Oral Microbiology and Related Research

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 February 2025 | Viewed by 15176

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Hungary
Interests: oral microbiology; prosthodontics; peri-implantitis; implant failure; temporo-mandibular joint; biofilm; photodynamic therapy; All-on-4 concept; radiology

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Guest Editor Assistant
Dean's Office, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Hungary

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The oral cavity is an anatomically complex region of the body with pivotal roles in human physiology, which is exposed to a multitude of physical-chemical and biological factors during our lifetime. The oral cavity is characterized by diverse microbial communities (including aerobic and strict anaerobic bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa) living in a complex ecological niche, termed the oral microbiota. While all these microorganisms maintain relevancy in the delicate biochemical processes in oral health, some bacteria are associated with etiological roles in orofacial infections and in oral pathologies of public health importance, e.g., oral streptococci in the development of dental caries and pathogens in the “red complex” residing in periodontal pockets, leading to chronic periodontitis and alveolar bone loss. Dysbiosis in the oral cavity, i.e., the upset of this delicate balance towards the overgrowth of certain bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis), may also have implications towards systemic illnesses. Locally administered and systemic antibiotics are drugs of critical importance in dentistry, both in the treatment of manifest infections and in prophylaxis for invasive procedures in the oral cavity. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) presents a threat to effective patient care in dentistry, as increasing resistance rates in these bacteria may lead to therapeutic failure. As dentists are one of the main prescribers of several antimicrobial drugs, they have pivotal roles in maintaining the efficacy of these drugs for all field of medicine; on the other hand, many studies have highlighted the inappropriate knowledge, attitudes and practices (e.g., non-adherence to treatment guidelines) of these healthcare-professionals.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to invite basic researchers, epidemiologists and clinicians from any field of the dental sciences to contribute their insights and perspectives in the form of original research articles, brief communications and review papers on topics including, but not limited to: in vitro laboratory experiments and in vivo studies involving oral bacteria, oral microbiota in health and disease, epidemiology of orofacial infections, antibiotic therapy and therapeutic aspects, utilization of antimicrobials in dentistry, antimicrobial resistance in dentistry and knowledge/attitudes/practices of dentists towards infectious diseases and antibiotics.

Dr. Zoltán Baráth
Guest Editor

Ildikó Benyhe
Guest Editor Assistant

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral microbiota
  • dental infections
  • endodontics
  • periodontitis
  • peri-implantitis
  • biofilm
  • antibiotic prophylaxis
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • therapeutic guidelines
  • attitude of healthcare-professionals

