Urban Transport Systems Efficiency, Network Planning and Safety: Volume II

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Transportation and Future Mobility".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 19034

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Transport, Warsaw University of Technology, 00662 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: modeling and optimization of logistics systems; material flow simulation; intermodal transport technology; intermodal terminals design and optimization; ecology in transport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Transport, Warsaw University of Technology, 00662 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: modelling logistic processes; logistics; warehouse design; warehousing; order picking
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapid population growth of cities and the growing mobility needs of their inhabitants make it necessary to constantly increase the efficiency of urban transport systems. The efficiency of a transport system refers to how well the system achieves its goals. The measurement of efficiency is extremely important, because it provides information about how effectively the system works. This allows the early diagnosis of problems and the search for effective solutions. Ensuring the high efficiency of transport systems in cities requires the consideration of a number of contributing factors.

One of the most prevalent transport challenges in large urban agglomerations is congestion and parking difficulties. Congestion is particularly linked with motorization and the diffusion of the automobile, which has increased the demand for transport infrastructures. Limited parking infrastructure causes private car users to spend a lot of time finding the right parking lot. Unfortunately, the development of transport infrastructure is very difficult, especially in city centers where the phenomenon of congestion is most problematic. However, it is possible to strategically plan this infrastructure, especially in the developing areas of cities, and forecast the demand for transport in each area. This is crucial for minimizing later urban transport problems.

The phenomenon of congestion in cities causes many people to use public transport. Proper planning of public transport makes it incomparably more effective than individual transport.

People traveling from suburban areas must consider the need to transfer between suburban and urban transport. In order to increase the efficiency of this type of transport, it is necessary to properly synchronize the timetables of suburban and urban transport vehicles. In addition, ensuring the appropriate location and high functionality of urban transport interchange facilities is crucial for efficient mobility.

The issue of the efficiency of urban transport also concerns pedestrians and cyclists. Unfortunately,

these difficulties are either the outcome of intense traffic, in which the mobility of pedestrians, bicycles, and other non-motorized vehicles is impaired, or ba blatant lack of consideration for pedestrians and bicycles in the physical design of infrastructures and facilities.

Increasing vehicle traffic in urban areas negatively impacts the safety of people and the environment. Therefore, planning various areas of urban transport from the point of view of human and environmental safety should be the basic decision-making criterion in this regard.

An important aspect of urban transport is the movement of freight, which commonly shares infrastructures that support the circulation of passengers. The growth of e-commerce and home deliveries has created additional pressures on the urban mobility of freight. It is therefore important to establish strategies to mitigate the variety of challenges faced by urban freight distribution.

This Special Issue aims to combine the different aspects of urban transport systems into one picture for a new look at the mobility of people and freight transport in the city. We hope you will consider contributing to this Special Issue.

Dr. Roland Jachimowski
Dr. Michał Kłodawski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • urban transport
  • urban network planning
  • public transport modeling
  • transport safety
  • environment protection
  • multimodal interchange facilities
  • traffic congestion
  • urban freight transport
  • city logistics

