Coronavirus-Targeting Antibodies

A special issue of Antibodies (ISSN 2073-4468).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2023) | Viewed by 12655

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Viral Zoonotics, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
Interests: virology; vaccinology; gene therapy

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Viral Pseudotype Unit, Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
Interests: emerging viruses; viral pseudotyping; neutralisation assays; serology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

An overwhelming number of us go about our daily business with a hugely diverse repertoire of antibodies circulating in our systems—antibodies which target coronaviruses that have spilled over in recent or ancient human history: SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, OC43, HKU1, NL64, 229E.

The quantity and quality of these antibodies varies based on genetic factors, infection or vaccination history and timelines, for which research is still in its infancy. The balance of these antibodies’ subclasses, as well as affinities to their respective targets, is crucial to our understanding of antibody-mediated immunity to these viruses and downstream research aimed at preventing infection or disease. Of parallel importance is the identification of broadly neutralising antibodies capable of targeting proteins from diverse families of coronaviruses, with implications for universal vaccine design.

These viruses have been the subject of immense global research efforts since the beginning of 2020, and are relevant to a ‘one health’ approach that combines the findings of humoral immunity in humans and the natural hosts of coronaviruses worldwide.

This Special Issue focuses on all antibodies large and small, in relation to immunity to and pathology of SARS-CoV-2 and other endemic coronaviruses found in humans and animals. 

