Strategies for Building Energy Efficiency

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 November 2024 | Viewed by 4241

Special Issue Editors

School of Automation, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
Interests: Cyber–physical systems; power system; multi-energy system; renewable energy integration

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Guest Editor
Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Utilization and Energy Saving, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230002, China
Interests: multi-microgrids system; demand response; urban distribution networks

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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072, China
Interests: multi-energy buildings; integrated energy systems; demand response
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Guest Editor
Electric Power Research Institute of China Southern Power Grid, Guangzhou 510623, China
Interests: urban distribution networks; building microgrid

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Co-Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Internet of Things for Smart City, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao 999078, China
Interests: power electronics; power quality; distributed power generation system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The past years have seen a progressive urbanization and building upgrading process, along with the improvements in and popularity of energy-intensive appliances via advanced information and communications technologies. According to the 2022 IEA report, building-associated energy consumption and CO2 account for approximately 33% and 15% of the world’s outputs. An important roadmap consensus of hitting “CO2 peaking and neutrality” is to address building energy issues. Therefore, new generation strategies for building energy efficiency are becoming a pressing need.

In this Special Issue, articles on topics such as building microgrid, building management, building HVAC, urban distribution systems and so on are of interest. This Special Issue intends to act as a forum for the dissemination of the latest research and developments in strategies for building energy in the context of “CO2 peaking and neutrality”.

Dr. Da Xu
Dr. Xiaodong Yang
Dr. Xiaolong Jin
Dr. Xuebo Qiao
Dr. Ziyi Bai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • building microgrid
  • building power/load forecasting
  • building energy consumption
  • demand response strategies
  • transactive energy control
  • building management strategies
  • economic optimization strategies
  • urban distribution systems
  • building HVAC
  • cyber-physical system

