Advances in Surface Engineering and Biocompatible Coatings for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Coatings for Biomedicine and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 May 2024 | Viewed by 16024

Special Issue Editors

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kocaeli University, 41001 Kocaeli, Turkey
Interests: surface engineering; composites; materials science; biomaterials; mechanical behavior
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Environment and Resource Efficiency Cluster (EREC), Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
Interests: surface engineering; materials characterization; bioavailability; risk assessment; sustainability
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli 41001, Turkey
Interests: mechanical surface treatment; tribology; materials science; biomaterials; coatings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface properties of biomaterials (e.g., roughness, wettability, antibacterial activity, chemical composition, electrical charge, crystallinity, modulus, hardness) play a significant role in biomaterials performance; including but not limited to its biocompatibility (particularly at biomaterial-tissue interface), protein adsorption, adhesion, and anti-inflammatory properties. As most bulk materials (i.e., metal alloys, polymers, ceramics) provide only mechanical stability for biomaterials, their surface modification plays a crucial role in addressing major performance issues such as lack of osseointegration, infections, toxicity, low corrosion/wear resistance, and insufficient antibacterial activity. Surface engineering via bulk materials surface properties modification and applying biocompatible coatings on bulk materials has demonstrated substantial synergistic improvements in performance and service life of biomaterials via alteration of their surface properties. These could help with the development of promising strategies to address specific clinical needs.

The present special issue aims to highlight the recent advances in surface engineering and biocompatible coatings for biomedical applications. Our goal is to publish at least ten high-quality articles, if we reach this number, the special issue may be published as a book. Original research articles and critical reviews are welcome in this special issue. Research areas may include (but not limited to) the following:

  • Mechanical and physical surface treatment: including grit blasting, polishing, shot peening, surface mechanical attrition treatment, laser peening, sputtering, laser/electron beam patterning, and plasma electrolyte oxidation.
  • Chemical and electrochemical surface treatment: including, etching, anodizing, electrophoretic deposition, and chemical vapor deposition.
  • Biocompatible coatings: including hydroxyapatite-based, bioactive glass-based, and polymer-based coatings.

We thank you for your interest and look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Egemen Avcu
Dr. Mert Guney
Dr. Yasemin Yıldıran Avcu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adhesion
  • antibacterial activity
  • biocompatibility
  • biomimetics
  • coating technology
  • corrosion
  • implant
  • nanotechnology
  • surface topography
  • toxicity

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 200 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced Alloys and Coatings for Bioimplants
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101525 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Implant materials have significant requirements in medical industries due to orthopedic ailments of elders, fractures caused by accidents, sports injuries, bone replacements, revision in surgeries, change in lifestyle, etc [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 5528 KiB  
Article
Effect of Carrier Materials for Active Silver in Antibacterial Powder Coatings
Coatings 2024, 14(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings14030297 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Environmentally friendly powder coatings which have the advantages of being VOC-free, low-cost, and high-efficiency with a high recovery rate have been attracting increasing research attention. The introduction of antibacterial agents into the powder coatings endows them with a capacity to kill bacteria and [...] Read more.
