Parasite Epidemiology and Molecules Identification in Wild and Domestic Animals

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 14948

Special Issue Editors

Research Center for Parasites & Vectors, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Interests: parasite; epidemiology; molecule identification; omics; genetic evolution; phylogeny
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Parasitology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China
Interests: pathogeny biology; arthropod; molecular parasitology; Toxoplasma gondii
Research Center for Parasites & Vectors, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Interests: parasitological molecular biology; molecule identification; omics; genetic evolution
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wild and domestic animals are reservoirs of a wide range of parasites, including many nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, protozoa, and arthropods, some of which may cause a public health concern. Increased urbanization and the introduction of exotic species act as drivers for the transmission of zoonotic helminths through the environment. In addition, being a part of the human diet, domestic animals can be a source of life-threatening parasitoses. Awareness of wild and domestic animal-borne zoonotic parasitoses is essential to advocate the control, prevention, and surveillance of these neglected diseases. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on significant advances in epidemiological and molecule identification studies of wild and domestic animal parasites. Epidemiological studies include etiology and surveillance of parasitic diseases using fecal or gross examination and immunological, molecular, or meta-analysis tools. Molecule identification studies include genetic variants within parasite populations, genetic variants in response to environmental or hosts revealed by genome sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis using cutting-edge tools.

We invite original research papers that help to better understand parasites’ epidemiology and genetic variants driven by climate change, anthelmintic treatment, and host immune responses. Areas of interest include epidemiological and molecule identification of parasites contributing to better management and welfare of domestic and wild animals, as well as studies under the one health concept, preventing the transmission of parasites from animals to human beings.

Dr. Wei Liu
Prof. Dr. Liping Jiang
Dr. Yisong Liu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • molecule identification
  • nematode
  • cestode
  • trematode
  • arthropod
  • wild animals
  • domestic animals

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 5701 KiB  
Article
Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Spirometra mansoni (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea)—Phylogenetic Patterns and Molecular Characteristics
by Shasha Liu, Ke Zhou, Fei Gao, Wen Li, Zhongquan Wang and Xi Zhang
Animals 2023, 13(23), 3642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13233642 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 750
Abstract
The plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni can parasitize both human and animals, resulting in sparganosis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme in parasites. However, our knowledge of the LDH family in S. mansoni is still inadequate. This work identified 19 new LDH members [...] Read more.
The plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni can parasitize both human and animals, resulting in sparganosis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme in parasites. However, our knowledge of the LDH family in S. mansoni is still inadequate. This work identified 19 new LDH members in S. mansoni. Clustering analysis demonstrated that all SmLDHs were divided into two main groups, which is consistent with the patterns of conserved motif organization. According to RT-qPCR, 2 LDHs were highly expressed in the plerocercoid stage and 17 LDHs were highly expressed in the adult stage. The evolutionary tree showed a high level of diversity of both cestode and trematode LDHs. SmLDHs contained both conserved family members and members in the process of further diversification. rSmLDH has a NAD-binding domain and a substrate-binding domain. The protein was immunolocalized in the epidermis of the pleroceroid and in the tegument, uterus and egg shell of adult worms. The optimum activity for rSmLDH in the pyruvate reduction reaction was found to be pH 4.5 and 37 °C. In the oxidation reaction, optimal values for pH and temperature were 9.0 and 30 °C, respectively. Gossypol was found to be the most powerful inhibitor in both reduction and oxidation reactions. The results provide a basis for the further study of the biological roles of LDHs in S. mansoni and other LDH-containing taxa. Full article
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16 pages, 12141 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characteristics of the Fatty-Acid-Binding Protein (FABP) Family in Spirometra mansoni―A Neglected Medical Tapeworm
by Shinan Liu, Fei Gao, Ruijie Wang, Wen Li, Siyao Wang and Xi Zhang
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182855 - 08 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The plerocercoid larva of the tapeworm Spirometra mansoni can parasitize humans and animals, causing serious parasitic zoonosis. The molecular characteristics and adaptive parasitism mechanism of Spirometra tapeworms are still unknown. In this study, 11 new members of the fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) family were [...] Read more.
