Algae in Animal Nutrition

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 21170

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, Department of Animal Science, School of Animal Biosciences, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, GR-11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: nutritional physiology; natural antioxidants; molecular metabolism; bioactive compounds; oxidation mechanisms; antioxidants; prevention of oxidation; functional peptides; antioxidant markers; circular economy; Immune-oxidative status
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

From Ancient Greece to Icelandic sagas and all over the world, ample evidence suggests that both wild and domesticated animals approach coastal areas to feed on seaweed. Today, both seaweeds and biotechnologically produced microalgae are used as feed additives rich in bioactive compounds, in livestock animals, aquaculture, and pets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals, secondary metabolites, and an extensive variety of antioxidants and immunoregulatory biomolecules validate the high nutritional value of algae in animal diets.

Considering these aspects, algae and seaweeds are explored in animal diets as:

  • A source of functional fatty acids aiming to increase PUFA concentration in the milk, meat, and eggs of productive animals (functional foods);
  • Health promoters, due to their immunomodulatory properties;
  • Rumen microbiome manipulators focusing on optimizing rumen function and mitigating methanogenesis;
  • A sustainable alternative to fish oil in aquacultures;
  • Alternatives to synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobials.

This Special Issue aims to present recent research and reviews focused on the impact of algae and seaweeds on both animal performance and physiology. It is not limited to the cataloging of research outcomes, but rather encourages an in-depth understanding of the impact of algae and seaweeds on health status, feed efficiency, environmental impact, product quality, and other perspectives of the modern animal nutrition field. The characterization and chemical composition of selected species are greatly encouraged.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Alexandros Mavrommatis
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • ruminants
  • poultry
  • swine
  • pets
  • fish
  • nutrition and metabolism
  • rumen ecology
  • immune system and health status
  • sustainability and GHG mitigation strategies
  • in vitro and in vivo trials
  • antioxidant compounds