Dr. George Carnell
Prof. Dr. Nigel Temperton
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibodies is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • human coronaviruses
  • neutralising antibody
  • binding antibody
  • Fc mediated immunity
  • nanobodies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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12 pages, 1364 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Neutralization Capacity of Antibodies Elicited by COVID-19 Natural Infection and Vaccination in Indonesia: A Prospective Cohort
by Sitti Nurisyah, Mitsuhiro Iyori, Ammar Abdurrahman Hasyim, Akihiko Sakamoto, Hinata Hashimoto, Kyouhei Yamagata, Saya Yamauchi, Khaeriah Amru, Kartika Hardianti Zainal, Irfan Idris, Shigeto Yoshida, Irawaty Djaharuddin, Din Syafruddin, Agussalim Bukhari, Puji Budi Setia Asih and Yenni Yusuf
Antibodies 2023, 12(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib12030060 - 21 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Background: To fight the COVID-19 pandemic, immunity against SARS-CoV-2 should be achieved not only through natural infection but also by vaccination. The effect of COVID-19 vaccination on previously infected persons is debatable. Methods: A prospective cohort was undergone to collect sera from unvaccinated [...] Read more.
Background: To fight the COVID-19 pandemic, immunity against SARS-CoV-2 should be achieved not only through natural infection but also by vaccination. The effect of COVID-19 vaccination on previously infected persons is debatable. Methods: A prospective cohort was undergone to collect sera from unvaccinated survivors and vaccinated persons—with and without COVID-19 pre-infection. The sera were analyzed for the anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) titers by ELISA and for the capacity to neutralize the pseudovirus of the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain by luciferase assays. Results: Neither the antibody titers nor the neutralization capacity was significantly different between the three groups. However, the correlation between the antibody titers and the percentage of viral neutralization derived from sera of unvaccinated survivors was higher than that from vaccinated persons with pre-infection and vaccinated naïve individuals (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) = −0.8558; 95% CI, −0.9259 to −0.7288), p < 0.0001 vs. −0.7855; 95% CI, −0.8877 to −0.6096, p < 0.0001 and −0.581; 95% CI, −0.7679 to −0.3028, p = 0.0002, respectively), indicating the capacity to neutralize the virus is most superior by infection alone. Conclusions: Vaccines induce anti-RBD titers as high as the natural infection with lower neutralization capacity, and it does not boost immunity in pre-infected persons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coronavirus-Targeting Antibodies)
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21 pages, 5493 KiB  
Article
Comparative Binding Ability of Human Monoclonal Antibodies against Omicron Variants of SARS-CoV-2: An In Silico Investigation
by Nabarun Chandra Das, Pritha Chakraborty, Jagadeesh Bayry and Suprabhat Mukherjee
Antibodies 2023, 12(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib12010017 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2725
Abstract
Mutation(s) in the spike protein is the major characteristic trait of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Delta-plus. Omicron (B.1.1.529) is the latest addition and it has been characterized by high transmissibility and the [...] Read more.
Mutation(s) in the spike protein is the major characteristic trait of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Delta-plus. Omicron (B.1.1.529) is the latest addition and it has been characterized by high transmissibility and the ability to escape host immunity. Recently developed vaccines and repurposed drugs exert limited action on Omicron strains and hence new therapeutics are immediately needed. Herein, we have explored the efficiency of twelve therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the RBD region of the spike glycoprotein against all the Omicron variants bearing a mutation in spike protein through molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Our in silico evidence reveals that adintivimab, beludivimab, and regadanivimab are the most potent mAbs to form strong biophysical interactions and neutralize most of the Omicron variants. Considering the efficacy of mAbs, we incorporated CDRH3 of beludavimab within the framework of adintrevimab, which displayed a more intense binding affinity towards all of the Omicron variants viz. BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5. Furthermore, the cDNA of chimeric mAb was cloned in silico within pET30ax for recombinant production. In conclusion, the present study represents the candidature of human mAbs (beludavimab and adintrevimab) and the therapeutic potential of designed chimeric mAb for treating Omicron-infected patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coronavirus-Targeting Antibodies)
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13 pages, 711 KiB  
Article
Seroprevalence of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Chattogram Metropolitan Area, Bangladesh
by Jahan Ara, Md. Sirazul Islam, Md. Tarek Ul Quader, Anan Das, F. M. Yasir Hasib, Mohammad Saiful Islam, Tazrina Rahman, Seemanta Das, M. A. Hassan Chowdhury, Goutam Buddha Das and Sharmin Chowdhury
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040069 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
Seroprevalence studies of COVID-19 are used to assess the degree of undetected transmission in the community and different groups such as health care workers (HCWs) are deemed vulnerable due to their workplace hazards. The present study estimated the seroprevalence and quantified the titer [...] Read more.
Seroprevalence studies of COVID-19 are used to assess the degree of undetected transmission in the community and different groups such as health care workers (HCWs) are deemed vulnerable due to their workplace hazards. The present study estimated the seroprevalence and quantified the titer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG) and its association with different factors. This cross-sectional study observed HCWs, in indoor and outdoor patients (non-COVID-19) and garment workers in the Chattogram metropolitan area (CMA, N = 748) from six hospitals and two garment factories. Qualitative and quantitative ELISA were used to identify and quantify antibodies (IgG) in the serum samples. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable statistical analysis were performed. Overall seroprevalence and among HCWs, in indoor and outdoor patients, and garment workers were 66.99% (95% CI: 63.40–70.40%), 68.99% (95% CI: 63.8–73.7%), 81.37% (95% CI: 74.7–86.7%), and 50.56% (95% CI: 43.5–57.5%), respectively. Seroprevalence and mean titer was 44.47% (95% CI: 38.6–50.4%) and 53.71 DU/mL in the non-vaccinated population, respectively, while it was higher in the population who received a first dose (61.66%, 95% CI: 54.8–68.0%, 159.08 DU/mL) and both doses (100%, 95% CI: 98.4–100%, 255.46 DU/mL). This study emphasizes the role of vaccine in antibody production; the second dose of vaccine significantly increased the seroprevalence and titer and both were low in natural infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coronavirus-Targeting Antibodies)
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11 pages, 556 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Possible Factors Influencing the Neutralizing Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Titer after Six Months from the Second Vaccination Dose in a Sample of Italian Nursing Home Personnel
by Alberto Modenese, Stefania Paduano, Rossana Bellucci, Simona Marchetti, Fulvio Bruno, Pietro Grazioli, Roberto Vivoli, Fabriziomaria Gobba and Annalisa Bargellini
Antibodies 2022, 11(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11030059 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
The titer of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies produced after vaccination shows a relevant decay over time, as demonstrated in several studies. However, less is known on the possible factors affecting the entity of this decay. The aim of this study is to analyze a [...] Read more.
The titer of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies produced after vaccination shows a relevant decay over time, as demonstrated in several studies. However, less is known on the possible factors affecting the entity of this decay. The aim of this study is to analyze a group of individual factors which are possibly associated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer decay six months after the second vaccine dose. We report here the results of a follow-up serological analysis and a questionnaire-based evaluation of a sample of workers from an Italian nursing home, vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine in early 2021. The baseline data were collected one month after the vaccine, while in the present analysis we report the data collected six months later. Our data show a relevant decay of the neutralizing antibody titer, even if for all the workers a largely positive response was detected. Moreover, our results demonstrate a possible association between younger age and the absence of previous COVID-19 infection, and a higher decay rate of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies titer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coronavirus-Targeting Antibodies)
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6 pages, 543 KiB  
Commentary
Therapeutic Phage Display-Derived Single-Domain Antibodies for Pandemic Preparedness
by Janet M. Daly, Theam Soon Lim and Kevin C. Gough
Antibodies 2023, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib12010007 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
Driven by necessity, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has accelerated the development and implementation of new vaccine platforms and other viral therapeutics. Among these is the therapeutic use of antibodies including single-domain antibodies, in particular the camelid variable heavy-chain fragment (VHH). Such [...] Read more.
Driven by necessity, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has accelerated the development and implementation of new vaccine platforms and other viral therapeutics. Among these is the therapeutic use of antibodies including single-domain antibodies, in particular the camelid variable heavy-chain fragment (VHH). Such therapies can provide a critical interim intervention when vaccines have not yet been developed for an emerging virus. It is evident that an increasing number of different viruses are emerging and causing epidemics and pandemics with increasing frequency. It is therefore imperative that we capitalize on the experience and knowledge gained from combatting COVID-19 to be better prepared for the next pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coronavirus-Targeting Antibodies)
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