The plerocercoid larva of the tapeworm Spirometra mansoni can parasitize humans and animals, causing serious parasitic zoonosis. The molecular characteristics and adaptive parasitism mechanism of Spirometra tapeworms are still unknown. In this study, 11 new members of the fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) family were characterized in S. mansoni. A clustering analysis showed 11 SmFABPs arranged into two groups, and motif patterns within each group had similar organizations. RT–qPCR showed that SmFABPs were highly expressed in the adult stage, especially in gravid proglottid. A high genetic diversity of SmFABPs and relative conservation of FABPs in medical platyhelminthes were observed in the phylogenetic analysis. Immunolocalization revealed that natural SmFABP is mainly located in the tegument and parenchymal tissue of the plerocercoid and the uterus, genital pores, and cortex of adult worms. rSmFABP can build a more stable holo form when binding with palmitic acid to protect the hydrolytic sites of the protein. A fatty acid starvation induction test suggested that SmFABP might be involved in fatty acid absorption, transport, and metabolism in S. mansoni. The findings in this study will lay the foundation to better explore the underlying mechanisms of FABPs involved in Spirometra tapeworms as well as related taxa. Full article
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13 pages, 3089 KiB  
Article
Occurrence and Genotypic Identification of Blastocystis spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis in Leizhou Black Goats in Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province, China
by Xingang Yu, Hongcai Wang, Yilong Li, Xuanru Mu, Kaijian Yuan, Anfeng Wu, Jianchao Guo, Yang Hong and Haoji Zhang
Animals 2023, 13(17), 2777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13172777 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
Blastocystis spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis are three common zoonotic intestinal parasites that cause severe diarrhea and enteric diseases. Leizhou black goats are characterized by a high reproductive rate, fast growth, and good meat quality, making them one of the pre-eminent [...] Read more.
Blastocystis spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis are three common zoonotic intestinal parasites that cause severe diarrhea and enteric diseases. Leizhou black goats are characterized by a high reproductive rate, fast growth, and good meat quality, making them one of the pre-eminent goat breeds in China. Goats are reportedly common reservoirs of these three intestinal pathogens, but no information on their prevalence or genotypic distributions in black goats in Guangdong Province, China, is available. A total of 226 fecal samples were collected from goats in Zhanjiang city and genomic DNA was extracted from them. The presence of the three pathogens was detected using nested PCR targeting the sequences encoding SSU rRNA (Blastocystis spp.), the internal transcribed spacer of rRNA (ITS; E. bieneusi), as well as beta-giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase, and triosephosphate isomerase (G. duodenalis). All PCR products were sequenced to determine the species and genotypes of the organisms. The total prevalence rates of Blastocystis spp., E. bieneusi, and G. duodenalis were 33.63% (76/226), 17.70% (40/226), and 24.78% (56/226), respectively. Four subtypes of Blastocystis spp. were detected: ST5 (n = 6), ST10 (n = 50), ST14 (n = 14), and ST21 (n = 6). Among them, ST10 was the dominant genotype, accounting for 65.79% of strains, followed by the genotypes ST14 (18.42%), zoonotic ST5 (7.89%), and ST21 (7.89%). Four genotypes of E. bieneusi were detected: CHG3 (n = 32), CM21 (n = 4), CHG1 (n = 2), and ET-L2 (n = 2). Among these, CHG3 was the dominant genotype. Assemblage E (n = 54) and concurrent assemblages A and E (n = 2) were identified in the G. duodenalis-positive goats using multilocus genotyping. Blastocystis spp., E. bieneusi, and G. duodenalis infections were common in Leizhou black goats, all of which have zoonotic genotypes, indicating the potential risk of zoonotic transmission. Our results provide basic data for the prevention and control of these three intestinal pathogens. Further studies are required to better understand their genetic characteristics and zoonotic potential in Guangdong Province. Full article
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9 pages, 3107 KiB  
Communication
Survey and Molecular Characterization of Sarcocystidae protozoa in Wild Cricetid Rodents from Central and Southern Chile
by Pablo Oyarzún-Ruiz, Richard S. Thomas, Adriana M. Santodomingo, Juan E. Uribe, Marlon M. Ardila, Diana M. Echeverry, Sebastián Muñoz-Leal, María C. Silva-de la Fuente, Marco Loyola, Cristina J. Palma, Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque and AnaLía Henríquez
Animals 2023, 13(13), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13132100 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
In Chile, studies of parasites from the family Sarcocystidae (Apicomplexa) have mostly been related to domestic animals. We aimed to assess the presence of Sarcocystidae taxa in cricetid rodents from Central and Southern Chile. We studied 207 rodents, encompassing six species, from 13 [...] Read more.