Environmentally friendly powder coatings which have the advantages of being VOC-free, low-cost, and high-efficiency with a high recovery rate have been attracting increasing research attention. The introduction of antibacterial agents into the powder coatings endows them with a capacity to kill bacteria and viruses on the surface of objects; additionally, this enables them to inhibit the indirect transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. Silver, possessing broad-spectrum, strong, and stable antibacterial properties, is considered to be a promising antibacterial material for use in coating applications. Carrier materials for active silver play an important role in its activity and stability. However, there is a lack of systematic studies on the effects of different types of carriers in such coating systems, especially in green powder coating systems. In this paper, we investigated two types of carriers for active silver agents: zeolite, i.e., Linde type A (LTA) zeolite and Y-type zeolite; clay-based materials, i.e., montmorillonite and vermiculite. All the agents showed high antibacterial activity, with antibacterial rates of over 99% as compared to commercial agents. Among the four agents, the Ag-LTA zeolite antimicrobial agent showed a reduction rate of over 99.99%; additionally, it maintained a reduction rate of 99% after seven washing cycles. Thus, this agent was demonstrated to have the highest effectiveness and high durability; these features can be attributed to the high silver content and small particle size. The LTA zeolite also provides a protective effect for silver ions, protecting them from reduction, due to the restriction of elemental silver formation within the confined interior space of the α-cage structure. The Y-type zeolite antimicrobial agent exhibited a slightly lower antimicrobial performance due to its higher silicon-to-aluminum ratio and its lower cation exchange capacity. Comparatively, antimicrobial agents utilizing clay-based carriers have lower cation exchange capacity, resulting in poorer antimicrobial effectiveness than zeolite carriers. In addition, silver loaded on clay-based materials is prone to detach from the carrier and undergo a reduction reaction, making the coating yellowish in color. This study first provides information on the roles of different types of carriers in powder coating systems; then, this information guides the selection of carriers for active silver for the development of efficient antimicrobial agents and coatings. Full article
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15 pages, 13660 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Behavior of Shot-Peened Ti6Al4V Alloy Produced via Pressure-Assisted Sintering
Coatings 2023, 13(12), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13122036 - 02 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
For the first time, the present study investigates the corrosion, surface, and subsurface properties of a shot-peened Ti6Al4V powder metallurgical alloy produced via pressure-assisted sintering. Shot peening yielded a fine-grained microstructure beneath the surface down to 100 microns, showing that it caused severe [...] Read more.
For the first time, the present study investigates the corrosion, surface, and subsurface properties of a shot-peened Ti6Al4V powder metallurgical alloy produced via pressure-assisted sintering. Shot peening yielded a fine-grained microstructure beneath the surface down to 100 microns, showing that it caused severe plastic deformation. XRD analysis revealed that the sizes of the crystallites in unpeened and shot-peened Ti6Al4V alloy samples were 48.59 nm and 27.26 nm, respectively, indicating a substantial reduction in crystallite size with shot peening. Cross-sectional hardness maps of shot-peened samples showed a work-hardened surface layer, indicating a ~17% increase in near-surface hardness relative to unpeened samples. Three-dimensional surface topographies showed that shot peening yielded uniform peaks and valleys, with a maximum peak height of 4.83 μm and depth of 6.56 μm. With shot peening, the corrosion potential shifted from −0.386 V to −0.175 V, showing that the passive layer developed faster and was more stable than the unpeened sample, improving corrosion resistance. As determined via XRD analysis, the increased grain refinement (i.e., the number of grain boundaries) and the subsequent accumulation of TiO2 and Al5Ti3V2 compounds through shot peening also suggested the effective formation of a protective passive layer. As demonstrated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the formation of this passive film improved the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The findings will likely advance surface engineering and corrosion research, enabling safer and more productive shot peening in corrosion-critical applications. Full article
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16 pages, 4798 KiB  
Article
Calcium Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Low-Temperature Synthesis and Investigation of Antibacterial Properties
Coatings 2023, 13(12), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13121991 - 23 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
In the present work, the low-temperature synthesis of substituted calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP) with copper and zinc ions on titanium substrates was performed. Initially, CaCO3 coatings were synthesised on titanium substrate using the sol-gel [...] Read more.
