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Research on Tribological Coatings

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Thin Films and Interfaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2024 | Viewed by 2048

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Interests: coatings and thin films; surface engineering; physical metallurgy; alloys and casting; additive manu-facturing; materials sustainability (tribology, lurication, corrosion, fatigue); materials characterization; mechanics and in-situ microscopy; microstructure-property-relationships

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kocaeli University, 41001 Kocaeli, Turkey
Interests: surface engineering; composites; materials science; biomaterials; mechanical behavior
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hainan University of Science and Technology, Haikou 570228, China
Interests: materials surface engineering; surface modification; inorganic coatings; photocatalysis films; superhard coatings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Friction and wear is one of the three principal failure modes (wear, corrosion, fatigue) of engineering components, causing substantial national economic losses in engineering applications. Therefore, technologies such as surface strengthening, remediation, and remanufacturing are crucial for overcoming wear-related issues in industry. Functional protective coating technology possesses "low input, high yield, and high environmental friendliness", which makes it an indispensable link between new remanufacturing technologies of surfaces and industry, thereby producing enormous economic and social benefits. The tribological characteristics of functional coatings are not one of their inherent characteristics; rather, they depend on the entire tribological system and are affected by numerous factors, including the preparation method, substrate, application conditions, working environment (temperature, humidity, loads, etc.). In recent years, researchers have conducted many experiments on coatings in order to better understand the fundamental principles of tribological coatings to reduce friction and provide lubrication. The key to the research lies in the preparation method, tribological characteristics, lubrication mechanism, functionality, environment-dependent characteristics, and design of advanced friction-reducing and lubricating coatings, etc. This not only improves the lubricating and friction-reducing characteristics of the coating, but also helps to improve the service life of the coating and reduce the economic loss caused by friction and wear.

The present Special Issue aims to highlight the recent advances in tribological coatings, and to provide researchers with the opportunity to publish their latest results, reviews, methods, and cases of engineering applications to further improve the research landscape and address the related problems of friction reduction and lubrication of coatings. We welcome the submission of high-quality original research papers and reviews. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Preparation methods for tribological coatings;
  • Classification of tribological coatings;
  • Microstructure, tribological and mechanical properties of tribological coatings;
  • Lubrication mechanisms of tribological coatings;
  • Wear mechanism of tribological coatings;
  • Environment-dependent characteristics of tribological coatings;
  • Functionality of tribological coatings (self-lubrication, self-adaptive, self-healing, self-organized);
  • Application of tribological coatings.

We thank you for your interest and look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Huatang Cao
Dr. Egemen Avcu
Dr. Feng Wen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tribological coatings
  • lubrication
  • friction
  • wear
  • environmental self-adaptation
  • functionality
  • microstructure