In Chile, studies of parasites from the family Sarcocystidae (Apicomplexa) have mostly been related to domestic animals. We aimed to assess the presence of Sarcocystidae taxa in cricetid rodents from Central and Southern Chile. We studied 207 rodents, encompassing six species, from 13 localities. We isolated DNA from tissue samples, amplified the Sarcocystidae 18S rRNA gene with polymerase chain reaction, and performed phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences. In addition, we examined blood smears and performed histological studies in organs from Sarcocystidae DNA-positive animals. Three specimens were DNA-positive and three genotypes were retrieved and named: Sarcocystis sp. P61, related to Sarcocystis strixi, was detected in two Abrothrix olivacea. Toxoplasmatinae gen. sp. P99 was retrieved from those same two specimens, and was related to Toxoplasma and other genera, although it branched independently. Besnoitia sp. R34 was detected in one Abrothrix hirta, and was clustered with congeneric species associated with rodents. No protozoa were found during microscopic studies; thus, it was not possible to confirm parasitic interactions rather than accidental encounters. However, the close relatedness of the retrieved genotypes to parasites of rodents supports the hypothesis of host–parasite associations. All three genotypes are suggested as potential new taxa, including a putative new genus. Full article
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10 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
Molecular Epidemiological Investigation of Cyclospora spp. in Holstein Cattle in Partial Areas of the Yunnan Province, China
by Jian-Fa Yang, Zhao-Jun Heng, Fan-Fan Shu, Hua-Ming Mao, Yong-Sheng Su, Jun-Jun He and Feng-Cai Zou
Animals 2023, 13(9), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13091527 - 03 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Cyclospora spp. is a food-borne intestinal protozoan, which is widely distributed in the world and poses the risk of zoonosis. In order to reveal the prevalence of Cyclospora spp. in Holstein cattle in partial areas of the Yunnan Province, 524 fresh fecal samples [...] Read more.