In the present work, the low-temperature synthesis of substituted calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP) with copper and zinc ions on titanium substrates was performed. Initially, CaCO3 coatings were synthesised on titanium substrate using the sol-gel method at 550 °C in a CO2 atmosphere. Crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite was then synthesised from these CaCO3 coatings through the dissolution-precipitation method at low temperature (80 °C). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to evaluate the phase composition, surface functional groups, crystallinity, and morphology of the coatings. The results showed the formation of hexagonal HAP particles with a size of 20 nm at low temperature, exhibiting high homogeneity in particle size distribution. In the calcium hydroxyapatite, some of the Ca2+ ions were replaced by Cu2+ ions. Heating the mixture of Ca(NO3)2 and Cu(NO3)2 solutions at 550 °C in a CO2 atmosphere led to the formation of copper hydroxide carbonate (malachite, Cu2(OH)2CO3) along with CaCO3. The reaction between the sol-gel precursor obtained and Na2HPO4 resulted in the formation of copper-substituted hydroxyapatite (Cu-HAP). Different synthesis methods were tested with Zn2+ ions, and on the surface of the coating, Zn(OH)(NO3)(H2O), Zn3(OH)4(NO3)2, and unreacted CaCO3 were formed. Antibacterial properties of the coatings were tested using the inhibition zone method. No inhibition zones were observed for HAP. However, in the Cu and Zn containing coatings, inhibition zones were observed in the presence of a colony of B. subtilis bacteria. However, no inhibition zones were detected in the presence of E. coli bacteria. Full article
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18 pages, 4423 KiB  
Article
Effect of Electrodeposited Gold Coatings on Micro-Gaps, Surface Profile and Bacterial Leakage of Cast UCLA Abutments Attached to External Hexagon Dental Implants
Coatings 2023, 13(12), 1976; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13121976 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Purpose: The objective of the study was to qualitatively assess the micro-gap dimensions, connecting fitting surface profile, and bacterial leakage of cast high-gold-alloy UCLA abutments, with or without electrodeposited gold coatings attached to external hexagon implants. Materials and methods: Sixteen plastic [...] Read more.
Purpose: The objective of the study was to qualitatively assess the micro-gap dimensions, connecting fitting surface profile, and bacterial leakage of cast high-gold-alloy UCLA abutments, with or without electrodeposited gold coatings attached to external hexagon implants. Materials and methods: Sixteen plastic UCLAs (PUCLAs) were cast with a high-gold-content alloy. Eight were electrolytically gold plated. Five machined cast-to-UCLA (GUCLA) control abutments were cast with the same alloy. All abutments were attached to external hexagon implants, giving 21 implant-abutment combinations (IACs). External perimeter micro-gaps measured with SEM under shadow eliminating silhouette illumination and 2000× magnification were averaged over three regions. The IACs were examined for E. coli leakage following an initial sterility test. Disassembled combinations were examined with SEM, and surface profiles were qualitatively assessed. Results: External micro-gap measurements did not reflect the variable connecting surface profiles, but average values < 5.0 μm were observed for all IACs measured under the shadow eliminating silhouette illumination for both cast and pre-machined external hexagon abutments with and without Au plating. E. coli transfer was observed in 3 of 5 PUCLA-plated and 2 of 5 PUCLA-non-plated IACs. No transfer occurred in the 3 GUCLA-non-plated or 2 GUCLA-plated control IACs. Abutment connecting surfaces, both Au-plated and not Au-plated, showed plastic deformation (smearing) in variable mosaic patterns across the micro-gap. Conclusions: Micro-gap dimensions < 5μm were obtained with both the high noble metal cast and pre-machined control external hexagon abutments with and without Au electrodeposited on the abutment connecting surface. Regions of intimate contact due to plastic deformation (smearing) of these surfaces were observed. A continuous smeared region around the circumference of the surfaces can provide an effective barrier to the egress of E. coli bacteria from the internal regions of the implant under static loading. The sample size was insufficient to determine if the gold coating resulted in a superior bacterial barrier. Full article
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18 pages, 19459 KiB  
Article
Electrophoretic Deposition of ZnO-Containing Bioactive Glass Coatings on AISI 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical Applications
Coatings 2023, 13(11), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13111946 - 14 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
The main objective of this investigation was to study the implications of incorporating zinc oxide nanoparticles into the matrix of a bioactive glass for the bioactivity and structural properties of the deposited coating. ZnO-containing bioactive glass was coated on an AISI 316L stainless [...] Read more.
