Neuropathology, Neuroimaging and Biomarkers in Neurological Disease

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 8922

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK
Interests: brain injuries; neurodegeneration; neurodegenerative diseases; epilepsy; traumatic brain injury; functional neurological disorder; neuromuscular disease; dementia; cognitive science and artificial thinking
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neurological diseases are a major public health concern, affecting millions of people worldwide. The early detection and accurate diagnosis of these diseases are crucial for effective treatment and management. In recent years, there has been significant progress in the development of neuropathology, neuroimaging and biomarkers, which hold great promise in facilitating the early detection and diagnosis of neurological diseases.

The rapid progress in the field of neuropathology, neuroimaging, and biomarkers holds great promise in the early detection and accurate diagnosis of neurological diseases. The integration of these technologies into clinical practice has the potential to greatly improve the management and treatment of these debilitating conditions, ultimately leading to better outcomes for the affected individuals and their families.

This Special Issue focused on neuropathology, neuroimaging and biomarkers in neurological disease would be important for the following reasons:

Advancements in the field: The field of neuropathology, neuroimaging, and biomarkers is rapidly evolving, with new research and advancements being made on a regular basis. A Special Issue dedicated to these topics would provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the field, highlighting the latest research and developments.

Clinical relevance: Neurological diseases are a significant public health concern, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. The early detection and accurate diagnosis of these diseases are critical for effective treatment and management, and neuropathology, neuroimaging, and biomarkers play an important role in facilitating this.

Interdisciplinary approach: The study of neuropathology, neuroimaging, and biomarkers in neurological disease is an interdisciplinary field that involves collaboration between neuroscientists, radiologists, and clinician-researchers. A Special Issue dedicated to these topics would provide a platform for the exchange of ideas and knowledge between these different disciplines.

Improved patient outcomes: The integration of neuropathology, neuroimaging, and biomarkers into clinical practice has the potential to greatly improve the management and treatment of neurological diseases, leading to better outcomes for the affected individuals and their families.

Increased awareness: A Special Issue dedicated to neuropathology, neuroimaging, and biomarkers in neurological disease would raise awareness of these important topics and help to promote further research and advancements in the field.

In conclusion, this Special Issue dedicated to neuropathology, neuroimaging, and biomarkers in neurological disease would be an important resource for researchers, clinicians, and other healthcare professionals, and would help to advance our understanding of these debilitating conditions and improve patient outcomes.

Dr. Ioannis Asterios Mavroudis
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • neurological diseases
  • neurodegeneration
  • neuropathology
  • neuroimaging
  • neurobiology
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • brain physiology
  • neurophysiology
  • biomarkers