Cyclospora spp. is a food-borne intestinal protozoan, which is widely distributed in the world and poses the risk of zoonosis. In order to reveal the prevalence of Cyclospora spp. in Holstein cattle in partial areas of the Yunnan Province, 524 fresh fecal samples of Holstein cattle were collected from Dali, Kunming, Chuxiong, and Qujing in Yunnan Province. A nested PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cyclospora spp. was carried out, and the products of the nested PCR were further analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using Bsp E Ⅰ. The results of the present study showed that 13 samples were positive for Cyclospora spp., and the total infection rate of Cyclospora sp. was 2.48%. The infection of Cyclospora spp. was detected in Dali, Qujing, and Chuxiong. Chuxiong showed the highest infection rate (5.71%), and infection rate in Dali and Qujing was 2.19% and 3.16%, respectively. Interestingly, the infection of Cyclospora spp. was not detected in Kunming. The infection of Cyclospora spp. showed no significant differences among different regions (p > 0.05). Cyclospora sp. infection was detected in all ages and sexes, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that five Cyclospora spp. samples were closely related to the Cyclospora spp. of humans, and the others were closely related to the Cyclospora spp. of bovines. The results of the present study suggested that there was an infection of Cyclospora spp. in Holstein cattle in the Yunnan Province, and the Cyclospora spp. showed a risk of zoonosis. Thus, the prevention and control of Cyclospora spp. should be strengthened in the Yunnan Province, China. The results of this investigation provide data references for the further research of Cyclosporiasis in Holstein cattle in the Yunnan Province. Full article
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13 pages, 2345 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Clinical and Biochemical Traits in Egyptian Barki Sheep with Different Growth Performances
by Ragab M. Fereig, Rawia M. Ibrahim, Atef M. Khalil, Caroline F. Frey and Fatma A. Khalifa
Animals 2023, 13(6), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13060962 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
The Barki sheep industry is becoming increasingly important in Egypt because of the high quality of their meat and wool. This sheep breed is also commonly known for its resistance to arid and harsh environmental conditions. Such characteristics can be exploited in solving [...] Read more.
The Barki sheep industry is becoming increasingly important in Egypt because of the high quality of their meat and wool. This sheep breed is also commonly known for its resistance to arid and harsh environmental conditions. Such characteristics can be exploited in solving the problematic situation of inadequate animal protein for human consumption, particularly under climatic changes. However, very few studies have investigated aspects of breeding, nutrition, and susceptibility to infectious or non-infectious diseases in Barki sheep. Herein, we propose to unravel the differences in the clinical and biochemical profiles among Barki sheep of different growth rates. We measured clinical and biochemical parameters in stunted (n = 10; test group) and in good body condition (n = 9; control group) Barki sheep. Animals subjected to this experiment were of the same sex (female), age (12 months old), and housed in the same farm with similar conditions of feeding, management practice, and vaccination and deworming regimens. Regarding clinical examination, stunted/tested sheep showed a significantly higher pulse and respiratory rate compared to sheep with a good body condition/control group. The appetite, body temperature, and digestion processes were the same in both groups. In biochemical investigations, nutritional biomarkers were reduced markedly in stunted sheep compared with the control sheep, including total protein (p = 0.0445), albumin (p = 0.0087), cholesterol (p = 0.0007), and triglycerides (p = 0.0059). In addition, the Barki sheep test group suffered from higher levels of urea and blood urea nitrogen than the control group. Consistently, growth and thyroid hormone levels were lower in stunted sheep than the control sheep, although the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). No significant differences were detected in both groups for serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, and zinc (p > 0.05). To detect the reasons for emaciation, certain debilitating infections were tested. All tested sheep showed negative coprological tests for gastrointestinal parasites, and had no obvious seropositivity to brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, or Q fever. This study demonstrates the useful biochemical markers for monitoring growth performance in Egyptian Barki sheep and unravels the usefulness of this breed in nationwide breeding and farming. Full article
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17 pages, 3418 KiB  
Article
The Complete Mitogenome of Toxocara vitulorum: Novel In-Sights into the Phylogenetics in Toxocaridae
by Yue Xie, Lidan Wang, Yijun Chen, Zhao Wang, Pengchen Zhu, Zun Hu, Xinfeng Han, Zhisheng Wang, Xuan Zhou and Zhicai Zuo
Animals 2022, 12(24), 3546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12243546 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Toxocara vitulorum (Ascaridida: Nematoda) is one of the most common intestinal nematodes of cattle and buffalos and, therefore, represents a serious threat to their populations worldwide. Despite its significance in veterinary health the epidemiology, population genetics, and molecular ecology of this nematode remain [...] Read more.
