Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays Based on Nanomaterials

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Chemical Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 10495

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Sensors, Biosensors and Advanced Materials, Department of Physical Medicine and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of La Laguna, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Spain
Interests: nanomaterial synthesis and applications; biomedical and bioanalytical applications; biosensors; drug delivery; contrast agent; magneto-bioassays; electrochemical methods

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Sensors, Biosensors and Advanced Materials, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of La Laguna, 38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Spain
Interests: biosensors; immunosensors; genosensors; biomedical and bioanalytical applications; magneto-bioassays; electrochemical methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The synthesis, biofunctionalization and application of novel nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles, metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles, nanocomposites…) open a plethora of possibilities for both biosensor and bioassay applications. Nanomaterials provide unique chemical, physical, electronic, and magnetic properties, and make them very attractive for developing novel and outstanding devices for biosensing applications. For example, magnetic nanoparticles, as nanosized support in electrochemical bioassays, offer numerous advantages such as: (1) adequate immobilization of the biorecognition biomolecule, (2) fast washing steps using a permanent magnet, (3) incorporation of pre-concentration steps, (4) better sensitivity, selectivity, and LOD, etc. In addition, biosensors and bioassays are a good example of interdisciplinarity where many areas of the science (analytical chemistry, surface and material sciences, biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, device fabrications, etc.) converge. Bioassay and biosensor technologies have the potential to speed up the target detection, increase specificity and sensitivity, and may be used for early diagnosis. In addition, different types of bioreceptors (enzymes, antibodies, oligonucleotides, affinity proteins, etc.) and transduction elements may be combined. Among different approaches, electrochemical transduction offers the advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity, low cost, miniaturization, real-time output, simplicity of starting materials, and the possibility to develop user-friendly and ready-to-use biosensors and bioassays.

Dr. Pedro Salazar
Dr. Soledad Carinelli
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • nanotechnology
  • nanomaterials
  • magnetic beads
  • nanoparticles
  • biofunctionalization
  • immunosensors
  • biosensors
  • aptasensors
  • genosensors
  • environmental analysis
  • bioanalytical applications
  • electrochemical transduction methods
  • electrochemical bioassays
  • enzyme linked immunomagnetic electrochemical assay (ELIME)

