Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Coatings for Biomedicine and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2024 | Viewed by 12466

Special Issue Editor

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
Interests: Interests: biomaterials; biomedical magnesium alloy; metallic implants; surface modification for biomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metals and their alloys are one of the oldest biomedical materials in human beings. They still play an irreplaceable role in modern clinical treatment with excellent mechanical load-bearing properties, chemical stability and good biocompatibility. In recent years, the R&D and design of metal implants and devices, the further exploration of their powerful functions and the in-depth exploration of their interaction with the body microenvironment have made great progress. In particular, the design of biodegradable alloys, the elaboration of their degradation mechanism in different environments, the research on degradation behavior and degradation products, and the prospect of their advanced exclusive coating have attracted the attention of scholars

The aim of this Special Issue, “Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants”, is to publish research articles in full length, short communications, and review articles covering the latest studies, progress, and challenges on the design, fabrication, degradation and surface modification of metal alloy implants for their future biomedical applications.

Topics addressed in this Special Issue may include, but are not limited to:

  1. Design, fabrication, and characterization of new alloy implants and devices;
  2. Coatings of metallic implants or biomaterials;
  3. Biomedical alloy degradation;
  4. Computational modelling and numerical simulation of alloy implants and their surface;
  5. Composite materials composed of metals and other materials;
  6. The interactions between alloy implants and cells.

Prof. Dr. Jing'an Li
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • alloys
  • coatings
  • degradation
  • surface
  • interface
  • biocompatibility