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 4384 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Tribological Properties of Low-Density Polyethylene Using Hard Carbon Microfillers
by Samuel Solomon, Rachel Hall, Jibao He, Vijay John and Noshir Pesika
Materials 2024, 17(7), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17071536 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 443
Abstract
The application of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been confined to packaging applications due to its inadequate mechanical and tribological characteristics. We propose enhancing LDPE by integrating hard carbon spheres (CSs) to improve its strength, frictional characteristics, and wear resistance. LDPE/CS composites were created [...] Read more.
The application of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been confined to packaging applications due to its inadequate mechanical and tribological characteristics. We propose enhancing LDPE by integrating hard carbon spheres (CSs) to improve its strength, frictional characteristics, and wear resistance. LDPE/CS composites were created by blending LDPE with varying CS amounts (0.5–8 wt.%). Analysis using scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed CS presence in the LDPE matrix, with X-ray diffraction showing no microstructural changes post-blending. Thermal characterization exhibited notable improvements in thermal stability (~4%) and crystallinity (~7%). Mechanical properties such as hardness and Young’s modulus were improved by up to 4% and 24%, respectively. Tribological studies on different composite samples with varying surface roughness under various load and speed conditions revealed the critical role of surface roughness in reducing friction by decreasing real contact area and adhesive interactions between asperities. Increased load and speed amplified shear stress on asperities, possibly leading to deformation and failure. Notably, integrating CSs into LDPE, starting at 1 wt.%, effectively reduced friction and wear. The composite with the highest loading (8 wt.%) displayed the most significant tribological enhancement, achieving a remarkable 75% friction reduction and a substantial 78% wear reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Coatings)
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16 pages, 2508 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Tribofilm Formation in Boundary Lubrication Investigated Using In Situ Measurements of the Friction Force and Contact Voltage
by Anna E. Tsai and Kyriakos Komvopoulos
Materials 2024, 17(6), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17061335 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 467
Abstract
The complex dynamics of tribofilm formation on boundary-lubricated steel surfaces were investigated in real time by combining in situ measurements of the temporal variation of the coefficient of friction and contact voltage. Sliding experiments were performed with various blends consisting of base oil, [...] Read more.
The complex dynamics of tribofilm formation on boundary-lubricated steel surfaces were investigated in real time by combining in situ measurements of the temporal variation of the coefficient of friction and contact voltage. Sliding experiments were performed with various blends consisting of base oil, zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) additive, and two different dispersants at an elevated oil temperature for a wide range of normal load and fixed sliding speed. The evolution of the transient and steady-state coefficient of friction, contact voltage, and critical sliding distance (time) for stable tribofilm formation were used to evaluate the tribological performance of the tribofilms. The blend composition affected the load dependence of the critical sliding distance for stable tribofilm formation. Tribofilm friction was influenced by competing effects between the additive and the dispersants. Among various formulations examined, the tribofilm with the best friction characteristics was found to be the blend consisting of base oil, a small amount of ZDDP, and a bis-succinimide dispersant treated with ethylene carbonate. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the present experimental approach to track the formation and removal of protective tribofilms under boundary lubrication conditions in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Coatings)
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13 pages, 27992 KiB  
Article
Effect of Scanning Strategy on the Microstructure and Triboperformance of FeNiCrMo Coating Manufactured by Plasma Transferred Arc
by Botao Xiao, Shang Li, Xianglin Song, Qiwen Huang, Jin Lou, Jun Fang, Pengfei Hou and Huatang Cao
Materials 2023, 16(17), 5931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16175931 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 696
Abstract
To increase the coating thickness and service life of the FeNiCrMo coating, a plasma transferred arc (PTA) double-track alloying technique was employed to enhance the surface triboperformance of the ductile iron. Optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA), scanning [...] Read more.
To increase the coating thickness and service life of the FeNiCrMo coating, a plasma transferred arc (PTA) double-track alloying technique was employed to enhance the surface triboperformance of the ductile iron. Optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Vickers hardness tester, and tribological tester were subsequently used to evaluate the effect of the double alloying treatment tracks on the microstructure and triboperformance of the coating. The results indicate that the content of the cementite in the sample with a double-track treatment increases 3.90 wt.% and the content of the martensite decreases 13.04 wt.% compared with the sample with a single-track treatment, which results in the maximum microhardness of the sample fabricated by double track increasing from 837 ± 10 HV0.2 for the sample fabricated by single track to 871 ± 7 HV0.2. Thus, the wear rate is lower than that of the sample with a single-track treatment. In addition, the distribution of alloying elements is more uniform and coating thickness is higher in the double track than those of the single-track-treated one. Therefore, the double-track PTA alloying treatment is favored for hardfacing ductile iron with a FeNiCrMo alloy coating due to its enhanced triboperformance and longer service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Coatings)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Enhancing the tribological properties of low-density polyethylene using hard carbon microfillers
Authors: Samuel Solomon; Rachel Hall; Jibao He; Vijay John; Noshir Pesika
Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70118. (USA)
Abstract: The application of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been limited to packaging due to its inadequate mechanical and tribological characteristics. We propose enhancing LDPE by integrating hard carbon spheres (CS) to improve its strength, friction, and wear resistance. LDPE/CS composites were created by blending LDPE with varying CS amounts (0.5 – 8wt.%). Analysis using scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed CS presence in the LDPE matrix, with X-ray diffraction showing no microstructural changes post-blending. Thermal characterization exhibited notable improvements in thermal stability (~4%) and crystallinity (~7%), alongside hardness and Young’s modulus increases by up to 4% and 24%, respectively. Tribological studies on different composite samples with varying surface roughness under various load and speed conditions revealed surface roughness's pivotal role in reducing friction by decreasing real contact area and adhesive interactions between asperities. Increased load and speed amplified shear stress on asperities, possibly leading to deformation and failure. Notably, integrating CS in LDPE, starting at 1wt.%, effectively reduced friction and wear. The composite with the highest loading (8wt.%) displayed the most significant tribological enhancement, achieving a remarkable 75% friction reduction and a substantial 78% wear reduction.

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