Spontaneous Neoplasms in Animals

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 20226

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia Studies, Perugia, Italy
Interests: infectious diseases; bacteria; immunity; intestinal microflora (poultry and pig); probiotics; antibiotic resistance; neoplastic diseases in poultry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

Spontaneously or naturally occurring neoplasms in domestic animals are of particular interest for comparative etiological studies. Usually, they are observed in aged animals with chronic diseases, often associated with natural neoplasia, and can derive from natural exposure to several physical, chemical, and biological factors. Some tumors show pathological and epidemiological similarities, with tumors occurring in humans and domestic animals. A histological classification of domestic animal neoplasms, published by the World Health Organization (WHO), underlined the importance of comparative studies also addressing possible therapies. The purpose of this Special Issue is to promote the publication of original papers, case reports, and reviews concerning the occurrence of neoplasms in domestic animals to improve knowledge related to new etiopathogenetic, biologic, and biomolecular aspects of the most common and sporadic neoplasms, favoring the implementation of comparative studies among the different animal species.

Dr. Maria Pia Franciosini
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • neoplasm
  • domestic animals
  • comparative study
  • histology
  • immunochemistry
  • molecular biology

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2132 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Proliferative Activity of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) in Dogs with Respect to Patient Eligibility for Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy
by Paweł Klimiuk, Wojciech Łopuszyński, Kamila Bulak and Adam Brzana
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041183 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Different types of canine lymphoma respond differently to chemotherapy and have different prognoses. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma in dogs. Topoisomerase II alpha (TOPIIα) protein has been shown to be a proliferation marker associated with prognostic significance. The [...] Read more.
Different types of canine lymphoma respond differently to chemotherapy and have different prognoses. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma in dogs. Topoisomerase II alpha (TOPIIα) protein has been shown to be a proliferation marker associated with prognostic significance. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between TOPIIα expression, mitotic count (MC), and Ki67 antigen index in DLBCL in dogs, taking into account the applicability of these parameters to select the chemotherapy protocol with emphasis on the use of anthracycline drugs. Samples of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph nodes from 34 dogs with DLBCL were immunohistochemically labelled with anti-TOPIIα and Ki67. The number of positive cells and the intensity of the reaction were taken into account in order to assess TOPIIα expression. MC was estimated in the hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides in the area of 2.37 mm2. Positive association between TOPIIα and MC, but no association between TOPIIα and Ki67 was found. It can be concluded that the immunohistochemical determination of TOPIIα as a molecular target for drugs from the anthracycline group may be used in association with MC to establish a diagnostic-clinical protocol for selecting dogs with DLBCL for treatment with anthracycline drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spontaneous Neoplasms in Animals)
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11 pages, 1297 KiB  
Article
Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Different Types of Perianal Gland Tumors in Male Dogs
by Adam Brodzki, Wojciech Łopuszyński, Yolanda Millan, Marcin R. Tatara, Piotr Brodzki, Katarzyna Kulpa and Natalia Minakow
Animals 2021, 11(3), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030875 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
Perianal gland tumors are modified sebaceous glands present in the skin of the perianal region in the dog. Hormonal stimulation may induce hyperplasia of the perianal glands or their neoplastic progression. The presence of androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) receptors have been demonstrated [...] Read more.
Perianal gland tumors are modified sebaceous glands present in the skin of the perianal region in the dog. Hormonal stimulation may induce hyperplasia of the perianal glands or their neoplastic progression. The presence of androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) receptors have been demonstrated both in normal perianal glands as well as in perianal tumors. The aim of the study was an immunohistochemical assessment of the expression of estrogen and androgen receptors in perianal gland tumors in dogs as an applicatory marker for antihormonal treatment. Biopsy samples of perianal masses were collected from 41 male dogs. A histopathological examination revealed 24 adenomas, 12 epitheliomas and five carcinomas. The immunohistochemical staining showed a mainly nuclear expression of AR and ER in the neoplastic cells. Both the androgen and estrogen receptors were expressed in adenoma, epithelioma and carcinoma cases; however, the highest expression of the receptors was stated in the adenoma and epithelioma. In the case of the carcinoma, the expression of sex hormone receptors was very weak. The differences of the number of cells expressing AR and ER as well as the observed differentiated intensity of staining in the studies demonstrated that the determination of the expression of the sex hormone receptors may be useful to elaborate a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spontaneous Neoplasms in Animals)
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12 pages, 3971 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Primary Cultures of Normal and Neoplastic Canine Melanocytes
by Monica Sforna, Elisabetta Chiaradia, Ilaria Porcellato, Serenella Silvestri, Giulia Moretti, Luca Mechelli and Chiara Brachelente
Animals 2021, 11(3), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030768 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3496
Abstract
Although numerous animal models, especially mouse models, have been established for the study of melanoma, they often fail to accurately describe the mechanisms of human disease because of their anatomic, physiological, and immune differences. The dog, as a spontaneous model of melanoma, is [...] Read more.
Although numerous animal models, especially mouse models, have been established for the study of melanoma, they often fail to accurately describe the mechanisms of human disease because of their anatomic, physiological, and immune differences. The dog, as a spontaneous model of melanoma, is nowadays considered one of the most valid alternatives due to the heterogeneity of clinical presentations and of histological and genetic similarities of canine melanoma with the human counterpart. The aim of the study was to optimize a protocol for the isolation and cultivation of healthy and neoplastic canine melanocytes derived from the same animal and obtained from cutaneous and mucosal (oral) sites. We obtained five primary tumor cell cultures (from 2 cutaneous melanoma, 2 mucosal melanoma and 1 lymph node metastasis) and primary normal melanocyte cell cultures (from normal skin and mucosa) from the same dogs. Immunocytochemical characterization with Melan A, PNL2 and S100 antibodies confirmed the melanocytic origin of the cells. This work contributes to expanding the case record of studies on canine melanoma cell cultures as suitable model to study human and canine melanoma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of normal skin and mucosal canine melanocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spontaneous Neoplasms in Animals)
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Review