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 8392 KiB  
Article
Resilience-Oriented Planning of Urban Distribution System Source–Network–Load–Storage in the Context of High-Penetrated Building-Integrated Resources
by Sheng Zhu, Ping Wang, Wei Lou, Shilin Shen, Tongtong Liu, Shu Yang, Shizhe Xiang and Xiaodong Yang
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051197 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Building-integrated flexible resources can offer economical availability to accommodate high-penetrated renewable energy sources (RESs), which can be potentially coordinated to achieve cost-effective supply. This paper proposes a resilience-oriented planning model of urban distribution system source–network–load–storage in the context of high-penetrated building-integrated resources. In [...] Read more.
Building-integrated flexible resources can offer economical availability to accommodate high-penetrated renewable energy sources (RESs), which can be potentially coordinated to achieve cost-effective supply. This paper proposes a resilience-oriented planning model of urban distribution system source–network–load–storage in the context of high-penetrated building-integrated resources. In this model, source–network–load–storage resources are cost-optimally planned, including the lines, soft open point (SOP), building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs), building-integrated wind turbine (BIWT), building-integrated energy storage system (ESS), etc. To enhance fault recovery capability during extreme faults, fault scenarios are incorporated into the distribution system operation via coupled multiple recovery stages. The resilience-oriented planning is a thorny problem due to its source–network–load–storage couplings, normal-fault couplings, etc. The original resilience-oriented planning is reformulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problem, which can then be solved with a two-stage method and evaluated via a multi-dimensional evaluation metrics. The proposed planning methodology is benchmarked over a Portugal 54-node urban distribution system to verify the superiority and effectiveness on the system economy and resilience levels. Case studies show that the proposed methodology can exploit the optimal synergies of different source–network–load–storage components and enhance system dispatchability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Building Energy Efficiency)
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14 pages, 3745 KiB  
Article
Application of Novel Phase Change Material Constructive Solution for Thermal Regulation of Passive Solar Buildings
by António Figueiredo, Tiago Silva, Margarida Gonçalves and António Samagaio
Buildings 2024, 14(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14020493 - 10 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
A comprehensive investigation regarding the hygrothermal behavior of a constructive solution containing phase change materials (PCMs) was performed on a full-scale test cell, divided into two similar compartments. This involved hygrothermal monitoring (indoor air temperature) of the two compartments, in which one had [...] Read more.
A comprehensive investigation regarding the hygrothermal behavior of a constructive solution containing phase change materials (PCMs) was performed on a full-scale test cell, divided into two similar compartments. This involved hygrothermal monitoring (indoor air temperature) of the two compartments, in which one had PCM incorporated into the floor mortar. The main goal of this research was to investigate the potential of this kind of solution for overheating mitigation. The numerical study was conducted using EnergyPlus® software (version 9.0), exploring different natural ventilation flow rates to gauge the novel solution’s potential to reduce overheating rates. The results from the monitoring studies revealed prolonged periods of thermal discomfort in both test cells, particularly overheating. However, it was proven that the PCM application in one of the test cells led to a reduction of almost 10 °C in the maximum peak of air temperature. In the simulation analysis, the increase in the ventilation rate led to a linear decrease in the overheating hours of up to one renovation per hour, and then the reductions were attenuated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Building Energy Efficiency)
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22 pages, 3862 KiB  
Article
Integrated Interactive Control of Distribution Systems with Multi-Building Microgrids Based on Game Theory
by Wei Lou, Shenglong Zhu, Bin Xu, Taiyun Zhu, Licheng Sun, Ming Wang and Xunting Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14020325 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 627
Abstract
In the transactional processes within a multi-building microgrid system, it is imperative to safeguard stakeholders’ interests and ensure stable, economically efficient operation. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated interactive control of distribution systems with multi-building microgrids based on game theory. Initially, an interactive [...] Read more.
In the transactional processes within a multi-building microgrid system, it is imperative to safeguard stakeholders’ interests and ensure stable, economically efficient operation. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated interactive control of distribution systems with multi-building microgrids based on game theory. Initially, an interactive framework encompassing superior power grids, distribution network operators, and multi-building microgrids is proposed. This framework establishes a master–slave game model between distribution network operators and multi-building microgrids. Additionally, it introduces the concept of Soft Open Points between building microgrids to enhance system operational safety while also reducing economic costs for distribution network operators. Subsequently, to maintain solution accuracy and optimality, it employs linearization and cone relaxation methods to transform the original model into a mixed-integer second-order cone programming model. Furthermore, it enhances an iterative search method and the price mechanism based on supply and demand ratios. The revised price mechanism serves to boost the participation of building microgrid users in energy regulation, while the iterative search method effectively resolves the equilibrium point of interest among all game participants. Finally, a simulation analysis is conducted on an IEEE-33 test system, and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified by comparing three schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Building Energy Efficiency)
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21 pages, 3065 KiB  
Article
Peer-to-Peer Transactive Computation–Electricity Trading for Interconnected Virtual Power Plant Buildings
by Zhiping Gao, Wenwen Kang, Xinghua Chen, Sheng Ding, Wei Xu, Degang He, Wenhu Chen and Da Xu
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 3096; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123096 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Advancements of the virtual power plant (VPP) concept have aggregated buildings as their power plants and/or service providers. This paper proposes a peer-to-peer transactive computation–electricity trading framework for multiple-building virtual power plants (BVPPs). In this framework, the interconnected BVPPs can proactively trade their [...] Read more.
Advancements of the virtual power plant (VPP) concept have aggregated buildings as their power plants and/or service providers. This paper proposes a peer-to-peer transactive computation–electricity trading framework for multiple-building virtual power plants (BVPPs). In this framework, the interconnected BVPPs can proactively trade their available computation–electricity with each other. Multiple BVPP trading is an intractable optimization problem due to its strong computation–electricity decision-making couplings. Thus, the original problem is described as a game theoretic problem and resolved into the sequential subproblems of social computation–electricity allocation and payoff allocation. By considering the local decision-making of heterogeneous BVPPs, a fully distributed algorithm is further designed to optimize the trading problem by sharing only limited trading information. Finally, a three-BVPP system is used to verify the merits of system resource utilization and operational economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Building Energy Efficiency)
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21 pages, 4569 KiB  
Article
Optimal Cluster Scheduling of Active–Reactive Power for Distribution Network Considering Aggregated Flexibility of Heterogeneous Building-Integrated DERs
by Yu Fu, Shuqing Hao, Junhao Zhang, Liwen Yu, Yuxin Luo and Kuan Zhang
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2854; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112854 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 660
Abstract
This paper proposes an active–reactive power collaborative scheduling model with cluster division for the flexible distributed energy resources (DERs) of smart-building systems to resolve the high complexity of the centralized optimal scheduling of massive dispersed DERs in the distribution network. Specifically, the optimization [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an active–reactive power collaborative scheduling model with cluster division for the flexible distributed energy resources (DERs) of smart-building systems to resolve the high complexity of the centralized optimal scheduling of massive dispersed DERs in the distribution network. Specifically, the optimization objective of each cluster is to minimize the operational cost, the power-loss cost, and the penalty cost for flexibility deficiency, and the second-order cone-based branch flow method is utilized to convert the power-flow equations into linearized cone constraints, reducing the nonlinearity and heavy computation burden of the scheduling model. Customized virtual battery models for building-integrated flexible DERs are developed to aggregate the power characteristics of flexible resources while quantifying their regulation capacities with time-shifting power and energy boundaries. Moreover, a cluster division algorithm considering the module degree index based on the electrical distance and the flexible balance contribution index is formulated for cluster division to achieve information exchange and energy interaction in the distribution network with a high proportion of building-integrated flexible DERs. Comparative studies have demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed methodology in economic merits and voltage regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Building Energy Efficiency)
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