Toxocara vitulorum (Ascaridida: Nematoda) is one of the most common intestinal nematodes of cattle and buffalos and, therefore, represents a serious threat to their populations worldwide. Despite its significance in veterinary health the epidemiology, population genetics, and molecular ecology of this nematode remain poorly understood. The mitogenome can yield a foundation for studying these areas and assist in the surveillance and control of T. vitulorum. Herein, the first whole mitogenome of T. vitulorum was sequenced utilizing Illumina technology and characterized with bioinformatic pipeline analyses. The entire genome of T. vitulorum was 15,045 bp in length and contained 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). The gene arrangement (GA) of T. vitulorum was similar to those of other Toxocara species under GA3. The whole genome showed significant levels of AT and GC skew. Comparative mitogenomics including sequence identities, Ka/Ks, and sliding window analysis, indicated a purifying selection of 12 PCGs with cox1 and nad6 having the lowest and highest evolutionary rate, respectively. Whole amino acid sequence-based phylogenetic analysis supported a novel sister-species relationship of T. vitulorum with the congeneric species Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, and Toxocara malaysiensis in the family Toxocaridae. Further, 12 (PCGs) single gene-based phylogenies suggested that nad4 and nad6 genes shared same topological trees with that of the whole genome, suggesting that these genes were suitable as novel genetic markers for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of Ascaridida species. This complete mitogenome of T. vitulorum refined phylogenetic relationships in Toxocaridae and provided the resource of markers for population genetics, systematics, and epidemiology of this bovine nematode. Full article
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9 pages, 2328 KiB  
Article
Brazilian Horses from Bahia State Are Highly Infected with Sarcocystis bertrami
by Caroline Marques, Bruno da Silva, Yuri Nogueira, Taynar Bezerra, Aline Tavares, Waléria Borges-Silva and Luís Gondim
Animals 2022, 12(24), 3491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12243491 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
The protozoan Sarcocystis bertrami (syn. Sarcocystis fayeri) infects horses and has dogs as definitive hosts. Herein we aimed to detect S. bertrami in Brazilian horses destined for human consumption and to determine the frequency of infection in the examined animals. Muscle fragments [...] Read more.
The protozoan Sarcocystis bertrami (syn. Sarcocystis fayeri) infects horses and has dogs as definitive hosts. Herein we aimed to detect S. bertrami in Brazilian horses destined for human consumption and to determine the frequency of infection in the examined animals. Muscle fragments from 51 horses were collected in a slaughterhouse in Bahia State during three different seasons of the year. Samples from six tissues from each animal were prepared for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation, using tissue grinding, squash and histology. Sarcocystis sp. was observed in 100% of the examined horses. Selected samples were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Species identification was confirmed using a PCR targeted to the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Histological examination revealed sarcocysts with variable sizes and shapes, and dispersed within the muscle fibers. When observed by TEM, the sarcocyst wall was wavy and covered by an electrodense layer. The villar protrusions were digitiform and bent. To our knowledge, this study is the first morphological and molecular confirmation of S. bertrami in horses in Brazil and South America. Full article
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10 pages, 2152 KiB  
Article
Molecular Detection and Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Pigs in Fujian Province, Southeastern China
by Fu-Rong Zhao, Ning Zhang, Wen-Yuan Miao, Ran Wu, Lin-Lin Cui, Cui-Qin Huang and Dong-Hui Zhou
Animals 2022, 12(22), 3148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12223148 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Giardia duodenalis, an intestinal parasite, is widely distributed in humans and various animals, such as pigs, cattle and cats. The clinical symptoms of giardiasis are characterized as including abdominal pain, acute or chronic diarrhea, and bloating and weight loss in humans and [...] Read more.
