induced fluorescence (using the VistaCam iX, Dürr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany), and laser-induced fluorescence (using the DIAGNOdent Pen, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) on occlusal caries. Permanent and temporary molars were selected according to [...] Read more.
This study aims to compare the diagnostic reliability of ICDAS-II visual criteria, light-induced fluorescence (using the VistaCam iX, Dürr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany), and laser-induced fluorescence (using the DIAGNOdent Pen, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) on occlusal caries. Permanent and temporary molars were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Out of 160 teeth that met the inclusion criteria, 139 were chosen and examined by two previously trained and calibrated examiners. The kappa value was 0.95 for both VistaCam iX and DIAGNOdent Pen. Results from visual examination and the readings of the two fluorescence devices were computed, lesions being divided into non-cavitated, enamel lesions, and lesions extended to dentin. All statistical analyses were performed using R (version 4.2.2). Spearman’s rank correlation was computed to assess the relationship between the scores of diagnostics reliabilities of the three methods mentioned above. There was a positive, statistically significant Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.25, between VistaCam iX and ICDAS II, and a positive, not statistically significant Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.11, between DiagnoDent Pen and ICDAS II. Considering the temporary teeth, there was a positive, statistically significant Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.52, between VistaCam iX and DiagnoDent Pen; a positive, statistically significant Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.35, between VistaCam iX and ICDAS II; and the lowest, not statistically significant Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.16, between DiagnoDent Pen and ICDAS II. Conclusions: In conclusion, ICDAS II and light-induced fluorescence are better diagnostic methods than the laser-induced fluorescence devices for detecting occlusal caries. Clinical Significance: This study may support clinicians in selecting the most efficient tool for diagnosing carious lesion in the earliest stages possible. Furthermore, such technologies raise the availability for more preventive approaches, as opposed to invasive procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Updates on the Diagnosis of Dental and Oral Diseases)
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Assessing the Efficacy of AI Segmentation in Diagnostics of Nine Supernumerary Teeth in a Pediatric Patient
by Rasa Mladenovic, Zoran Arsic, Stefan Velickovic and Milan Paunovic
Diagnostics 2023, 13(23), 3563; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13233563 - 29 Nov 2023
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Abstract
We present a very rare case of a child with nine supernumerary teeth to analyze the potential, benefits, and limitations of artificial intelligence, as well as two commercial tools for tooth segmentation. Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly finding applications in dentistry today, particularly [...] Read more.
We present a very rare case of a child with nine supernumerary teeth to analyze the potential, benefits, and limitations of artificial intelligence, as well as two commercial tools for tooth segmentation. Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly finding applications in dentistry today, particularly in radiography. Special attention is given to models based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) and their application in automatic segmentation of the oral cavity and tooth structures. The integration of AI is gaining increasing attention, and the automation of the detection and localization of supernumerary teeth can accelerate the treatment planning process. Despite advancements in 3D segmentation techniques, relying on trained professionals remains crucial. Therefore, human expertise should remain key, and AI should be seen as a support rather than a replacement. Generally, a comprehensive tool that can satisfy all clinical needs in terms of supernumerary teeth and their segmentation is not yet available, so it is necessary to incorporate multiple tools into practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Updates on the Diagnosis of Dental and Oral Diseases)
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