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 2016 KiB  
Article
A Traffic Equilibrium Model for Multi-Modal Networks with Uncertain Demands
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12841; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312841 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 436
Abstract
In this study, an effective travel cost (ETC) traffic equilibrium model is proposed for multi-modal networks with uncertain demands. The multi-modal networks are transformed into supernetworks and travel demands are assumed to be closed intervals. Passenger flows and travel costs are also formulated [...] Read more.
In this study, an effective travel cost (ETC) traffic equilibrium model is proposed for multi-modal networks with uncertain demands. The multi-modal networks are transformed into supernetworks and travel demands are assumed to be closed intervals. Passenger flows and travel costs are also formulated as closed intervals to capture the effects of uncertain demands. The ETC concept is introduced and regarded as a choice criterion to develop an equilibrium model which captures travellers’ travel mode and route choice behavior under interval travel costs. The model is formulated as a variational inequality problem, and the method of successive average algorithm is adapted to interval mathematics to obtain the results in the form of interval variables. Illustrative examples are also presented to demonstrate the model’s characteristics and its differences from the traditional equilibrium model, in which the expected travel cost is regarded as the choice criterion. Full article
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28 pages, 1042 KiB  
Article
Authenticity, and Approval Framework for Bus Transportation Based on Blockchain 2.0 Technology
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11323; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011323 - 15 Oct 2023
Viewed by 903
Abstract
The intelligent transport system (ITS) has transformed urban transportation, enhancing daily commutes with services like congestion management, vehicle crash prevention, traffic control, roadside safety, breakdown assistance, ticket booking, vehicle registration, and insurance. However, in urban bus transportation, the ITS faces security threats, such [...] Read more.
The intelligent transport system (ITS) has transformed urban transportation, enhancing daily commutes with services like congestion management, vehicle crash prevention, traffic control, roadside safety, breakdown assistance, ticket booking, vehicle registration, and insurance. However, in urban bus transportation, the ITS faces security threats, such as data forgery and manipulation. To counter these challenges, a blockchain-based framework for bus transportation approval is proposed, ensuring data integrity and security. The framework’s performance is evaluated based on processing time, central processing unit (CPU), graphical processing unit (GPU), cloud usage, and memory consumption, and compared to Ethereum and Aurora testnet, in terms of gas cost, security, and performance. Stochastic algorithms, including the genetic algorithm and Tabu search, are used for time complexity analysis, to obtain an optimized solution. The decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) analysis is also performed to assess factors like transaction costs, execution time, memory consumption, and security. The results show that execution time, memory consumption, and processing time are crucial, while transaction cost, reliability, and transparency positively impact the system’s effectiveness. By reducing the risk of false data presentation and ensuring accurate records, the proposed framework contributes to a more efficient and reliable transportation system. Full article
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31 pages, 16202 KiB  
Article
Application of Traffic Weighted Multi-Maps Based on Disjoint Routing Areas for Static Traffic Assignment
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10071; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810071 - 06 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 673
Abstract
Urban traffic congestion is a pressing issue, demanding effective and cost-efficient solutions. This paper develops the Traffic Weighted Multi-Maps (TWM) method to solve the Traffic Assignment Problem in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). TWM offers drivers diverse views of the network, promoting path diversity [...] Read more.
Urban traffic congestion is a pressing issue, demanding effective and cost-efficient solutions. This paper develops the Traffic Weighted Multi-Maps (TWM) method to solve the Traffic Assignment Problem in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). TWM offers drivers diverse views of the network, promoting path diversity and adaptability. Providing an optimal TWM configuration to the traffic demand in terms of structure and allocation policy is a challenging issue as it usually depends on the size of the network and its complexity. The paper explores TWM generation and assignment by applying routing areas based on semi-disjointed k-shortest paths and allocating them using a per-sub flow optimized assignment policy. This approach allows obtaining a pseudo-optimal solution for static traffic assignment with similar results in terms of total travel time compared to the direct solution of calculating optimal map weights and the theoretical system optimum. It offers a cost-effective solution valid for wide urban areas, as the TWM calculation depends on the variety of the traffic flows and the number of semi-disjoint routing areas considered instead of the network complexity and size. Urban network experiments with synthetic traffic demands are studied under different TWM adoption rates, comparing results with existing traffic assignment policies and estimation methods. It highlights its potential for enhancing urban traffic management. Overall, TWM presents a promising approach to addressing urban traffic congestion efficiently. Full article
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14 pages, 6708 KiB  
Article
Designing a C-ITS Communication Infrastructure for Traffic Signal Priority of Public Transport
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7650; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137650 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
Looking ahead: transforming conventional public transport prioritization into C-ITS G5 services. The city of Frankfurt aims to digitize its public transport prioritization system in order to fulfill the requirements of future public transport communication standards and, moreover, to build on this very infrastructure [...] Read more.