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1701 KiB  
Article
Effects of Oleanolic Acid Derived from Wine Pomace on Periodontopathic Bacterial Growth in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study
by Kyoko Shimazu, Kouta Ookoshi, Satoshi Fukumitsu, Hiroyuki Kagami, Chieko Mitsuhata, Ryota Nomura and Kazuhiko Aida
Dent. J. 2024, 12(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12050133 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Periodontal disease is caused by oral pathogenic bacteria and is associated with systemic disease and frailty. Therefore, its prevention is crucial in extending healthy life expectancy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of orally administered oleanolic acid, extracted from wine pomace, on [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease is caused by oral pathogenic bacteria and is associated with systemic disease and frailty. Therefore, its prevention is crucial in extending healthy life expectancy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of orally administered oleanolic acid, extracted from wine pomace, on periodontopathic bacterial growth in healthy individuals. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparison study, 84 healthy adults were assigned to a placebo (n = 29), low-dose (n = 29, 9 mg oleanolic acid), or high-dose (n = 26, 27 mg oleanolic acid) groups. The number of oral bacteria in their saliva, collected before and 5 h after administration, was determined using the polymerase chain reaction-invader technique. The proportion of periodontopathic bacteria among the total oral bacteria in the saliva was calculated. Oleanolic acid significantly decreased the proportion of Porphyromonas gingivalis among the total oral bacteria in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.005 (low-dose) and p = 0.003 (high-dose) vs. placebo, Williams’ test). Moreover, high-dose oleanolic acid decreased the proportion of Tannerella forsythia (p = 0.064 vs. placebo, Williams’ test). Periodontopathic bacteria are closely associated with the development and progression of periodontal disease; thus, the continuous daily intake of oleanolic acid derived from pomace may be helpful in maintaining a healthy oral microbiome by controlling the proportion of periodontopathic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiology and Related Research)
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14 pages, 2550 KiB  
Article
Do Concurrent Peri-Implantitis and Periodontitis Share Their Microbiotas? A Pilot Study
by Ana Parga, José Manuel Pose-Rodríguez, Andrea Muras, María Baus-Domínguez, Paz Otero-Casal, Marcos Luis Ortega-Quintana, Daniel Torres-Lagares and Ana Otero
Dent. J. 2024, 12(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12040113 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
The microbial compositions from concurrent peri-implant and periodontal lesions were compared, since the results reported in the literature on the etiological relationship between these oral pathologies are contradictory. Microbial compositions from nine patients were evaluated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene [...] Read more.
The microbial compositions from concurrent peri-implant and periodontal lesions were compared, since the results reported in the literature on the etiological relationship between these oral pathologies are contradictory. Microbial compositions from nine patients were evaluated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and Principal Components Analysis. Comparisons between the use of curettes or paper points as collection methods and between bacterial composition in both pathologies were performed. Paper points allowed the recovery of a higher number of bacterial genera. A higher bacterial diversity was found in peri-implantitis compared to periodontal samples from the same patient, while a greater number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in the corresponding periodontal samples. A higher abundance of oral pathogens, such as Porphyromonas or Treponema, was found in peri-implantitis sites. The opposite trend was observed for Aggregatibacter abundance, which was higher in periodontal than in peri-implantitis lesions, suggesting that both oral pathologies could be considered different but related diseases. Although the analysis of a higher number of samples would be needed, the differences regarding the microbial composition provide a basis for further understating the pathogenesis of peri-implant infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiology and Related Research)
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11 pages, 1656 KiB  
Article
Pine-Oil-Derived Sodium Resinate Inhibits Growth and Acid Production of Streptococcus mutans In Vitro
by Otto Rajala, Matias Mäntynen and Vuokko Loimaranta
Dent. J. 2024, 12(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12020040 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
S. mutans is a key pathogen in dental caries initiation and progression. It promotes oral biofilm dysbiosis and biofilm acidification. Sodium resinate is a salt of pine-oil-derived resin which has antimicrobial properties. Pine-oil-derived resin consists of terpenes, diterpenes, and abietic acids. The aim [...] Read more.
S. mutans is a key pathogen in dental caries initiation and progression. It promotes oral biofilm dysbiosis and biofilm acidification. Sodium resinate is a salt of pine-oil-derived resin which has antimicrobial properties. Pine-oil-derived resin consists of terpenes, diterpenes, and abietic acids. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pine (Pinus sylvestris) oil resinate (RS) on growth and acid production of cariogenic S. mutans strains in planktonic form and biofilm. The S. mutans type strain NCTC10449 and clinical isolate CI2366 were grown on 96-well plates for testing of RS effects on growth and biofilm formation, and on plates with integrated pH-sensitive optical ensors for real-time measurements of the effects of RS on bacterial acid production. We found that even short-time exposure to RS inhibits the growth and acid production of S. mutans in the planktonic phase and biofilms. In addition, RS was able to penetrate the biofilm matrix and reduce acid production inside S. mutans biofilm. RS thus shows potential as a novel antibacterial agent against cariogenic bacteria in biofilm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiology and Related Research)
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13 pages, 2213 KiB  
Article
Knowledge and Attitude towards Probiotics among Dental Students and Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Survey
by Ksenia Babina, Dilara Salikhova, Maria Polyakova, Alexandr Zaytsev, Anna Egiazaryan and Nina Novozhilova
Dent. J. 2023, 11(5), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11050119 - 2 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
This cross-sectional survey assessed the knowledge of and the attitude towards probiotics of dental students and academics at Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia. Our questionnaire consisted of 15 questions divided into 3 sections: respondents’ sociodemographic data, knowledge on probiotics, and attitude towards probiotics. The [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional survey assessed the knowledge of and the attitude towards probiotics of dental students and academics at Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia. Our questionnaire consisted of 15 questions divided into 3 sections: respondents’ sociodemographic data, knowledge on probiotics, and attitude towards probiotics. The data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test, Fisher’s exact test, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Out of the 658 questionnaires distributed, a total of 239 questionnaires were completed by the undergraduates, yielding a response rate of 39.6%, and 54 by the teaching staff (response rate = 100%). Most students (53.6%) and teachers (55.5%) had a fair knowledge of probiotics (p = 0.3135). A vast majority of dental students (97.9%) and all teachers had a positive attitude towards probiotics, with higher mean scores among academics (p < 0.001). A positive weak correlation was found between knowledge and attitude (Spearman r = 0.17, p = 0.0027). The results obtained reveal the need for more evidence-based educational trainings for university teachers and a course on probiotics to be included in the curriculum for dental students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiology and Related Research)