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Two Species of Macroalgae from Azores Sea as Potential Reducers of Ruminal Methane Production: In Vitro Ruminal Assay
by Helder P. B. Nunes, Cristiana S. A. M. Maduro Dias, Nuno V. Álvaro and Alfredo E. S. Borba
Animals 2024, 14(6), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14060967 - 20 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
The utilisation of seaweeds as feed supplements has been investigated for their potential to mitigate enteric methane emissions from ruminants. Enteric methane emissions are the primary source of direct greenhouse gas emissions in livestock and significantly contribute to anthropogenic methane emissions worldwide. The [...] Read more.
The utilisation of seaweeds as feed supplements has been investigated for their potential to mitigate enteric methane emissions from ruminants. Enteric methane emissions are the primary source of direct greenhouse gas emissions in livestock and significantly contribute to anthropogenic methane emissions worldwide. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the nutritional role and the in vitro effect on cumulative gas and methane production of Asparagopsis taxiformis (native species) and Asparagopsis armata (invasive species), two species of red algae from the Azorean Sea, as well as the ability to reduce biogas production when incubated with single pasture (Lolium perenne and Trifollium repens) as substrate. Four levels of concentrations marine algae were used (1.25%, 2.25%, 5%, and 10% DM) and added to the substrate to evaluate ruminal fermentation using the in vitro gas production technique. The total amount of gas and methane produced by the treatment incubation was recorded during 72 h of incubation. The results indicate that both algae species under investigation contain relatively high levels of protein (22.69% and 24.23%, respectively, for Asparagopsis taxiformis and Asparagopsis armata) and significant amounts of minerals, namely magnesium (1.15% DM), sodium (8.6% DM), and iron (2851 ppm). Concerning in vitro ruminal fermentation, it was observed that A. taxiformis can reduce enteric methane production by approximately 86%, during the first 24 h when 5% is added. In the same period and at the same concentration, A. armata reduced methane production by 34%. Thus, it can be concluded that Asparagopsis species from the Azorean Sea have high potential as a protein and mineral supplement, in addition to enabling a reduction in methane production from rumen fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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20 pages, 2800 KiB  
Article
Pollutant Gases to Algal Animal Feed: Impacts of Poultry House Exhaust Air on Amino Acid Profile of Algae
by Seyit Uguz and Arda Sozcu
Animals 2024, 14(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14050754 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Algae provide a rich source of proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, making them valuable feed ingredients in animal nutrition. Beyond their nutritional benefits, algae have been recognized for their potential to mitigate the negative environmental impacts of poultry production. Poultry production is crucial [...] Read more.
Algae provide a rich source of proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, making them valuable feed ingredients in animal nutrition. Beyond their nutritional benefits, algae have been recognized for their potential to mitigate the negative environmental impacts of poultry production. Poultry production is crucial for the global food supply but contributes to environmental concerns, particularly in terms of ammonia and carbon dioxide gas emissions. This study emphasizes the importance of reducing greenhouse gas and ammonia production in poultry operations by utilizing algae species suitable for animal consumption, highlighting the need for sustainable feed sources. This study investigated the effects of poultry exhaust air and culture conditions on the amino acid profiles of three microalgae species, namely, Scenedesmus sp. (AQUAMEB-60), Ankistrodesmus sp. (AQUAMEB-33), and Synechococcaceae (AQUAMEB 32). The experiments were conducted in a commercial broiler farm in Bursa, Turkey, focusing on reducing pollutant gas emissions and utilizing poultry exhaust air in algae cultivation. The highest protein content of 50.4% was observed in the biomass of Synechococcaceae with BBM and DI water. Scenedesmus sp. had the highest carbohydrate content of 33.4% cultivated with DI water. The algae biomass produced from Synechococcaceae growth with DI water was found to have the highest content of essential and nonessential amino acids, except for glutamic acid and glycine. The arsenic, cadmium, and mercury content showed variations within the following respective ranges: 1.076–3.500 mg/kg, 0.0127–0.1210 mg/kg, and 0.1330–0.0124 mg/kg. The overall operating costs for producing 1.0 g L−1 d−1 of dry algal biomass with the existing PBR system were $0.12–0.35 L−1 d−1, $0.10–0.26 L−1 d−1, and $0.11–0.24 L−1 d−1 for Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., and Synechococcaceae, respectively. The operating cost of producing 1.0 g L−1 d−1 of protein was in the range of $0.25–0.88 L−1 d−1 for the three algae species. The results provide insights into the potential of algae as a sustainable feed ingredient in animal diets, emphasizing both environmental and economic considerations. The results demonstrated a considerable reduction in the production costs of dry biomass and protein when utilizing poultry house exhaust air, highlighting the economic viability and nutritional benefits of this cultivation method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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19 pages, 1713 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Value of Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Produced with Batch and Continuous Cultivation: Potential Use as Feed Material in Poultry Nutrition