Looking ahead: transforming conventional public transport prioritization into C-ITS G5 services. The city of Frankfurt aims to digitize its public transport prioritization system in order to fulfill the requirements of future public transport communication standards and, moreover, to build on this very infrastructure for the development of imminent C-ITS services. Therefore, the communication systems of the mobility and transport provider VGF (Verkehrsgesellschaft Frankfurt am Main mbH) are being revised fundamentally by implementing new technologies for Car2X C-ITS G5 communication. The hardware components of the C-ITS system are strategically positioned with the help of a newly developed planning tool that identifies and determines the range of communication. For highly significant sites and locations of the hardware components, the calculated data are validated by utilizing measurements within a mobile setup. The operational stability and the development of previously unused potential are then carried out via the combination of the C-ITS services TSP (Traffic Signal Priority) and GLOSA (Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory). The overlay of the C-ITS services results in a high level of operational stability. As a result, potentials can be adequately employed through the sensible shifting of waiting times to the stops and a smooth flow of traffic through information on optimal speed and remaining times of the traffic light potentials. This paper presents a new methodology with which it is now possible to plan and evaluate C-ITS with regard to service distribution and radio propagation. Full article
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20 pages, 4857 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Combined Effect of Travelers’ Contrarian Behavior, Learning and Inertia on the Day-to-Day Dynamics of Route Choice
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 3294; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13053294 - 04 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Understanding the many facets of repeated route choice behavior in traffic networks is essential for obtaining accurate flow forecasts and enhancing the effectiveness of traffic management measures. This paper presents a model of the day-to-day evolution of route choices incorporating travelers’ contrarian behavior, [...] Read more.
Understanding the many facets of repeated route choice behavior in traffic networks is essential for obtaining accurate flow forecasts and enhancing the effectiveness of traffic management measures. This paper presents a model of the day-to-day evolution of route choices incorporating travelers’ contrarian behavior, learning and inertia. The model is formulated as a discrete-time nonlinear dynamical system, and its properties are investigated analytically and numerically with a focus on the effect of the fraction of individuals adopting a contrarian route choice behavior. The findings of the study indicate that the extent of contrarian behavior may have significant impacts on the attractiveness and stability of network equilibria as well as on global system performance. We show that a properly balanced combination of direct and contrarian subjects can protect the system from instabilities triggered by other behavioral and network features. Our results also suggest that the fixed point stability range may depend to a considerable extent on travelers’ inertia and memory of previous experiences, as well as on the form of the travel cost functions used in the model. The occurrence of contrarian behavior should be explicitly taken into account in the design of traffic management schemes involving the deployment of Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATISs), as it may act as a mitigating factor against the concentration of choices on the recommended routes. The analytical framework proposed in this paper represents a novel contribution, since contrarian behavior in repeated route choice has been investigated mainly by means of empirical or simulation approaches thus far. Full article
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30 pages, 1578 KiB  
Article
Nash Equilibrium and Stackelberg Approach for Traffic Flow Optimization in Road Transportation Networks—A Case Study of Warsaw
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 3085; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13053085 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
The article discusses the issue of modelling traffic flows and the transport network. Faced with an increase in the number of vehicles in road networks, the problem of congestion and the need to optimise traffic and adapt the transport infrastructure to changing demand [...] Read more.
The article discusses the issue of modelling traffic flows and the transport network. Faced with an increase in the number of vehicles in road networks, the problem of congestion and the need to optimise traffic and adapt the transport infrastructure to changing demand are growing, especially in large cities. With this in mind, the authors of this publication developed a model of the road network in the north-eastern part of the Warsaw agglomeration based on the proposed algorithm. Two methods were used to optimise the distribution of traffic flows: the Nash equilibrium and the Stackelberg approach. The Nash equilibrium assumes the aim of achieving equal average times on all roads for each origin–destination (O-D) pair. This describes the state pursued by a decentralised system guided by the individual benefits of the traffic users. On the contrary, the Stackelberg approach aims to achieve optimal travel times for the entire system. The study was carried out for three scenarios that differed in the assumed traffic demand on the road network. The basic scenario assumed the average hourly traffic demand during the morning peak hour based on traffic measurements. On the other hand, the two alternative scenarios were developed as a 10% variation in traffic volumes from the baseline scenario. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that an increase in traffic volumes for all O-D pairs could result in a decrease in traffic volumes on some links of the road network. This means that the transport network is a complex system and any change in parameters can cause significant and difficult to predict changes. Therefore, the proposed approach is useful in terms of traffic forecasting for road networks under conditions of changing traffic flow volumes. Additionally, the total travel time for the entire system differed for each scenario by a percentage difference of 0.67–1.07% between the optimal solution according to the Nash equilibrium and the Stackelberg approach. Full article
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14 pages, 3417 KiB  
Article
Study on Highway Alignment Optimization Considering Rollover Stability Based on Two-Dimensional Point Collision Dynamics
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010509 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