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1917 KiB  
Article
Whole Brain and Corpus Callosum Fractional Anisotropy Differences in Patients with Cognitive Impairment
by Kalvis Kaļva, Nauris Zdanovskis, Kristīne Šneidere, Andrejs Kostiks, Guntis Karelis, Ardis Platkājis and Ainārs Stepens
Diagnostics 2023, 13(24), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13243679 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI analysis method that could help assess cognitive impairment (CI) in the ageing population more accurately. In this research, we evaluated fractional anisotropy (FA) of whole brain (WB) and corpus callosum (CC) in patients with normal cognition [...] Read more.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI analysis method that could help assess cognitive impairment (CI) in the ageing population more accurately. In this research, we evaluated fractional anisotropy (FA) of whole brain (WB) and corpus callosum (CC) in patients with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and moderate/severe cognitive impairment (SCI). In total, 41 participants were included in a cross-sectional study and divided into groups based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores (NC group, nine participants, MCI group, sixteen participants, and SCI group, sixteen participants). All participants underwent an MRI examination that included a DTI sequence. FA values between the groups were assessed by analysing FA value and age normative percentile. We did not find statistically significant differences between the groups when analysing CC FA values. Both approaches showed statistically significant differences in WB FA values between the MCI-SCI and MCI-NC groups, where the MCI group participants showed the highest mean FA and highest mean FA normative percentile results in WB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropathology, Neuroimaging and Biomarkers in Neurological Disease)
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13 pages, 696 KiB  
Article
The Comparison of the Selected Parameters of Brain Injury and Interleukins in the CSF in Patients Diagnosed De Novo with RRMS Compared to the Control Group
by Bożena Adamczyk, Natalia Morawiec, Gabriela Mamak, Sylwia Boczek, Dominika Brzęk, Natalia Trędota, Patryk Walocha, Zenon P. Czuba, Michał Błachut, Wojciech Bartman and Monika Adamczyk-Sowa
Diagnostics 2023, 13(22), 3436; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13223436 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Due to the different phenotypes of the disease and non-specific symptoms of MS, there is a great need for a validated panel of biomarkers to facilitate the diagnosis, [...] Read more.
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Due to the different phenotypes of the disease and non-specific symptoms of MS, there is a great need for a validated panel of biomarkers to facilitate the diagnosis, predict disease progression, and evaluate treatment outcomes. Methods: We determined the levels of the parameters of brain injury (NF-H, GPAF, S100B, and UCHL1) and the selected cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 101 patients diagnosed de novo with RRMS and 75 healthy controls. All determinations were made using the Bio-Plex method. Results: We found higher levels of NF-H and GFAP in the relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) group compared to the controls. The concentrations of both molecules were significantly increased in patients with Gd+ lesions on brain MRI. The level of S100B did not differ significantly between the groups. UCHL1 concentrations were higher in the control group. We found some correlations between the selected cytokines, the levels of the parameters of brain injury, and the time from the first symptoms to the diagnosis of MS. Conclusions: The role of the above molecules in MS is promising. However, further research is warranted to define their precise functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropathology, Neuroimaging and Biomarkers in Neurological Disease)
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16 pages, 3460 KiB  
Article
Identification of Radiomic Signatures in Brain MRI Sequences T1 and T2 That Differentiate Tumor Regions of Midline Gliomas with H3.3K27M Mutation
by Maria-Fatima Chilaca-Rosas, Manuel-Tadeo Contreras-Aguilar, Melissa Garcia-Lezama, David-Rafael Salazar-Calderon, Raul-Gabriel Vargas-Del-Angel, Sergio Moreno-Jimenez, Patricia Piña-Sanchez, Raul-Rogelio Trejo-Rosales, Felipe-Alfredo Delgado-Martinez and Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
Diagnostics 2023, 13(16), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13162669 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Background: Radiomics refers to the acquisition of traces of quantitative features that are usually non-perceptible to human vision and are obtained from different imaging techniques and subsequently transformed into high-dimensional data. Diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) represent approximately 20% of pediatric CNS tumors, with [...] Read more.
Background: Radiomics refers to the acquisition of traces of quantitative features that are usually non-perceptible to human vision and are obtained from different imaging techniques and subsequently transformed into high-dimensional data. Diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) represent approximately 20% of pediatric CNS tumors, with a median survival of less than one year after diagnosis. We aimed to identify which radiomics can discriminate DMG tumor regions (viable tumor and peritumoral edema) from equivalent midline normal tissue (EMNT) in patients with the positive H3.F3K27M mutation, which is associated with a worse prognosis. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study. From a database of 126 DMG patients (children, adolescents, and young adults), only 12 had H3.3K27M mutation and available brain magnetic resonance DICOM file. The MRI T1 post-gadolinium and T2 sequences were uploaded to LIFEx software to post-process and extract radiomic features. Statistical analysis included normal distribution tests and the Mann–Whitney U test performed using IBM SPSS® (Version 27.0.0.1, International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY, USA), considering a significant statistical p-value ≤ 0.05. Results: EMNT vs. Tumor: From the T1 sequence 10 radiomics were identified, and 14 radiomics from the T2 sequence, but only one radiomic identified viable tumors in both sequences (p < 0.05) (DISCRETIZED_Q1). Peritumoral edema vs. EMNT: From the T1 sequence, five radiomics were identified, and four radiomics from the T2 sequence. However, four radiomics could discriminate peritumoral edema in both sequences (p < 0.05) (CONVENTIONAL_Kurtosis, CONVENTIONAL_ExcessKurtosis, DISCRETIZED_Kurtosis, and DISCRETIZED_ExcessKurtosis). There were no radiomics useful for distinguishing tumor tissue from peritumoral edema in both sequences. Conclusions: Less than 5% of the radiomic characteristics identified tumor regions of medical–clinical interest in T1 and T2 sequences of conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The first-order and second-order radiomic features suggest support to investigators and clinicians for careful evaluation for diagnosis, patient classification, and multimodality cancer treatment planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropathology, Neuroimaging and Biomarkers in Neurological Disease)
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14 pages, 671 KiB  
Article
Parameters of Auditory Evoked Related Potentials P300 in Disorders of Different Cognitive Function Domains (Visuospatial/Executive and Memory) in Elderly Hypertensive Persons
by Liliya Poskotinova, Nina Khasanova, Anna Kharak, Olga Krivonogova and Elena Krivonogova
Diagnostics 2023, 13(9), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13091598 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
The neurophysiological correlates of certain types of cognitive impairment in relation to the spatial pattern of auditory cognitive evoked-related potentials (ERPs) in hypertensive persons remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the parameters of ERPs (N200, P300) in impaired different [...] Read more.
The neurophysiological correlates of certain types of cognitive impairment in relation to the spatial pattern of auditory cognitive evoked-related potentials (ERPs) in hypertensive persons remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the parameters of ERPs (N200, P300) in impaired different domains (visuospatial/executive and memory) of cognitive function in arterial hypertension, including cardiovascular ischemic events. A total of 46 patients (65–84 years) were observed. The clinical diagnosis of vascular dementia, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA test) and the spatial pattern of ERPs (N200, P300) were the parameters used to identify three groups: the Control Group without cognitive impairment (n = 13), the group with a leading memory disturbance (Memory Group, n = 20) and the group with a leading visuospatial/executive disturbance (VS/E Group, n = 13). In persons belonging to the Memory Group, N2 latency was prolonged in the central (C3 C4) and right parietal (P4) brain parts; latency of the motor component (P300) may remain similar to that of the ControlGroup. In persons belonging to theVS/E Group, maximal prolonged recognition time (N2), especially in the left central (C3), frontal-midline (Fz), right parietal (P3) and temporal (P4) brain parts, was observed; P300 latency in the central-midline (Cz) and left anterior-temporal (F7) brain parts among all the groups was revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropathology, Neuroimaging and Biomarkers in Neurological Disease)
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Review

