Diagnostic Imaging of Equines

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Equids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 October 2024 | Viewed by 4185

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, San Piero a Grado, Pisa, Italy
Interests: equine gastroenterology; equine surgery; equine orthopedics; equine sport medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Córdoba, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: equine sports medicine; equine diagnostic imaging; equine surgery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As equids begin to be considered as working and sport animals and pets, their health is becoming an important topic in the scientific field. Moreover, owners’ awareness of their welfare and health is improving, and they are becoming increasingly demanding with veterinarians. Thus, vets must be trained to apply novel diagnostic technologies, procedures, and innovative therapies to achieve accurate prognoses.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish original research papers, case studies, and review articles focusing on the latest advances in clinically relevant aspects of the diagnostic imaging of equids, with a special interest in ultrasound, radiology and MRI. Articles highlighting and documenting any aspect of this field will be considered for publication. This Special Issue welcomes all experts and researchers that would like to present findings on the current state of the art in equid veterinary medicine.

Dr. Irene Nocera
Prof. Dr. David Argüelles
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ultrasound
  • radiology
  • MRI
  • equids
  • diagnostic imaging

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 1897 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Normal Bone in the Equine Distal Limb with Effective Atomic Number and Electron Density Determined with Single-Source Dual Energy and Detector-Based Spectral Computed Tomography
by Janine Steiner, Henning Richter, Rolf Kaufmann and Stefanie Ohlerth
Animals 2024, 14(7), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14071064 - 30 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Single-source dual energy (SSDECT) and detector-based spectral computed tomography (DBSCT) are emerging technologies allowing the interrogation of materials that have different attenuation properties at different energies. Both technologies enable the calculation of effective atomic number (EAN), an index to determine tissue composition, and [...] Read more.
Single-source dual energy (SSDECT) and detector-based spectral computed tomography (DBSCT) are emerging technologies allowing the interrogation of materials that have different attenuation properties at different energies. Both technologies enable the calculation of effective atomic number (EAN), an index to determine tissue composition, and electron density (ED), which is assumed to be associated with cellularity in tissues. In the present prospective observational study, EAN and ED values were determined for 16 zones in normal subchondral and trabecular bone of 37 equine cadaver limbs. Using both technologies, the following findings were obtained: 1. palmar/plantar EAN zone values in the fetlock increased significantly with increasing age of the horse; 2. all EAN and ED values were significantly lower in the trabecular bone than in the subchondral bone of all phalanges; 3. in the distal phalanx and navicular bone, most EAN and ED values were significantly lower compared to the proximal and middle phalanx; and 4. some EAN and ED values were significantly different between front and hind limbs. Several EAN and ED values significantly differed between SSDECT and DBSCT. The reported EAN and ED values in the subchondral and trabecular bone of the equine distal limb may serve as preliminary reference values and aid future evaluation and classification of diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Imaging of Equines)
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13 pages, 2943 KiB  
Article
Ex Vivo Comparison of the Diagnostic Performance of Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Three-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences in Depicting Normal Articular Cartilage in Equine Stifle Cadavers
by Annika Seidler, Anton Aßmann, Paul R. Torgerson, José Suárez Sánchez-Andrade and Andrea Bischofberger
Animals 2024, 14(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14010015 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 743
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare articular cartilage thickness observed in the different 2D and 3D sequences to the cartilage thickness of the equine stifle in cadavers to determine the accuracy of each sequence. The study was conducted as a blinded [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare articular cartilage thickness observed in the different 2D and 3D sequences to the cartilage thickness of the equine stifle in cadavers to determine the accuracy of each sequence. The study was conducted as a blinded laboratory study using seven equine stifle specimens. The 2D (T2W TSE) and 3D (3D VIEW T2W HR, T2 3D mFFE, T1W VISTA SPAIR, 3D PDW SPAIR) 3-tesla MRI sequences of each stifle were obtained. Cartilage thickness was measured at 30 locations on MRI and on gross pathology. Thickness measurements were compared using a Bland–Altman plot and post hoc analysis tests. The 3D sequences were found to be generally more accurate than the 2D sequence (p < 0.001). The smallest difference to macroscopic measurements was observed in the 3D VIEW T2W HR and T1W VISTA SPAIR sequences with no statistical difference between each other. Knowing the accuracy of different sequences will improve the evaluation of equine cartilage and the early detection of cartilage pathologies. This would promote MRI as a noninvasive imaging modality for horses suffering from stifle lameness with no findings in conventional imaging methods. Furthermore, since 3D sequences seem to have better accuracy in depicting cartilage, they may replace 2D sequences, thereby shortening scanning times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Imaging of Equines)