The main objective of this investigation was to study the implications of incorporating zinc oxide nanoparticles into the matrix of a bioactive glass for the bioactivity and structural properties of the deposited coating. ZnO-containing bioactive glass was coated on an AISI 316L stainless steel substrate using the electrophoretic deposition technique. AISI 316L stainless steel is a biomedical grade steel, which is widely used in different biomedical applications. For the electrophoretic deposition, voltages and times were chosen in the range of 15–40 V and 15–120 min, respectively. The microstructure, phase composition, and surface roughness of coated samples were analyzed in this investigation. Moreover, the corrosion behavior and the MTT (mitochondrial activity) of samples were studied. Results showed a uniform distribution of elements such as silicon and calcium, characteristic of bioactive glass 58S5, in the coating as well as the uniform distribution of Zn inside the ZnO-containing samples. The findings showed that the deposited ZnO-containing bioactive glass is a hydrophilic surface with a relatively rough surface texture. The results of the MTT and antibacterial effects showed that the deposited layers have promising cell viability. Full article
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15 pages, 21332 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Calcium Phosphate Coatings with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
Coatings 2023, 13(11), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13111921 - 09 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Porous calcium phosphate coatings (C-P) with ZnO nanoparticles were obtained via the micro-arc oxidation method on a titanium substrate. ZnO nanoparticles were added to the C-P coatings to change the zeta potential and improve the coatings’ bioactivity and antibacterial properties. The samples with [...] Read more.
Porous calcium phosphate coatings (C-P) with ZnO nanoparticles were obtained via the micro-arc oxidation method on a titanium substrate. ZnO nanoparticles were added to the C-P coatings to change the zeta potential and improve the coatings’ bioactivity and antibacterial properties. The samples with coatings were studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive microanalysis, potentiodynamic polarization, and zeta potential measurement. The coatings modified with ZnO nanoparticles showed improved physical, electrochemical, and electrical properties, compared to the initial unmodified coatings. Modification with ZnO nanoparticles contributed to an increase in zeta potential from −60 mV to −53 mV. Functionalization of the coatings with ZnO nanoparticles allowed us to increase the anticorrosion characteristics by about 30%. The biological studies showed that the coatings had no cytotoxic effect on L929 fibroblast cells. The antibacterial activity of the coating rose by 99% after the addition of ZnO nanoparticles against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Full article
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13 pages, 4200 KiB  
Article
Designing Gallium-Containing Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Low Modulus Beta Ti-45Nb Alloy
Coatings 2023, 13(10), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13101817 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Low-modulus β-type Ti-45Nb alloy is a promising implant material due to its good mechanical biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and outstanding corrosion resistance. Its excellent chemical stability brings new challenges to chemical surface modification treatments, which are indispensable for both osteogenesis and antibacterial performance. Coatings containing [...] Read more.
Low-modulus β-type Ti-45Nb alloy is a promising implant material due to its good mechanical biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and outstanding corrosion resistance. Its excellent chemical stability brings new challenges to chemical surface modification treatments, which are indispensable for both osteogenesis and antibacterial performance. Coatings containing metal ions as anti-microbial agents can be an effective way to reduce implant-associated infections caused by bacterial biofilm. Gallium ion (Ga3+) has the potential to reduce bacterial viability and biofilm formation on implant surfaces. In this study, a novel two-step process has been proposed for Ga3+ incorporation in hydroxyapatite (HAP) to develop bioactive and antibacterial surfaces on Ti-45Nb alloy. For the generation of bioactive surface states, HAP electrodeposition was conducted, followed by wet chemical immersion treatments in gallium nitrate (1 mM). Different buffers such as phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium acetate, and citrate were added to the solution to maintain a pH value in the range of 6.5–6.9. Coating morphology and HAP phases were retained after treatment with gallium nitrate, and Ga3+ ion presence on the surface up to 1 wt.% was confirmed. Combining Ga and HAP shows great promise to enable the local delivery of Ga3+ ions and consequent antibacterial protection during bone regeneration, without using growth factors or antibiotics. Full article
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16 pages, 7569 KiB  
Article
The Surface Modification of ZrO2 Film by Zr/Nb Ion Implantation and First-Principles Calculation
Coatings 2023, 13(10), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13101696 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) possesses numerous advantages such as high mechanical strength, a low friction coefficient, excellent optical properties, and an extended lifespan. Consequently, ZrO2 has a broad research foundation and practical significance in functional films and wear-resistant coatings. However, it [...] Read more.