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 6392 KiB  
Article
L-Glutamate Biosensor for In Vitro Investigations: Application in Brain Extracts
by Julija Razumiene, Damiana Leo, Vidute Gureviciene, Dalius Ratautas, Justina Gaidukevic and Ieva Sakinyte-Urbikiene
Chemosensors 2023, 11(8), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11080418 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Investigations of L-glutamate release in living organisms can help to identify novel L-glutamate-related pathophysiological pathways, since abnormal transmission of L-glutamate can cause many neurological diseases. For the first time, a nitrogen-modified graphene oxide (GO) sample (RGO) is prepared through a simple and facile [...] Read more.
Investigations of L-glutamate release in living organisms can help to identify novel L-glutamate-related pathophysiological pathways, since abnormal transmission of L-glutamate can cause many neurological diseases. For the first time, a nitrogen-modified graphene oxide (GO) sample (RGO) is prepared through a simple and facile one-pot hydrothermal reduction of GO in the presence of 20 wt.% of the dye malachite green and is used for amperometric biosensing. The biosensor demonstrates adequate stability and is easy to prepare and calibrate. The biosensor detects the current generated during the electrooxidation of hydrogen peroxide released in the L-glutamate that is converted to the alpha-ketoglutarate catalyzed by L-glutamate oxidase. The biosensor consists of a semipermeable membrane, with L-glutamate oxidase (EC 1.4.3.11) immobilized in albumin and RGO and the working Pt electrode. First, the basic version of the L-glutamate biosensor is examined in PBS to investigate its sensitivity, reliability, and stability. To demonstrate the applicability of the L-glutamate biosensor in the analysis of complex real samples, quantification of L-glutamate in bovine brain extract is performed and the accuracy of the biosensor is confirmed by alternative methods. The enhanced version of the L-glutamate biosensor is applied for L-glutamate release investigations in a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays Based on Nanomaterials)
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15 pages, 3596 KiB  
Article
Determination of Dipyridamole Using a MIP-Modified Disposable Pencil Graphite Electrode
by Daniel Preda, Maria Lorena Jinga, Iulia Gabriela David and Gabriel Lucian Radu
Chemosensors 2023, 11(7), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11070400 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
A new method for the determination of the antiplatelet drug dipyridamole (DIP) in pharmaceuticals using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) is proposed. The modified electrode was prepared simply and rapidly by electropolymerization of caffeic acid (CA) in the presence [...] Read more.
A new method for the determination of the antiplatelet drug dipyridamole (DIP) in pharmaceuticals using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) is proposed. The modified electrode was prepared simply and rapidly by electropolymerization of caffeic acid (CA) in the presence of DIP and subsequent DIP extraction with ethanol, resulting in a cost-effective, eco-friendly disposable modified electrode (MIP_PGE). Several working conditions (monomer and template concentration, number of voltametric cycles, scan rate extraction time, and solvent) for the MIP_PGE preparation were optimized. The differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) oxidation signal of DIP obtained at MIP_PGE was 28% higher than that recorded at bare PGE. Cyclic voltammetry emphasized DIP irreversible, pH-dependent, diffusion-controlled oxidation at MIP_PGE. Differential pulse and adsorptive stripping voltammetry at MIP_PGE in phosphate buffer solution pH = 7.00 were applied for the drug quantitative determination in the range of 1.00 × 10−7–1.00 × 10−5 and 1.00 × 10−8–5.00 × 10−7 mol/L DIP, respectively. The obtained limits of detection were at the tens nanomolar level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays Based on Nanomaterials)
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19 pages, 3167 KiB  
Article
Haptoglobin Electrochemical Diagnostic Method for Subclinical Mastitis Detection in Bovine Milk
by Soledad Carinelli, Iñigo Fernández, José Luis González-Mora and Pedro A. Salazar-Carballo
Chemosensors 2023, 11(7), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11070378 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
This work proposes an outstanding screening magneto-bioassay for the early identification of bovine subclinical mastitis. Haptoglobin (Hp) was used as a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. To this end, novel chitosan-modified magnetic particles, coated with haemoglobin-modified polyaniline (MNPs@Chi/PANI-Hb), have been [...] Read more.
This work proposes an outstanding screening magneto-bioassay for the early identification of bovine subclinical mastitis. Haptoglobin (Hp) was used as a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. To this end, novel chitosan-modified magnetic particles, coated with haemoglobin-modified polyaniline (MNPs@Chi/PANI-Hb), have been integrated in a sensitive electrochemical Hp bioassay. Haemoglobin was used as bioreceptor due to its high affinity against Hp. The appropriateness of their synthesis and their modifications were demonstrated by XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption–desorption analyses. After the optimization of the experimental parameters the main analytical features were obtained showing excellent performance. The electrochemical biosensor in milk matrix presented a dynamic range of 0.001 to 0.32 μg mL−1 with a detection limit of 0.031 μg mL−1, a value much lower than the normal Hp values in bovine milk, making it highly suitable for such determinations. Finally, real milk samples, obtained from local dairy farmers, were analysed by the electrochemical bioassay and compared against a commercial ELISA kit for Hp detection. Milk samples were correctly classified as “acceptable” or “unacceptable” milk considering the Hp concentration obtained with the proposed bioassay, confirming its excellent predictive capacity for subclinical mastitis diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays Based on Nanomaterials)
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13 pages, 2432 KiB  
Article
Polymeric Composite including Magnetite Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection
by Maria Roniele Felix Oliveira, Pilar Herrasti, Roselayne Ferro Furtado, Airis Maria Araújo Melo and Carlucio Roberto Alves
Chemosensors 2023, 11(6), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11060323 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
The combination of a biopolymer and a conductive polymer can produce new materials with improved physico-chemical and morphological properties that enhance their use as sensors. Magnetite nanoparticles (MN) can be further introduced to these new matrices to improve the analytical performance. This study [...] Read more.
The combination of a biopolymer and a conductive polymer can produce new materials with improved physico-chemical and morphological properties that enhance their use as sensors. Magnetite nanoparticles (MN) can be further introduced to these new matrices to improve the analytical performance. This study aimed to evaluate the electrocatalytic response of nanocomposites formed by the introduction of MN to polypyrrole (PPy) doped in the presence of cashew gum polysaccharide (CGP) and in the presence of carboxymethylated cashew gum polysaccharide (CCGP). Characterization of the nanocomposites was carried out via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and showed that the absorption band of the blend was shifted to a higher frequency in the nanocomposites, indicating the intermolecular interaction between the blend and nanoparticles. The electrocatalytic performance of the nanocomposites was evaluated by applying a constant potential of −0.7 V with successive additions of H2O2 (1 mmol L−1) in 10 mmol L−1 phosphate buffer under agitation at pH 7.5. The nanocomposite formed by the introduction of MN to polypyrrole doped with cashew gum polysaccharide (PPy(cgp)–MN) displayed excellent electrocatalytic surface properties, with high H2O2 specificity, a linear response (R2 = 0.99), high sensitivity (0.28 µmol L−1), and a low H2O2 detection limit (0.072 mmol L−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays Based on Nanomaterials)
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Review