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12 pages, 5231 KiB  
Article
Does Direct MRI Tenography Improve the Diagnostic Performance of Low-Field MRI to Identify Artificially Created Soft-Tissue Lesions within the Equine Cadaveric Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath?
by Anton Aßmann, Stefanie Ohlerth, Silvana Hartmann, Paul Torgerson and Andrea Bischofberger
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243772 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Tenosynovitis of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) is diagnosed using ultrasonography and contrast tenography. Nevertheless, making a precise preoperative diagnosis is challenging. This study aimed to determine and compare the sensitivity and specificity of low-field MRI and MRI tenography (MRIt) to detect [...] Read more.
Tenosynovitis of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) is diagnosed using ultrasonography and contrast tenography. Nevertheless, making a precise preoperative diagnosis is challenging. This study aimed to determine and compare the sensitivity and specificity of low-field MRI and MRI tenography (MRIt) to detect artificially created soft-tissue lesions in the DFTS. In 21 DFTSs, 118 lesions were made tenoscopically in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), manica flexoria (MF) and proximal scutum. MRI and MRI, following intrathecal gadolinium administration (MRIt), were performed. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI and MRIt were calculated and compared. Proximal scutum lesions were less frequently identified by MRI (Sensitivity 38%, specificity 96%) compared to MRIt (Sensitivity: 50%, p = 0.80; specificity: 96%, p = 1). This was similar for SDFT lesions (Sensitivity: 39% versus 54%, p = 0.72; specificity: 93% versus 96%, p = 1). MRI detected DDFT lesions (sensitivity 34%; specificity 100%) better than MRIt (sensitivity 32%, p = 0.77; specificity 98%, p = 1). This was similar for MF lesions (MRI sensitivity 61%; specificity 100% vs. MRIt sensitivity 50%, p = 0.68; specificity 96%, p = 1). Lesion size was significantly associated with MRI or MRIt diagnosis (p = 0.001). The intrathecal administration of gadolinium did not significantly improve the ability of low-field MRI to diagnose artificial DFTS tendon lesions. Small lesion length was a significant discriminating factor for lesion detection. MRI and MRIt specificity were high, thus being helpful in diagnosing an intact structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Imaging of Equines)
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11 pages, 3086 KiB  
Article
Radiographic Appearance of the Fore Digit and Carpal Joint in the Mule Foal from Birth to 3 Months of Age
by Irene Nocera, Benedetta Sorvillo, Micaela Sgorbini, Benedetta Aliboni and Simonetta Citi
Animals 2023, 13(15), 2417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13152417 - 26 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Few studies have established the normal radiographic anatomical development of the donkey foal and, to date, no data are available for mules. Our aim was thus to evaluate the radiographic development of the fore digit and carpal joint in the mule foal from [...] Read more.
Few studies have established the normal radiographic anatomical development of the donkey foal and, to date, no data are available for mules. Our aim was thus to evaluate the radiographic development of the fore digit and carpal joint in the mule foal from 0 to 3 months of age. Ten forelimbs of five healthy full-term mule foals were included. Radiographs of the fore digit lateromedial and dorsopalmar and the carpus dorsopalmar were performed weekly for the first month of age, and bi-monthly during the following two months. Fore digit growth plate closure times, morphological, angular, and linear radiographic parameters, and also carpal cuboidal bone mineralization were evaluated. Growth plates were graded as open, closing, and closed. Carpal bone appearance was graded as mature, slightly immature, or immature. Growth plate closure times showed the following: middle phalangeal distal physis (DP) closed at birth, and proximal physis (PP) started to close at around two months; first phalanx DP closed at seven days, and PP started to close at three months; and third metacarpal bone DP started to close at two months. Carpal bones were immature at birth. Distal phalanx (PD) was triangular at birth, palmar processes had developed by one month, and proximal sesamoid bones were trapezoidal by three months. The hoof wall, PD dorsal wall, and palmar angles values changed in parallel, and hoof capsule thickness increased. No PD remodeling evidence within the hoof capsule or variations in the hoof axis with growth were found. We identified a baseline for the interpretation of forelimb radiological features in mule foals. The specific features found were intermediate between those found in horses and donkeys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Imaging of Equines)
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