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12 pages, 257 KiB  
Review
Out of Sight, but Not Out of Mind: Aspects of the Avian Oncogenic Herpesvirus, Marek’s Disease Virus
by Irit Davidson
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081319 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
Marek’s disease virus is an economically important avian herpesvirus that causes tumors and immunosuppression in chickens and turkeys. The virus, disease, and vaccines have been known for more than 50 years, but as knowledge gaps still exists, intensive research is still ongoing. The [...] Read more.
Marek’s disease virus is an economically important avian herpesvirus that causes tumors and immunosuppression in chickens and turkeys. The virus, disease, and vaccines have been known for more than 50 years, but as knowledge gaps still exists, intensive research is still ongoing. The understanding of MDV complexity can provide scientific insight in topics that cannot be experimented in humans, providing a unique model that is dually useful for the benefit of the poultry industry and for studying general herpesvirology. The present review presents the following topics: the MDV biology, the vaccine’s and virulent virus’ peculiar presence in feathers, protection by vaccination. In addition, two relatively behind the scenes topics are reviewed; first, the meq MDV oncogene and its recent implication in molecular epidemiology and in the MDV virulence determination, and second, the functionality of conformational epitopes of the MDV immunodominant protein, glycoprotein B. Our studies were particular, as they were the only ones describing three-dimensional MDV gB oligomers. MDV gB (glycoprotein B) continuous and discontinuous epitopes were shown to possess distinctive neutralization activities. In contrast, the significance of oligomerization of the viral membrane proteins for the creation of discontinuous epitopes in other herpesviruses was explored extensively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spontaneous Neoplasms in Animals)