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26 pages, 6555 KiB  
Review
Aptamer-Based Optical and Electrochemical Sensors: A Review
by Sidra Farid, Shreya Ghosh, Mitra Dutta and Michael A. Stroscio
Chemosensors 2023, 11(12), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11120569 - 21 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
There is a pressing need to identify recent directions in the field of aptamer-based sensing. DNA aptamers that are synthetically generated by in vitro selection mechanisms using the SELEX technique are single-stranded oligonucleotides which are selected to bind to a target with favorable [...] Read more.
There is a pressing need to identify recent directions in the field of aptamer-based sensing. DNA aptamers that are synthetically generated by in vitro selection mechanisms using the SELEX technique are single-stranded oligonucleotides which are selected to bind to a target with favorable sensitivity and selectivity. These aptamers have attracted significant attention due to their high binding affinity and ability to be easily engineered and provide various detection modes in what are known as aptasensors. Our aim is to focus on specialized detection strategies that have gained less attention but are of vital importance, such as optical detection in live cells, fluorescence polarization sensing, multi-analyte detection, colorimetric bioassays, wavelength shifting, and electrochemical-based detection. This will provide us with a perspective to facilitate developments in aptasensor technology for various targets, promising a bright future for biological receptors in the field of biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays Based on Nanomaterials)
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25 pages, 3136 KiB  
Review
Synthesis and Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biosensing and Bioassay Applications: A Review
by Soledad Carinelli, Maximina Luis-Sunga, José Luis González-Mora and Pedro A. Salazar-Carballo
Chemosensors 2023, 11(10), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11100533 - 10 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Biosensors are analytical devices that use biological interactions to detect and quantify single molecules, clinical biomarkers, contaminants, allergens, and microorganisms. By coupling bioreceptors with transducers, such as nucleic acids or proteins, biosensors convert biological interactions into electrical signals. Electrochemical and optical transductions are [...] Read more.
Biosensors are analytical devices that use biological interactions to detect and quantify single molecules, clinical biomarkers, contaminants, allergens, and microorganisms. By coupling bioreceptors with transducers, such as nucleic acids or proteins, biosensors convert biological interactions into electrical signals. Electrochemical and optical transductions are the most widely used methods due to their high detection capability and compatibility with miniaturization. Biosensors are valuable in analytical chemistry, especially for health diagnostics, as they offer simplicity and sensitivity. Despite their usefulness, challenges persist in immobilizing biorecognition elements on the transducer surface, leading to issues such as loss of sensitivity and selectivity. To address these problems, the introduction of nanomaterials, in particular magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetic beads, has been implemented. MNPs combine their magnetic properties with other interesting characteristics, such as their small size, high surface-to-volume ratio, easy handling, and excellent biocompatibility, resulting in improved specificity and sensitivity and reduced matrix effects. They can be tailored to specific applications and have been extensively used in various fields, including biosensing and clinical diagnosis. In addition, MNPs simplify sample preparation by isolating the target analytes via magnetic separation, thus reducing the analysis time and interference phenomena and improving the analytical performance of detection. The synthesis and modification of MNPs play a crucial role in adjusting their properties for different applications. This review presents an overview of the synthesis and surface modifications of magnetic nanoparticles and their contributions to the development of biosensors and bioassays for their applications across different areas. The future challenges of MNP synthesis and integration in assays are focused on their stability, multiplex detection, simplification and portability of test platforms, and in vivo applications, among other areas of development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays Based on Nanomaterials)
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24 pages, 3050 KiB  
Review
Micro-Magnetofluidic System for Rare Cell Analysis: From Principle to Translation
by Kangfu Chen and Zongjie Wang
Chemosensors 2023, 11(6), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11060335 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
Rare cells play essential roles in the initiation and progression of diseases and therefore their analysis is of great interest. The micro-magnetofluidic system is one of the emerging platforms that have been proposed for the rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective analysis of rare cells. [...] Read more.
Rare cells play essential roles in the initiation and progression of diseases and therefore their analysis is of great interest. The micro-magnetofluidic system is one of the emerging platforms that have been proposed for the rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective analysis of rare cells. Given its unprecedented throughput, micro-magnetofluidic systems have attracted substantial research interest in the last decade—multiple designs have been proposed, validated, and even advanced to the stage of clinical trials. This mini review aims to provide a timely summary of the relevant progress in the field thus far. We reviewed the concepts and realizations of micro-magnetofluidic devices based on the interaction between nanoparticles and on-chip micro-magnets. Their real-world applications in rare cell analysis were also highlighted and explained. In addition, we discussed the major challenges in the development and translation of micro-magnetofluidic into the clinic, including multi-marker capability and large-scale manufacturability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays Based on Nanomaterials)
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