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 2608 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of LaF3-Reinforced Porous HA/Ti Scaffolds
Coatings 2024, 14(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings14010111 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 458
Abstract
To improve the performance of porous hydroxyapatite/titanium (HA/Ti) composites, LaF3 reinforced porous HA/Ti scaffolds with a porosity of approximately 60% were prepared via a powder metallurgical method, using NH4HCO3 as the pore-forming agent. The scaffolds induced HA formation and [...] Read more.
To improve the performance of porous hydroxyapatite/titanium (HA/Ti) composites, LaF3 reinforced porous HA/Ti scaffolds with a porosity of approximately 60% were prepared via a powder metallurgical method, using NH4HCO3 as the pore-forming agent. The scaffolds induced HA formation and showed high bioactivity, and the compressive strength could be regulated by changing the LaF3 dosage. When the LaF3 dosage was 0.3%, the compressive strength of the porous scaffold was 65 MPa. Moreover, LaF3 reinforced porous HA/Ti scaffolds can further induce the deposition of calcium phosphate after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days, indicating that the corresponding scaffold is an ideal choice for spongy bone repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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11 pages, 4332 KiB  
Article
Effect of Vacancy Defects and Hydroxyl on the Adsorption of Glycine on Mg(0001): A First-Principles Study
Coatings 2023, 13(10), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13101684 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 542
Abstract
Glycine (Gly), as one of the fundamental components of biomolecules, plays a crucial role in functional biomolecular coatings. The presence of structural defects and hydroxyl-containing functional groups in magnesium (Mg) materials, which are commonly used as biomedical materials, significantly affects their biocompatibility and [...] Read more.
Glycine (Gly), as one of the fundamental components of biomolecules, plays a crucial role in functional biomolecular coatings. The presence of structural defects and hydroxyl-containing functional groups in magnesium (Mg) materials, which are commonly used as biomedical materials, significantly affects their biocompatibility and corrosion resistance performance. This study computationally investigates the influence of vacancy defects and hydroxyl groups on the adsorption behavior of Gly on Mg(0001) surfaces. All potential adsorption configurations are considered through first-principles calculations. The findings indicate that stronger chemisorption occurs when Gly is positioned at the edge of the groove, where the surface has a vacancy defect concentration of 1/3. Among the four adsorption locations, the fcc-hollow site is determined to be the most favorable adsorption site for hydroxyl. The adsorption energy of Gly on the Mg(0001) surface containing the hydroxyl (−1.11 eV) is 0.05 eV more than that of on the Mg(0001) surface (−1.16 eV). The adsorption energies, electronic properties, charge transfer, and stable configurations are calculated to evaluate the interaction mechanism between Gly and defective surfaces. Calculated results provide a comprehensive understanding of the interaction mechanism of biomolecules on defective Mg surfaces and also indicate the directions for future experimental research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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15 pages, 4776 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Zn2+-Loaded Polydopamine Coatings on Magnesium Alloy Surfaces to Enhance Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility
Coatings 2023, 13(6), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13061079 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
In this study, inspired by the adhesion protein of mussels, a Zn2+-loaded polydopamine (PDA/Zn2+) coating was prepared on an alkali–heat-treated magnesium alloy surface, through the chelating effect of PDA with metal ions, to improve anticorrosion and biocompatibility. The results [...] Read more.
In this study, inspired by the adhesion protein of mussels, a Zn2+-loaded polydopamine (PDA/Zn2+) coating was prepared on an alkali–heat-treated magnesium alloy surface, through the chelating effect of PDA with metal ions, to improve anticorrosion and biocompatibility. The results of water contact angles show that the PDA/Zn2+ coatings with different Zn2+ contents had excellent wettability, which contributed to the selective promotion of the albumin adsorption. The corrosion degradation behaviors of the modified magnesium alloys were characterized using potentiodynamic scanning polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and an immersion test, the results indicate that anticorrosion was significantly improved with the increase of Zn2+ content in the coating. Meanwhile, the PDA/Zn2+ coatings with different Zn2+ concentrations demonstrated improved hemocompatibility, confirmed by assays of the hemolysis rate and platelet adhesion behaviors. In addition, the results regarding the growth behaviors of endothelial cells (ECs) suggest that, due to the sustained release of Zn2+ from the coatings, the modified magnesium alloys could enhance the adhesion, proliferation, and upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells, and that better cytocompatibility to ECs could be achieved as the Zn2+ concentration increased. Therefore, the PDA/Zn2+ coatings developed in this study could be utilized to modify magnesium alloy surfaces, to simultaneously impart better anticorrosion, hemocompatibility, and endothelialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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12 pages, 3972 KiB  
Article
Interaction Mechanism of RGD Tripeptide on Different Surfaces of Mg and Mg Alloys: A First-Principles Study
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12121814 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
Functional Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide has a tremendous potential in clinical applications to accelerate the endothelialization of Magnesium (Mg) alloy vascular stent surface. The interaction mechanism of RGD on different surfaces of Mg and Mg alloy is important for promoting the development of Mg [...] Read more.
Functional Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide has a tremendous potential in clinical applications to accelerate the endothelialization of Magnesium (Mg) alloy vascular stent surface. The interaction mechanism of RGD on different surfaces of Mg and Mg alloy is important for promoting the development of Mg alloy vascular stent, yet still unclear. In the present work, first-principles calculation within density functional theory (DFT) was performed to investigate the interaction mechanism. The electron redistribution, effect of alloying elements and changes in the density of states of the adsorption systems were studied. The results revealed that RGD interacted with different surfaces of Mg (0001), Mg(112¯0) and Mg(101¯1) through ligand covalent bond; the pronounced localization of electrons of Mg(112¯0) and Mg(101¯1) surfaces promoted the adsorption of RGD tripeptide compared with that on the Mg(0001) surface; Zn/Y/Nd alloying elements improved the adsorption of RGD. Calculated results could provide insight for the interaction mechanism of biomolecule on the Mg and Mg-based alloy surfaces, and point out some directions for the future experimental efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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17 pages, 3941 KiB  
Article
Regulation of Macrophage Behavior by Chitosan Scaffolds with Different Elastic Modulus
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111742 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Increasing evidence shows that the physical properties of biomaterials play an important role in regulating cell behavior and function, especially the mechanical properties of biomaterials. Macrophages can also be multidirectionally regulated by mechanical factors in the microenvironment, which simultaneously mediate biomaterials response that [...] Read more.
Increasing evidence shows that the physical properties of biomaterials play an important role in regulating cell behavior and function, especially the mechanical properties of biomaterials. Macrophages can also be multidirectionally regulated by mechanical factors in the microenvironment, which simultaneously mediate biomaterials response that triggered by foreign body reactions (FBR). However, how the stiffness of biomaterials regulates macrophages and the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. Our study demonstrates that chitosan freeze-dried scaffolds with different elastic modulus can modulate the proliferative capacity, growth morphology and polarization behavior of macrophages. The compression tests and morphology observation confirmed that the prepared lyophilized chitosan scaffolds possessed varied stiffness. The fluorescence staining experiments showed that the RAW macrophage cell lines exhibited differences in proliferation and morphology on the freeze-dried scaffolds with different stiffness. Macrophages in the 5% group (elastic modulus of 106.7 kPa) had the largest number and mean cell area. Furthermore, ELISA and qPCR results illustrated that macrophage polarization towards the M1/M2 phenotype was strongly influenced by the stiffness of the lyophilized scaffolds. The study may provide new insights and references for designing the elastic moduli of biomaterials for regulating immune responsiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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12 pages, 2027 KiB  
Article
Selective Detection of Fe3+ by Nitrogen–Sulfur-Doped Carbon Dots Using Thiourea and Citric Acid
Coatings 2022, 12(8), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12081042 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
The quantum yield and fluorescence properties of carbon dots are key issues for environmental detection. In this study, nitrogen–sulfur-doped carbon dots (N,S-CDs) were prepared hydrothermally by adding thiourea to provide the N source. By adjusting the ratio of citric acid (CA) to thiourea [...] Read more.
The quantum yield and fluorescence properties of carbon dots are key issues for environmental detection. In this study, nitrogen–sulfur-doped carbon dots (N,S-CDs) were prepared hydrothermally by adding thiourea to provide the N source. By adjusting the ratio of citric acid (CA) to thiourea (N,S) and adding anhydrous ethanol, blue fluorescent doped carbon dots with a quantum yield of up to 53.80% were obtained. The particle morphology and crystalline organization of the N,S-CDs were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to illuminate distinct functional units through the recording of typical vibration bands. The luminescence properties of the N,S-CDs were investigated using ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy (PL). In addition, the fluorescence stability of the N,S-CDs was studied in detail. The results showed that the functional groups of the N,S-CDs chelate Fe3+ ions to quench the fluorescence of carbon dots. This shows that the N,S-CDs exhibit high selectivity for Fe3+ ions. With the addition of Fe3+ in the concentration of 0–100 µM, the fluorescence intensity of the N,S-CDs exhibited distinct and linear dependence upon the Fe3+ concentration (R2 = 0.9965), and the detection limit (D = 3ơ/m) was measured as 0.2 µM. The excellent optical properties and Fe3+ selectivity of the N,S-CDs provide a huge boost for application in the field of environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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Review