by Seyit Uguz and Arda Sozcu
Animals 2023, 13(21), 3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13213431 - 6 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Recently, the demand for new alternative feedstuffs that do not contain chemical residue and are not genetically modified has been increased for sustainability in poultry production. In this respect, the usage of algae as animal feed is very promising as an alternative feed [...] Read more.
Recently, the demand for new alternative feedstuffs that do not contain chemical residue and are not genetically modified has been increased for sustainability in poultry production. In this respect, the usage of algae as animal feed is very promising as an alternative feed ingredient that reduces pollutant gases from animal production facilities. The aim of the current study is to investigate the usage possibility of algae, through determining nutritional value and production cost, as a feed ingredient in poultry nutrition. Three microalgae species, including Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., and Synechococcaceae, were produced with batch and continuous cultivation to determine the difference in the lipid, protein, carbohydrate, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles, as well as the color characteristics and production cost. The highest lipid content of 72.5% was observed in algae biomass produced from Synechococcaceae with batch cultivation, whereas the highest protein level was found in algae biomass produced by Synechococcaceae under continuous cultivation practice (25.6%). The highest content of PUFA was observed in Scenedesmus sp. harvested from both batch and continuous cultivation (35.6 and 36.2%), whereas the lowest content of PUFA was found in Synechococcaceae harvested with continuous cultivation (0.4%). Continuously cultivated of Scenedesmus sp. had higher carbohydrate content than batch-cultivated Scenedesmus sp. (57.2% vs. 50.1%). The algae biomass produced from Synechococcaceae was found to have a higher content of essential amino acids, except lysine and histidine, compared to Scenedesmus sp. and Ankistrodesmus sp. Cultivation practices also affected the amino acid level in each algae species. The continuous cultivation practice resulted in a higher level of essential amino acids, except glycine. Synechococcaceae had richer essential amino acid content except for proline and ornithine, whereas continuous cultivation caused an incremental increase in non-essential amino acids. The lightness value was found to be the lowest (13.9) in Scenedesmus sp. that was continuously cultivated. The current study indicated that Scenedesmus sp. could be offered for its high PUFA and lysine content, whereas Synechococcaceae could have potential due to its high content of methionine and threonine, among the investigated microalgae and Cyanobacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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11 pages, 1411 KiB  
Article
Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation on Reproductive Parameters of Sahrawi and Jabbali Goat Bucks
by Fahad Al-Yahyaey, Cyril Stephen, Yasir Al-Shukaili, Samir Al-Bulushi, Ihab Shaat and Russell Bush
Animals 2023, 13(21), 3405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13213405 - 2 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1727
Abstract
Spirulina platensis (SP) is a protein-rich dietary supplement that improves animal reproductive traits. This study investigated the effect of SP supplementation on puberty onset, semen characteristics, scrotal circumference (SC), libido, and hormone concentrations in Sahrawi and Jabbali bucks. The study was conducted in [...] Read more.
Spirulina platensis (SP) is a protein-rich dietary supplement that improves animal reproductive traits. This study investigated the effect of SP supplementation on puberty onset, semen characteristics, scrotal circumference (SC), libido, and hormone concentrations in Sahrawi and Jabbali bucks. The study was conducted in 36 bucks, divided into three groups (n = 6/group), for 70 days. The rations included the following: (1) Control feed (Con) with 14% crude protein and 11.97% MJ/kg DM energy; (2) Con with 2 g SP/head/day SP treatment (T1) and (3) Con with 4 g SP/head/day treatment (T2). The mean (±SEM) SC of both SP groups in the Sahrawi breed was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the Con. The mean of the semen volume significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) in the SP group than in the Con group in both breeds. SP groups vs. Con groups had increased sperm concentration in Sahrawi bucks than Jabbali bucks. Mean serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (Tes) concentrations in Jabbali bucks were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the SP groups compared to Sahrawi bucks. SP improved the SC, semen quality, libido, sperm concentration, and LH and Tes concentrations in both breeds. The results of the current study suggest that adding SP to the diet may have the ability to improve the semen quality of the local Omani bucks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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17 pages, 824 KiB  
Article
Influence of Dietary Addition of Mineral Shungite and Fucus vesiculosus on Production Performance, Egg Quality, Nutrients Digestibility, and Immunity Status of Laying Hens
by Nikolai P. Buryakov, Anastasiya S. Zaikina, Vladimir I. Trukhachev, Maria A. Buryakova, Valentina G. Kosolapova, Ilia N. Nikonov, Ivan K. Medvedev, Mohamed M. Fathala and Dmitrii E. Aleshin