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23 pages, 1675 KiB  
Review
Neuropathology, Neuroimaging, and Fluid Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease
by Helena Colvee-Martin, Juan Rayo Parra, Gabriel Antonio Gonzalez, Warren Barker and Ranjan Duara
Diagnostics 2024, 14(7), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14070704 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 925
Abstract
An improved understanding of the pathobiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) should lead ultimately to an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of AD, providing the opportunity to intervene earlier in the disease process and to improve outcomes. The known hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease include [...] Read more.
An improved understanding of the pathobiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) should lead ultimately to an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of AD, providing the opportunity to intervene earlier in the disease process and to improve outcomes. The known hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease include amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tau tangles. It is now clear that an imbalance between production and clearance of the amyloid beta protein and related Aβ peptides, especially Aβ42, is a very early, initiating factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis, leading to aggregates of hyperphosphorylation and misfolded tau protein, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. In this article, we review how the AD diagnostic process has been transformed in recent decades by our ability to measure these various elements of the pathological cascade through the use of imaging and fluid biomarkers. The more recently developed plasma biomarkers, especially phosphorylated-tau217 (p-tau217), have utility for screening and diagnosis of the earliest stages of AD. These biomarkers can also be used to measure target engagement by disease-modifying therapies and the response to treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropathology, Neuroimaging and Biomarkers in Neurological Disease)
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12 pages, 614 KiB  
Review
Review on the Role of Salivary Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Concussion Syndrome
by Ioannis Mavroudis, Foivos Petridis, Ioana-Miruna Balmus, Alin Ciobica, Dragos Lucian Gorgan and Alina Costina Luca
Diagnostics 2023, 13(8), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13081367 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
(1) Background: While mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a major public health issue, post-concussion syndrome (PCS) remains a controversial entity. In both cases, the clinical diagnosis is mainly based on the symptoms and brain imaging evaluation. The current molecular biomarkers were described [...] Read more.
(1) Background: While mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a major public health issue, post-concussion syndrome (PCS) remains a controversial entity. In both cases, the clinical diagnosis is mainly based on the symptoms and brain imaging evaluation. The current molecular biomarkers were described from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), yet both fluid collection methods are invasive. Saliva could be preferred in molecular diagnosis due to its non-invasive and non-expensive methods of acquisition, transport, and samples processing. (2) Objectives: In the present study, we aimed to review the latest developments in salivary biomarkers and their potential role in diagnosing mild TBIs, and PCS. (3) Results: In TBIs and PCS, a few novel studies focusing on salivary biomarkers have emphasized their importance in diagnosis. The previous studies mainly focused on micro RNAs, and only a few on extracellular vesicles, neurofilament light chain, and S100B. (4) Conclusions: The combination between salivary biomarkers, clinical history and examination, self-reported symptoms, and cognitive/balance testing can provide a non-invasive alternative diagnostic methodology, as compared to the currently approved plasma and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropathology, Neuroimaging and Biomarkers in Neurological Disease)
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