Other

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9 pages, 3881 KiB  
Case Report
Case Report of a Mare Diagnosed with a Metastatic Mammary Carcinoma after the Excision of a Recurrent Intraocular Neuroepithelial Tumor
by Ginevra Brocca, Cinzia Centelleghe, Elisa Padoan, Riccardo Stoppini, Chiara Giudice, Massimo Castagnaro and Valentina Zappulli
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122409 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 2058
Abstract
A 24-year-old Irish Cob mare was presented with a peripheral iris mass, which was surgically resected and diagnosed as an undifferentiated neuroepithelial tumor. A few months later, a relapse occurred with histological features characterized by a more solid appearance and squamous differentiation. Subsequently, [...] Read more.
A 24-year-old Irish Cob mare was presented with a peripheral iris mass, which was surgically resected and diagnosed as an undifferentiated neuroepithelial tumor. A few months later, a relapse occurred with histological features characterized by a more solid appearance and squamous differentiation. Subsequently, the mare was presented with rapidly spreading multiple subcutaneous masses and, at the onset of neurological signs, was humanely euthanized and subjected to a complete post mortem examination. The necropsy confirmed the presence of numerous widespread masses in the subcutaneous tissue, several internal organs, and mammary gland. Histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) examinations were performed on all masses, allowing the diagnosis of mammary carcinoma with several visceral and subcutaneous metastases. Considering the post mortem findings, the second intraocular mass was submitted to histological and IHC re-evaluation to differentiate it from an intraocular metastasis of the mammary carcinoma. The results of the histological and IHC analyses confirmed the diagnosis of neuroepithelial tumor relapse. This is the first case of a metastatic mammary carcinoma concurrent with a recurrent intraocular neuroepithelial tumor in a mare. This case was a challenge for both clinicians and pathologists involved and highlighted the importance of post mortem and IHC evaluations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spontaneous Neoplasms in Animals)
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8 pages, 2231 KiB  
Case Report
Histological and Immunohistochemical Features of Trichoblastoma in a Sarda Breed Sheep
by Marta Polinas, Giovanni P. Burrai, Veronica Vitiello, Laura Falchi, Maria T. Zedda, Gerolamo Masala, Vincenzo Marras, Giulia Satta, Alberto Alberti and Elisabetta Antuofermo
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112039 - 4 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2918
Abstract
Skin tumors with adnexal differentiation are commonly reported in dogs and cats, while only anecdotal evidence is available in sheep. Here we illustrate the macroscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of a cutaneous lesion with adnexal differentiation in a 6-year-old female Sarda breed sheep, [...] Read more.
Skin tumors with adnexal differentiation are commonly reported in dogs and cats, while only anecdotal evidence is available in sheep. Here we illustrate the macroscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of a cutaneous lesion with adnexal differentiation in a 6-year-old female Sarda breed sheep, surgically treated for a horn-like mass located in the left pinna. Additionally, we investigate a possible contribution of Ovine Papillomaviruses (OaPVs). Histologically, the dermis was expanded by an expansive and unencapsulated multilobulated nodule composed of cuboidal to spindle basaloid cells arranged in variably-sized cytokeratins (CK) AE1-AE3, CK 5/6 and CK 34 beta E12, p63—positive winding cords with a characteristic palisade arrangement of neoplastic cells in the periphery of the tumor. Based on these results, the cutaneous neoplasm was diagnosed as a trabecular trichoblastoma with spindle cells and rare structures resembling papillary mesenchymal bodies. Additionally, multiple enlarged sebaceous lobules clustered around dilated ducts suggestive of sebaceous gland hyperplasia were detected near the trichoblastoma. No PV DNA was found in the examined tissues, suggesting that ovine PVs are not involved in the pathogenesis of the present skin tumors with adnexal differentiation. Further investigations and efforts are required to elucidate the prevalence of skin tumors with adnexal differentiation in this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spontaneous Neoplasms in Animals)
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6 pages, 1191 KiB  
Case Report
The First Application of Nanoelectrochemotherapy in Feline Oral Malignant Melanoma Treatment—Case Study
by Joanna Tunikowska, Agnieszka Antończyk, Nina Rembiałkowska, Łukasz Jóźwiak, Vitalij Novickij and Julita Kulbacka
Animals 2020, 10(4), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040556 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2525
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to present the first domestic animal trial of nanosecond electroporation with chemotherapy and CO2 laser surgery. Methods: sixteen-year-old domestic cat with diagnosed melanoma on oral cavity was the case used in the study. Firstly, CO [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to present the first domestic animal trial of nanosecond electroporation with chemotherapy and CO2 laser surgery. Methods: sixteen-year-old domestic cat with diagnosed melanoma on oral cavity was the case used in the study. Firstly, CO2 laser surgery was used for the removal of most of tumor mass. Then nanoelectrochemotherapy with bleomycin was applied including appropriate margin of healthy tissue. A 15 ± 4 kV/cm × 15 ns pulsing protocol was employed with a total of 800 ± 100 pulses. Only one session of nanoelectrochemotherapy (nanoECT) was performed. Results and conclusions: during the next two weeks areas of focal necrosis were replaced by the granulation tissue. Complete wound healing was observed four weeks after initial treatment. After 15 weeks post treatment, no local recurrence was apparent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spontaneous Neoplasms in Animals)
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