Disease Epidemiology in Farm Animal Production

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 2426

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples, Italy
Interests: epidemiology in livestock and wildlife; infectious diseases; veterinary virology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples, Italy
Interests: veterinary epidemiology; veterinary virology; infectious disease and public health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Infectious diseases are thought to be the major cause of economic losses in livestock worldwide, with the greatest impact on animal growth performance (such as intestinal and respiratory infections) or fertility (such as pathogens that can cause reproductive disorders). In addition, certain infections are potential sources of zoonotic diseases that threaten both human and animal health. Epidemiological research and ongoing surveillance are, therefore, needed to gain new insights into the characteristics of infectious diseases.

This Special Issue focuses on epidemiological studies in livestock (including, but not limited to, molecular epidemiology, serological epidemiology, diagnosis, etc.) and incorporates original research and review articles designed to provide an overview of advances in the prevention and control of infectious diseases in livestock such as cattle, small ruminants, swine, buffalo, and others. Epidemiological research on emerging and re-emerging pathogens is also encouraged. In addition, we welcome original research and reviews that reveal new insights into the economic impact of infections.

Dr. Gianmarco Ferrara
Dr. Serena Montagnaro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • veterinary epidemiology
  • infectious disease surveillance
  • prevention and control of pathogens of veterinary interest
  • emerging infectious diseases in livestock
  • re-emerging infectious diseases in livestock

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 2643 KiB  
Article
Surveillance of Sarcoptic Mange in Iberian Ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) and Domestic Goats (Capra hircus) in Southern Spain
by Félix Gómez-Guillamón, Débora Jiménez-Martín, Debora Dellamaria, Antonio Arenas, Luca Rossi, Carlo V. Citterio, Leonor Camacho-Sillero, Barbara Moroni, David Cano-Terriza and Ignacio García-Bocanegra
Animals 2024, 14(8), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14081194 (registering DOI) - 16 Apr 2024
Abstract
Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei. Sera were collected from 411 Iberian ibexes, comprising 157 individuals with sarcoptic mange skin lesions and 254 clinically healthy animals, in 13 population nuclei across Andalusia (southern Spain) between 2015 [...] Read more.
Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei. Sera were collected from 411 Iberian ibexes, comprising 157 individuals with sarcoptic mange skin lesions and 254 clinically healthy animals, in 13 population nuclei across Andalusia (southern Spain) between 2015 and 2021. Skin samples from 88 of the 157 animals with mange-compatible lesions were also obtained. Moreover, 392 serum samples from domestic goats (Capra hircus) were collected in the same region and study period. Antibodies against S. scabiei were tested using an in-house indirect ELISA, while the presence of mites of S. scabiei was evaluated in the skin samples by potassium hydroxide digestion. Seropositivity was found in eight (3.1%) of the clinically healthy ibexes and in 104 (66.2%) of the animals with mange-compatible lesions. The presence of S. scabiei was confirmed in 57 (64.8%) out of the 88 skin samples analysed and anti-S. scabiei antibodies were found in 49 (86.0%) of these 57 mite-positive individuals. Seropositive animals were detected in population nuclei with previous records of sarcoptic mange, where S. scabiei mites were detected by potassium hydroxide digestion in individuals with sarcoptic mange-compatible external lesions. However, seropositivity was not observed in population nuclei that were historically free of this disease. None of the 392 domestic goats had antibodies against S. scabiei, suggesting an independent epidemiological cycle of sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex populations in the study area, and a limited or null role of domestic goats in the transmission of the parasite to this wild species. Overall, our findings underscore the importance of maintaining and/or implementing integrated surveillance programs and control strategies in wildlife and livestock, to limit the risk of S. scabiei circulation in Iberian ibex populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease Epidemiology in Farm Animal Production)
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14 pages, 2515 KiB  
Article
Transmission Dynamics of Imported Vaccine-Origin PRRSV-2 within and between Commercial Swine Integrations in Hungary
by Szilvia Jakab, Krisztián Bányai, Krisztina Bali, Imre Nemes, Ádám Bálint and István Szabó
Animals 2023, 13(19), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13193080 - 02 Oct 2023
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Abstract
This study reports on the molecular epidemiology of Ingelvac-PRRS-MLV-associated cases in Hungary for the period 2020–2021. Field epidemiology investigations led the experts to conclude that imported pigs, which were shipped through transit stations in Denmark, introduced the vaccine virus. The movement of fatteners [...] Read more.
This study reports on the molecular epidemiology of Ingelvac-PRRS-MLV-associated cases in Hungary for the period 2020–2021. Field epidemiology investigations led the experts to conclude that imported pigs, which were shipped through transit stations in Denmark, introduced the vaccine virus. The movement of fatteners and the neglect of disease control measures contributed to the spread of the virus to PRRS-free pig holdings in the vicinity. Deep sequencing was performed to genetically characterize the genes coding for the virion antigens (i.e., ORF2 through ORF7). The study isolates exhibited a range of 0.1 to 1.8% nucleotide sequence divergence from the Ingelvac PRRS MLV and identified numerous polymorphic sites (up to 57 sites) along the amplified 3.2 kilo base pair genomic region. Our findings confirm that some PRRSV-2 vaccine strains can accumulate very high number of point mutations within a short period in immunologically naive pig herds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease Epidemiology in Farm Animal Production)
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12 pages, 1414 KiB  
Article
Co-Circulation of Multiple Coronavirus Genera and Subgenera during an Epizootic of Lethal Respiratory Disease in Newborn Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Peru: First Report of Bat-like Coronaviruses in Alpacas
by Luis Llanco, Karubya Retamozo, Noriko Oviedo, Alberto Manchego, César Lázaro, Dennis A. Navarro-Mamani, Norma Santos and Miguel Rojas
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182983 - 21 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, typically causing mild-to-severe respiratory or enteric disease. The main objective of this study was to identify CoV genera and subgenera detected in Peruvian alpacas. Lung lavage specimens were collected [...] Read more.
Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, typically causing mild-to-severe respiratory or enteric disease. The main objective of this study was to identify CoV genera and subgenera detected in Peruvian alpacas. Lung lavage specimens were collected from 32 animals aged 1 to 6 weeks. CoVs were identified by using RT-PCR to amplify a pan-CoV conserved region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-encoding gene. A nested PCR was performed to identify β-CoVs. Then, β-CoV-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR using specific primers to identify the Embecovirus subgenus. Out of 32 analyzed samples, 30 (93.8%) tested positive for at least one CoV genus. β-, α-, or unclassified CoVs were identified in 24 (80%), 1 (3.3%), and 1 (3.3%) of the positive samples, respectively. A CoV genus could not be identified in two (6.7%) samples. A mixture of different CoV genera was detected in two (6.7%) samples: one was co-infected with β- and α-CoVs, and the other contained a β- and an unclassified CoV. A sequence analysis of the amplicons generated by the PCR identified 17 β-CoV strains belonging to the subgenus Embecovirus and two α-CoV strains belonging to Decacovirus. A phylogenetic analysis of two strains revealed a relationship with an unclassified Megaderma BatCoV strain. A subgenus could not be identified in nine β-CoV samples. Our data show a high prevalence and a high genetic diversity of CoV genera and subgenera that infect alpacas, in which the β-CoV subgenus Embecovirus predominated. Our data also suggest a new role for bats in the dissemination and transmission of uncommon CoVs to alpacas raised in rural Peru. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease Epidemiology in Farm Animal Production)
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