In order to reduce the influence of unreasonable road alignment design on vehicle driving safety, a study on road alignment optimization and vehicle driving safety based on two-dimensional point collision dynamics was carried out. First, through the two-dimensional point collision dynamics model, the [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the influence of unreasonable road alignment design on vehicle driving safety, a study on road alignment optimization and vehicle driving safety based on two-dimensional point collision dynamics was carried out. First, through the two-dimensional point collision dynamics model, the relationship of the kinematic parameters before and after vehicle collision was deduced. Second, according to the vehicle–road coupling dynamic model analysis after collision, the safety threshold between the radius of the circular curve and the road superelevation was derived by taking vehicle rollover as the critical condition. Next, the road alignment optimization scheme based on vehicle rollover stability after collision was proposed. Finally, the rationality of the optimization scheme was verified by PC-Crash simulation. The simulation results showed that the proposed optimization scheme of the minimum radius and superelevation of the circular curve meets the safety requirements of vehicle rollover. This study optimized the relevant indicators of the road alignment under the premise of ensuring vehicle rollover stability and provides a reference for the improvement and optimization of road alignment design. It also has important guiding significance for the formulation of vehicle driving safety management measures. Full article
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25 pages, 8577 KiB  
Article
Multivehicle Point-to-Point Network Problem Formulation for UAM Operation Management Used with Dynamic Scheduling
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11858; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211858 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce a new formulation of the multivehicle point-to-point network problem to be utilised in urban air mobility (UAM) vertiport-to-vertiport network operations. Vehicle routing problems (VRPs) and their variants have previously been studied and applied in real-world situations, but these [...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce a new formulation of the multivehicle point-to-point network problem to be utilised in urban air mobility (UAM) vertiport-to-vertiport network operations. Vehicle routing problems (VRPs) and their variants have previously been studied and applied in real-world situations, but these problems require additional depot locations, and not all the vehicles can travel to all the locations. In UAM operations, additional depot locations may not be required, and all vehicles can travel to all locations, meaning that existing routing problems are not suitable for application to the management of UAMs. Therefore, we propose a new formulation for UAM vertiport-to-vertiport operation by introducing new constraints. In addition, we integrate dynamic scheduling with the flight mission by controlling cruise speed and waiting in each UAM at each vertiport location to generate an arrival and departure schedule for different vertiports that can avoid collisions and increase the number of vehicles. A computational experiment is conducted using an MILP model, and the results show that although our formulation satisfies the problem definition, the computation time increases exponentially with an increase in the problem size. A case study is conducted in the Seoul area involving five vertiports, with 10- and 15-vehicle scenarios studied. This case study shows that the cruise speed variable is active only for the lower and upper bounds under dynamic scheduling, whereas the waiting time variable can be controlled between user-defined limits that can be applied to the management of vertiport-to-vertiport UAM operations. Full article
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27 pages, 4237 KiB  
Article
Study on the Evolution and Coupling Coordinated Development of Passenger and Freight Transport Network of New Western Land-Sea Corridor
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11554; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211554 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Based on the associated network of passenger and freight transport in the New Western Land-Sea Corridor, the structure and characteristics of passenger and freight transport network in different years are analyzed using passenger volume and freight volume, and the resilience of the network [...] Read more.
Based on the associated network of passenger and freight transport in the New Western Land-Sea Corridor, the structure and characteristics of passenger and freight transport network in different years are analyzed using passenger volume and freight volume, and the resilience of the network is analyzed using the disturbance model. Finally, the coordinated development of passenger transport and logistics is discussed by applying a coupling coordination model. The results show that, from 2000 to 2018, the New Western Land-Sea Corridor has realized the evolution of the spatial pattern of passenger transport network from “two center and numerous branches” to “three centers and three auxiliaries”. Moreover, the evolution of the spatial pattern of the freight transport network changed from “two centers and one auxiliary” to “one center and multiple auxiliaries”. In terms of network tenacity, the disturbance strategy based on node degree value has the strongest damage to the performance of passenger and freight transport networks. The coupling coordination value is gradually rising from a low level and finally develops to an ordered trend. Therefore, it is proposed that passenger transport development could be supported from the “growth pole” and “zone” development modes, while the logistics development would adopt the “axis” development pattern and focus on the protection of the vital city nodes in the corresponding network. In this way, it can realize the effective connection of multiple paths, improve the tenacity of network and boost hub economy, consummate the regional coordination mechanism, and finally promote the advancement of the New Western Land-Sea Corridor. Full article
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14 pages, 2289 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Behavior of Vehicle Drivers at Signal-Controlled Intersection Approach while Waiting for a Green Signal—A Case Study in Poland
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10133; https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910133 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