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) possesses numerous advantages such as high mechanical strength, a low friction coefficient, excellent optical properties, and an extended lifespan. Consequently, ZrO2 has a broad research foundation and practical significance in functional films and wear-resistant coatings. However, it suffers from brittleness and low ductility when used as a bio-coating material. In this study, a ZrO2 film was fabricated on Si (100) and titanium alloy substrates using a magnetron sputtering system. Subsequently, Zr and Nb ions were implanted into the film at varying doses, but with consistent energy levels. The analysis focused on the film’s microstructure, mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and corrosion resistance. The results demonstrate a significant improvement in the hydrophilicity and corrosion resistance of the ZrO2 film following the implantation of Zr and Nb ions. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) principles indicated that, with increasing doping concentrations of Zr and Nb in the ZrO2 model, the stability of the model increased gradually, thereby enhancing its corrosion resistance. The developed product has propelled rapid advancements in fields such as biomedical implants. Full article
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19 pages, 31286 KiB  
Article
Surface and Tribological Properties of Powder Metallurgical Cp-Ti Titanium Alloy Modified by Shot Peening
Coatings 2023, 13(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13010089 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
The present study reveals for the first time the dry sliding wear behavior of a powder metallurgical pure titanium alloy (Cp-Ti) modified by shot peening. Cp-Ti samples were manufactured via powder metallurgy, and then their surface and subsurface features were modified using a [...] Read more.
The present study reveals for the first time the dry sliding wear behavior of a powder metallurgical pure titanium alloy (Cp-Ti) modified by shot peening. Cp-Ti samples were manufactured via powder metallurgy, and then their surface and subsurface features were modified using a custom-made, fully automated shot-peening system. The texture isotropy rate and the highest orientation angle of the shot-peened samples were 71.5% and 36°, respectively. The Abbott curves of the shot-peened surfaces revealed that the most common areal roughness value was 5.177 μm, with a frequency of 8.1%. Shot-peened surfaces exhibited an ~20% lower wear rate than unpeened surfaces under dry sliding wear, whereas the coefficient of friction was the same for both surfaces. Micro-ploughing, micro-cutting, oxidation, and three-body abrasion wear mechanisms were observed on the shot-peened and unpeened surfaces. High resolution 3D surface topographies of worn unpeened and shot-peened surfaces revealed micro-scratches and inhomogeneities along wear tracks, which are indicative of three-body abrasion mechanisms during contact. In addition, vertical and horizontal microcracks were visible just beneath the wear track, suggesting a clear indication of plastic deformation during contact. The cross-sectional hardness maps of shot-peened samples revealed the formation of a work-hardened surface layer with shot peening, which improved the wear resistance. These findings support that shot peening can be a useful tool to modify the surface and tribological properties of powder metallurgical Cp-Ti alloys. Full article
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13 pages, 4063 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Behavior of Different Miniplate Designs for Skeletal Anchorage in the Anterior Open Bite Treatment
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12121898 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution and mechanical behavior of miniplate designs to skeletal anchorage for the treatment of anterior open bite in adult patients. A complete hemimaxilla, teeth, brackets, transpalatal bar, and three miniplates were virtually modeled. I-, Y-, and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution and mechanical behavior of miniplate designs to skeletal anchorage for the treatment of anterior open bite in adult patients. A complete hemimaxilla, teeth, brackets, transpalatal bar, and three miniplates were virtually modeled. I-, Y-, and T-shaped miniplates were installed in the area of the alveolar zygomatic crest. The assembly was constricted and three intrusive forces (2, 4, and 6 N) were applied to the maxillary molars and anchorage according to the miniplates. All materials were considered homogeneous, elastic, and linear; the mesh was 1,800,000 hexahedrons with 2,800,000 nodes on average. Displacement, maximum principal stress, and von Mises stress were evaluated according to the shape of the anchorage device and intrusive force. The miniplate configurations resulted in different stress and displacement intensities in the bone tissue and plate; these stresses were always located in the same regions and were within physiological limits. The Y-plate showed the best performance since its application generated less stress in bone tissue with less displacement. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