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17 pages, 7095 KiB  
Review
Sulfonated Molecules and Their Latest Applications in the Field of Biomaterials: A Review
Coatings 2024, 14(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings14020243 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 421
Abstract
This review provides an overview of the latest applications of sulfonated molecules in biomaterials. Sulfonation, a chemical modification process introducing sulfonic acid groups, enhances biomaterial properties. This review explores the effect of sulfonation and recent innovations in biomaterial applications. It covers hydrogels, scaffolds, [...] Read more.
This review provides an overview of the latest applications of sulfonated molecules in biomaterials. Sulfonation, a chemical modification process introducing sulfonic acid groups, enhances biomaterial properties. This review explores the effect of sulfonation and recent innovations in biomaterial applications. It covers hydrogels, scaffolds, and nanoparticles, emphasizing sulfonation’s unique advantages. The impact on cellular responses, including adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, is discussed. This review also addresses sulfonated biomaterials’ role in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and tissue engineering challenges. It also provides a small overview of the sources and features of marine-derived sulfonated molecules, emphasizing their potential roles in advancing scientific research. As a novel aspect, an unconventional complex, “traditional Chinese medicine” and its sulfonation method have come to the forefront after a thousand years of history. This article concludes with a reflection on current research and future avenues, highlighting sulfonation’s transformative potential in biomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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14 pages, 2826 KiB  
Review
Advances of Sulfonated Hyaluronic Acid in Biomaterials and Coatings—A Review
Coatings 2023, 13(8), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13081345 - 31 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) that is a versatile material whose biological, chemical, and physical characteristics can be deeply tuned to modifications. However, HA is easy to decompose by hyaluronidase in vivo, and this process will reduce its structure and [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) that is a versatile material whose biological, chemical, and physical characteristics can be deeply tuned to modifications. However, HA is easy to decompose by hyaluronidase in vivo, and this process will reduce its structure and function stability during application. The sulfonation of HA can improve its stability under the action of hyaluronidase. Sulfated hyaluronic acid (S-HA) can be synthesized by many methods, and it shows significantly slower degradation by hyaluronidase compared with HA. In addition, negatively charged S-HA has other advantages such as anti-adhesive activity, anti-inflammatory, macromolecules by electrostatic interactions, stable site absorption of positively charged molecules, and enhancement of growth factor binding ability. It has numerous applications in medical (anti-aging, inflammation, tissue regeneration, cancer therapy, wound healing, and drug delivery) and cosmetics as biomaterials and coatings. In this article, the advances of S-HA for potential application of biomaterials and biomedical coatings will be reviewed and comprehensively discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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20 pages, 2495 KiB  
Review
Extracellular Matrix Coatings on Cardiovascular Materials—A Review
Coatings 2022, 12(8), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12081039 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
Vascular transplantation is an effective and common treatment for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the low biocompatibility of implants is a major problem that hinders its clinical application. Surface modification of implants with extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings is an effective approach to improve the [...] Read more.
Vascular transplantation is an effective and common treatment for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the low biocompatibility of implants is a major problem that hinders its clinical application. Surface modification of implants with extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings is an effective approach to improve the biocompatibility of cardiovascular materials. The complete ECM seems to have better biocompatibility, which may give cardiovascular biomaterials a more functional surface. The use of one or several ECM proteins to construct a surface allows customization of coating composition and structure, possibly resulting in some unique functions. ECM is a complex three-dimensional structure composed of a variety of functional biological macromolecules, and changes in the composition will directly affect the function of the coating. Therefore, understanding the chemical composition of the ECM and its interaction with cells is beneficial to provide new approaches for coating surface modification. This article reviews novel ECM coatings, including coatings composed of intact ECM and biomimetic coatings tailored from several ECM proteins, and introduces new advances in coating fabrication. These ECM coatings are effective in improving the biocompatibility of vascular grafts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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Other