The article presents the results of research on the behavior of vehicle drivers who, in the congested city road network (during the transport peak period), were unable to pass a traffic light-controlled intersection during one signaling cycle. They were therefore forced to wait [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of research on the behavior of vehicle drivers who, in the congested city road network (during the transport peak period), were unable to pass a traffic light-controlled intersection during one signaling cycle. They were therefore forced to wait in line at least once on the red signal before they could continue their journey. Empirical research was conducted at several intersections with traffic lights in Poland, in the cities of Bydgoszcz and Toruń. In addition, the database was supplemented with the results of surveys, which were decided to be conducted in the form of electronic form during the COVID-19 pandemic through dedicated surveys and social networking sites. The analysis of the results of field studies confirms that most drivers commit traffic offenses in the form of using mobile devices in their hands (over 60%) in the period after the start of transmitting the red signal and after stopping the vehicle. Interestingly, less than 40% of respondents admitted this offense in the survey. Full article
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17 pages, 2475 KiB  
Article
Study on the Evolution and Resilience of Rail Transit Time Networks—Evidence from China
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9950; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199950 - 03 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
In the network operation and management of rail transit systems, the occurrence of unexpected events causes damage to the network structure, further hindering regional accessibility performance and the function of the system. This study is based on the rail transit operation schedules in [...] Read more.
In the network operation and management of rail transit systems, the occurrence of unexpected events causes damage to the network structure, further hindering regional accessibility performance and the function of the system. This study is based on the rail transit operation schedules in 2009, 2013, 2016, 2019 and 2022. We construct a directional weighted rail transit time network (RNNT) with train operation time as the weight, compare the betweenness centrality, sum of the shortest time path and entropy importance, etc., and quantitatively measure the network accessibility, connectivity and its resilience evolution. The results show that the current rail transportation network in China has a “small-world” effect, and there are a few stations with strong connections. The most densely distributed intervals of travel times between pairs of nodes changes from [440, 445] to [207, 210]. The fastest and best-performing disturbance to network connectivity and accessibility performance are both caused by the betweenness disturbance strategy. When the network connectivity remains 80% effective, the ratio of failed nodes under the static betweenness centrality strategy decreases from 3.96% in 2009 to 2.31% in 2022, with weaker connections between node pairs, and their network resilience diminishes. When the network accessibility remains 80% effective, the ratio of failed nodes under the static (dynamic) betweenness centrality strategy increases from 0.13% (0.13%) in 2009 to 0.20% (0.23%) in 2022. Therefore, the rail transit network can protect the corresponding rail stations based on the station ranking of the above strategies, and this research is beneficial to rail transit network protection and structure optimization. Full article
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25 pages, 3192 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Train Operation Planning with Full-Length and Short-Turn Routes of Virtual Coupling Trains
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7935; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157935 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Virtual coupling uses wireless communication instead of mechanical coupling to ensure that trains are easily reconnected or disconnected. This technology can shorten the interval time between trains, give full play to the carrying capacity of lines, and improve the service level of urban [...] Read more.
Virtual coupling uses wireless communication instead of mechanical coupling to ensure that trains are easily reconnected or disconnected. This technology can shorten the interval time between trains, give full play to the carrying capacity of lines, and improve the service level of urban rail transit. This paper optimizes the train operation plan with full-length and short-turn routes of virtual coupling trains by establishing a two-level optimization model. The upper model is used to minimize passenger travel time and enterprise operation cost, and the lower model to optimize the equilibrium of train load rate on short-turn routes. Meanwhile, a method based on the genetic algorithm is designed to solve the model. A case study of the Metro Line M has been carried out. The results can verify the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method. The full-length and short-turn routes of virtual coupling trains can effectively reduce passenger travel time, enterprise operating cost and the number of vehicles, and improve the average load factor of the trains. Finally, sensitivity analyses are performed using three parameters which include departure frequency of the full-length train and short-turn train, starting and terminal station of short-turn route, and number of marshalled vehicles of the full-length train and short-turn train. Full article
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15 pages, 1130 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Pedestrian Behavior at Unsignalized Crosswalks from the Drivers’ Perspective: A Qualitative Study
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 4017; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12084017 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3338
Abstract
This study investigated drivers’ perceptions of pedestrian crossing behavior at unsignalized crosswalks, which was less fruitful in quantitative and qualitative traffic research. Subjective and snow-ball sampling were used to conduct semi-structured in-depth interviews based on drivers’ daily driving experience from qualitative research. A [...] Read more.
This study investigated drivers’ perceptions of pedestrian crossing behavior at unsignalized crosswalks, which was less fruitful in quantitative and qualitative traffic research. Subjective and snow-ball sampling were used to conduct semi-structured in-depth interviews based on drivers’ daily driving experience from qualitative research. A theoretical model of pedestrian behavior at unsignalized crosswalks was constructed using the grounded theory and the theoretical saturation test. The model involved 4 three-level codes and 13 two-level codes (main category) used to obtain seven subcategories. The results show that drivers believe that pedestrian characteristics, driver characteristics, and age factors are the three factors that affect pedestrian crossing safety. Targeted improvement measures are put forward to guide the design of pedestrian crossing facilities, pedestrian management and guidance, and future research on conflicts between autonomous vehicles and pedestrians. Full article
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