Giardia duodenalis, an intestinal parasite, is widely distributed in humans and various animals, such as pigs, cattle and cats. The clinical symptoms of giardiasis are characterized as including abdominal pain, acute or chronic diarrhea, and bloating and weight loss in humans and animals, leading to public and veterinary health problems worldwide. However, the prevalence and genotypes of G. duodenalis in pigs in Fujian Province, southeastern China, have not been reported. In the present study, 725 fecal samples were collected from six cities (Fuqing, Putian, Nanping, Longyan, Sanming, Zhangzhou) in Fujian Province and analyzed for G. duodenalis prevalence and genotypes using nested PCR targeting the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. The results shown that total occurrence rate of G. duodenalis was 26.9% (195/725) in pigs, with significant differences in the prevalence among different regions (χ2 = 86.508, p < 0.05) and groups (χ2 = 12.748, p < 0.05). 195, 11 and 6 samples were detected at the bg, tpi and gdh loci, respectively. Each one belonged to a subtype of assemblage E and was analyzed using sequences obtained in this study. Based on phylogenetic analyses of sequences from the three genetic loci, only one MLG E1 was found. The results indicated that pigs may present a potential zoonotic risk of spreading G. duodenalis infection from animals to humans in this area. The findings of the present study also provide basic data for the prevention and control of G. duodenalis infection in pigs and humans in China. Full article
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10 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
Neospora spp. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Seropositivity in Apparently Healthy Horses and Pregnant Mares
by Lea Mimoun, Amir Steinman, Ynon Kliachko, Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Gili Schvartz, Elena Blinder, Gad Baneth and Monica Leszkowicz Mazuz
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192699 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Equine Neospora infection has been linked to neurological disorders and infertility in horses. This study looked into the risk factors for infection and the exposure to Neospora spp. in horses. The study was performed in two independent populations in Israel. The first consisted [...] Read more.
Equine Neospora infection has been linked to neurological disorders and infertility in horses. This study looked into the risk factors for infection and the exposure to Neospora spp. in horses. The study was performed in two independent populations in Israel. The first consisted of apparently healthy horses, and the second consisted of mares examined during pregnancy and after parturition. Sera samples collected from horses and mares were tested for Neospora exposure by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The study revealed seroprevalence of 24% in apparently healthy horses and 66.4% and 48.6% in mares during gestation and after parturition, respectively. Among the investigated risk factors, older age (p = 0.026) and housing in both stalls and paddocks (p = 0.033) in apparently healthy horses, and Arabian breeds (p = 0.005) in pregnant mares, were found to be significantly associated with Neospora spp. seropositivity in univariable, but not multivariable, statistical analysis. This study revealed high exposure of equines to Neospora parasites, especially mares. Horse farm management, in combination with active surveillance, including serological testing and follow up, could help reduce the spread of the parasite among horses in endemic areas. Full article
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Review

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12 pages, 838 KiB  
Review
Inhibition of Cell Apoptosis by Apicomplexan Protozoa–Host Interaction in the Early Stage of Infection
by Liyin Lian, Qian Sun, Xinyi Huang, Wanjing Li, Yanjun Cui, Yuebo Pan, Xianyu Yang and Pu Wang
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243817 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 845
Abstract
Apicomplexan protozoa, which are a group of specialized intracellular parasitic protozoa, infect humans and other animals and cause a variety of diseases. The lack of research on the interaction mechanism between Apicomplexan protozoa and their hosts is a key factor restricting the development [...] Read more.
Apicomplexan protozoa, which are a group of specialized intracellular parasitic protozoa, infect humans and other animals and cause a variety of diseases. The lack of research on the interaction mechanism between Apicomplexan protozoa and their hosts is a key factor restricting the development of new drugs and vaccines. In the early stages of infection, cell apoptosis is inhibited by Apicomplexan protozoa through their interaction with the host cells; thereby, the survival and reproduction of Apicomplexan protozoa in host cells is promoted. In this review, the key virulence proteins and pathways are introduced regarding the inhibition of cell apoptosis by the interaction between the protozoa and their host during the early stage of Apicomplexan protozoa infection. It provides a theoretical basis for the development of drugs or vaccines for protozoal diseases. Full article
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