29 pages, 9636 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of Surface Modification Techniques for Enhancing the Biocompatibility of 3D-Printed Titanium Implants
Coatings 2023, 13(11), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13111917 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
The advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has revolutionized the production of customized titanium (Ti) alloy implants. The success rate of implantation and the long-term functionality of these implants depend not only on design and material selection but also on their surface properties. [...] Read more.
The advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has revolutionized the production of customized titanium (Ti) alloy implants. The success rate of implantation and the long-term functionality of these implants depend not only on design and material selection but also on their surface properties. Surface modification techniques play a pivotal role in improving the biocompatibility, osseointegration, and overall performance of 3D-printed Ti alloy implants. Hence, the primary objective of this review is to comprehensively elucidate various strategies employed for surface modification to enhance the performance of 3D-printed Ti alloy implants. This review encompasses both conventional and advanced surface modification techniques, which include physical–mechanical methods, chemical modification methods, bioconvergence modification technology, and the functional composite method. Furthermore, it explores the distinct advantages and limitations associated with each of these methods. In the future, efforts in surface modification will be geared towards achieving precise control over implant surface morphology, enhancing osteogenic capabilities, and augmenting antimicrobial functionality. This will enable the development of surfaces with multifunctional properties and personalized designs. By continuously exploring and developing innovative surface modification techniques, we anticipate that implant performance can be further elevated, paving the way for groundbreaking advancements in the field of biomedical engineering. Full article
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17 pages, 1331 KiB  
Review
Multifunctional Coatings on Implant Materials—A Systematic Review of the Current Scenario
Coatings 2023, 13(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13010069 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3301
Abstract
The challenges and demands of implant materials are changing as a result of the substantial expansion in the global population. Suitable implants are required for aged people, physical injuries, patients who need revised surgeries, contaminated implants, and accident victims. Hence, the requirement for [...] Read more.
The challenges and demands of implant materials are changing as a result of the substantial expansion in the global population. Suitable implants are required for aged people, physical injuries, patients who need revised surgeries, contaminated implants, and accident victims. Hence, the requirement for implants is drastically increasing day by day. Metals, ceramics, and polymers are used as implant materials by biomedical industries for long-term suffering patients. Stainless steel, titanium and its alloys, aluminum alloys, cobalt, zirconium, etc. (metals), hydroxyapatite (ceramic), polyurethane, polyethylene, polyimide, etc. (polymers), are some of the examples that fulfill the implant requirements. There are many other obstructions, such as adhesion, inflammation, and bacterial attack, which minimize the implant’s performance and its activity. However, coatings on ideal implant materials are significant to avoid its failure and to enhance its durability and longevity. Advanced techniques, such as physical and chemical methods, are suitable coating approaches to promote the surface of implants with respect to mechanical, biological, and other multifunctional activities. This review paper focuses on and investigates several strategies for bioactive implants’ coatings, analysis, and emerging applications for biomedical industries. Full article
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