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16 pages, 1093 KiB  
Systematic Review
Potential of Graphene-Functionalized Titanium Surfaces for Dental Implantology: Systematic Review
Coatings 2023, 13(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13040725 - 02 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Titanium is the most frequently employed material in implantology, because of its high degree of biocompatibility. The properties of materials are crucial for osteointegration; therefore, great effort from researchers has been devoted to improving the capabilities of titanium implant surfaces. In this context, [...] Read more.
Titanium is the most frequently employed material in implantology, because of its high degree of biocompatibility. The properties of materials are crucial for osteointegration; therefore, great effort from researchers has been devoted to improving the capabilities of titanium implant surfaces. In this context, graphene oxide represents a promising nanomaterial because of its exceptional physical and chemical qualities. Many authors in recent years have concentrated their research on the use of graphene in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, antimicrobial materials, and implants. According to recent studies, graphene coatings may considerably increase osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro by the regulation of FAK/P38 signaling pathway, and can encourage the osteointegration of dental implants in vivo. However, further studies, especially on human subjects, are necessary to validate these potential applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of graphene on bone metabolism and the advantages of its use in implantology. A systematic review of literature was performed on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases, and the articles investigating the role of graphene to functionalize dental implant surfaces and his interactions with the host tissue were analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Alloy Degradation and Implants)
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