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16 pages, 4529 KiB  
Article
High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis of the Changes in the Salivary Microbiota of Hungarian Young and Adult Subpopulation by an Anthocyanin Chewing Gum and Toothbrush Change
by Boglárka Skopkó, Melinda Paholcsek, Anna Szilágyi-Rácz, Péter Fauszt, Péter Dávid, László Stündl, Judit Váradi, Renátó Kovács, Kinga Bágyi and Judit Remenyik
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020044 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
The sour cherry contains anthocyanins, which have bactericide action against some oral bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Sour cherry also has antibiofilm action against Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Our earlier research proved that chewing sour [...] Read more.
The sour cherry contains anthocyanins, which have bactericide action against some oral bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Sour cherry also has antibiofilm action against Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Our earlier research proved that chewing sour cherry anthocyanin gum significantly reduces the amount of human salivary alpha-amylase and Streptococcus mutans levels. The microbiota of a toothbrush affects oral health and regular toothbrush change is recommended. A total of 20 healthy participants were selected for the study. We analysed saliva samples with 16S rRNA sequencing to investigate the effect of 2 weeks (daily three times, after main meals) of chewing sour cherry anthocyanin gum—supplemented by toothbrush change in half of our case–control study cohort—after scaling on human oral microbiota. A more stable and diverse microbiome could be observed after scaling by the anthocyanin gum. Significant differences between groups (NBR: not toothbrush changing; BR: toothbrush changing) were evaluated by log2 proportion analysis of the most abundant family and genera. The analysis showed that lower level of some Gram-negative anaerobic (Prevotella melaninogenica, Porphyromonas pasteri, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii) and Gram-positive (Rothia mucilaginosa) bacteria could be observed in the case group (BR), accompanied by build-up of health-associated Streptococcal network connections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiology and Related Research)
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9 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Isolation of Clinical Microbial Isolates during Orthodontic Aligner Therapy and Their Ability to Form Biofilm
by Oleg Baybekov, Yaroslav Stanishevskiy, Nadezhda Sachivkina, Anna Bobunova, Natallia Zhabo and Marina Avdonina
Dent. J. 2023, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11010013 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2563
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to calculate microbiological composition of aligners after a day of wearing them. To date, the dental market for orthodontists offers many ways to correct bites. Aligners are transparent and almost invisible from the teeth. They are used [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to calculate microbiological composition of aligners after a day of wearing them. To date, the dental market for orthodontists offers many ways to correct bites. Aligners are transparent and almost invisible from the teeth. They are used for everyday wear to correct the incorrect position of the teeth, which was once considered the prerogative of braces. Scientists worldwide have repeatedly considered questions regarding the interaction between aligners and the oral cavity’s microflora; however, the emphasis has mainly shifted toward species composition and antibiotic resistance. The various properties of these microorganisms, including biofilm formation, adhesion to various cells, and the ability to phagocytize, have not been studied so widely. In addition, these characteristics, as well as the microorganisms themselves, have properties that change over time, location, and in certain conditions. In this regard, the problem of biofilm formation in dental practice is always relevant. It requires constant monitoring since high contamination of orthodontic materials can reduce the effectiveness of local anti-inflammatory therapy and cause relapses in caries and inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity. Adhesive properties, one of the key factors in forming the architectonics of biofilms, provide the virulence factors of microorganisms and are characterized by an increase in optical density, determining the duration and retrospectivity of diagnostic studies. This paper focuses on the isolation of clinical microbial isolates during aligner therapy and their ability to form biofilms. In the future, we plan to use the obtained strains of microorganisms to create an effective and safe biofilm-destroying agent. We aimed to study morphometric and densitometric indicators of biofilms of microorganisms persisting on aligners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiology and Related Research)
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21 pages, 4893 KiB  
Article
Mechanistic Effects of E-Liquids on Biofilm Formation and Growth of Oral Commensal Streptococcal Communities: Effect of Flavoring Agents
by Christina P. Xu, Dominic L. Palazzolo and Giancarlo A. Cuadra
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050085 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4508
Abstract
Background: Vaping has become a global health concern. As research continues, more studies are beginning to question the relative safety of E-liquid flavoring additives. The oral cavity is the first site of exposure to E-liquid aerosol, making it critical for investigation. Because of [...] Read more.
Background: Vaping has become a global health concern. As research continues, more studies are beginning to question the relative safety of E-liquid flavoring additives. The oral cavity is the first site of exposure to E-liquid aerosol, making it critical for investigation. Because of the importance of commensal bacterial biofilms for oral health, we sought to explore the effects of E-liquids ± flavors on the formation and growth of single- and multi-species biofilms and to investigate the mechanism of inhibition. Methods: Quantitative and confocal biofilm analysis, death curves, and colony-forming units (CFU) were evaluated with flavorless and flavored (tobacco, menthol, cinnamon, strawberry, blueberry) E-liquids using four strains of oral commensal bacteria (Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis). Results: All flavoring agents show a dose-dependent inhibition in the growth of single-species and multi-species biofilms. Furthermore, CFUs, death curves, and light microscopy show that flavoring agents have a bactericidal mode of inhibition on the growth of these oral streptococci. Conclusions: These results show that flavored, rather than unflavored, E-liquids are more detrimental to biofilm formation and growth of oral commensal bacteria. Consequently, E-liquid flavorings agents could pose risks to the oral microenvironment, and by extension, to systemic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiology and Related Research)
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