Animals 2023, 13(20), 3176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13203176 - 11 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to assess the impact of using the thermally modified mineral adsorbent shungite (MAS) and the dried seaweed meal Fucus vesiculosus (DSM) with different doses in Brown Nick cross laying hens’ diet on their productivity, nutrient digestibility, [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to assess the impact of using the thermally modified mineral adsorbent shungite (MAS) and the dried seaweed meal Fucus vesiculosus (DSM) with different doses in Brown Nick cross laying hens’ diet on their productivity, nutrient digestibility, morphological and blood profile, immunity status, and egg quality. A total of 261,720 hens were used in this experiment at the age of 63 weeks, and they were randomly divided into 5 groups (feeding program) with six repetitions of 8724 chickens in each. The first served (control) as a control group where laying hens were fed the basal diet that was used on the farm only; the second and the third groups represented MAS+ and MAS++, where they received the basal diet supplemented by 0.1% and 0.25% (or 1.0 kg/t and 2.5 kg/t of feed) of the mineral adsorbent shungite (MAS) which was provided in the feed in powder form (5 microns) and was added to the feed at the feed mill; the fourth and fifth groups represented DSM+ and DSM++, which received the basal diet provided with 0.1% and 0.25% (or 1.0 kg/t and 2.5 kg/t of feed) of dried seaweed meal of F. vesiculosus algae (DSM). The average egg weight over the entire period of the experiment revealed significant differences between the experimental groups and represented in the control group 65.20 vs. 66.88, 66.87 and 68.10 and 68.13 g in the MAS+ and MAS++, and DSM+ and DSM++ groups, respectively. Once the dried seaweed meal F. vesiculosus (DSM) was used, the crude protein increased significantly (p < 0.05) in egg yolk by 2.64 and 2.67%, carotenoids by 1.13 and 1.20 mg/g DM. The inclusion of both MAS and DSM feed additives revealed a significant decrease in the level of crude fat (lipids) in their liver when compared with the control group. The level of erythrocytes (RBCs) increased (p < 0.05) in the MAS+ and MAS++ and DSM+ and DSM++ groups when compared to the control group. Similarly, a significant increase was noted in hemoglobin when DSM was supplemented when compared to the control one. Moreover, the number of heterophils increased (p < 0.05) in groups of MAS and DSM when compared to the control group. The percentage of phagocytic activity increased significantly by 5.39, 6.90, and 7.18% in MAS++, DSM+, and DSM++, respectively, relative to the control group. On the other hand, the phagocytic number decreased (p < 0.05) by 1.15 and 1.12 conditional units in MAS+ and MAS++ and by 1.03 and 0.83 conditional units in DSM+ and DSM++ when compared to the control group, respectively. Consequently, the inclusion of thermally modified mineral adsorbent shungite and the dried seaweed meal F. vesiculosus with different doses in Brown Nick cross laying hen diets improves the egg weight and egg quality, crude protein, carotenoids and vitamin A in the egg mass, the utilization of lysine and methionine nutrients, hemoglobin content, immunity status, while decreases the incidence of fatty liver occurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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7 pages, 587 KiB  
Communication
Potential of the Red Macroalga Bonnemaisonia hamifera in Reducing Methane Emissions from Ruminants
by Abdulai Guinguina, Maria Hayes, Fredrik Gröndahl and Sophie Julie Krizsan
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182925 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Researchers have been exploring seaweeds to reduce methane (CH4) emissions from livestock. This study aimed to investigate the potential of a red macroalga, B. hamifera, as an alternative to mitigate CH4 emissions. B. hamifera, harvested from the west [...] Read more.
Researchers have been exploring seaweeds to reduce methane (CH4) emissions from livestock. This study aimed to investigate the potential of a red macroalga, B. hamifera, as an alternative to mitigate CH4 emissions. B. hamifera, harvested from the west coast of Sweden, was used in an in vitro experiment using a fully automated gas production system. The experiment was a randomized complete block design consisting of a 48 h incubation that included a control (grass silage) and B. hamifera inclusions at 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% of grass silage OM mixed with buffered rumen fluid. Predicted in vivo CH4 production and total gas production were estimated by applying a set of models to the gas production data and in vitro fermentation characteristics were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the inclusion of B. hamifera reduced (p = 0.01) predicted in vivo CH4 and total gas productions, and total gas production linearly decreased (p = 0.03) with inclusion of B. hamifera. The molar proportion of propionate increased (p = 0.03) while isovalerate decreased (p = 0.04) with inclusion of B. hamifera. Chemical analyses revealed that B. hamifera had moderate concentrations of polyphenols. The iodine content was low, and there was no detectable bromoform, suggesting quality advantages over Asparagopsis taxiformis. Additionally, B. hamifera exhibited antioxidant activity similar to Resveratrol. The findings of this study indicated that B. hamifera harvested from temperate waters of Sweden possesses capacity to mitigate CH4 in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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17 pages, 1629 KiB  
Article
Microencapsulated Diets as an Alternative to Bivalve Feeding: Particle Size and Microalga Content Affect Feed Intake
by Vitória Pereira, Sílvia F. S. Pires, Andreia C. M. Rodrigues, Pearl Ofoegbu, Pedro Bem-Haja, Amadeu M. V. M. Soares, Luís E. C. Conceição, Rui J. M. Rocha and Mário Pacheco
Animals 2023, 13(12), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13122009 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Bivalve mollusks represent a nutritious source with a low environmental impact; as a result, they are one of the most attractive aquaculture options. Advances in microencapsulation technology offer great potential to face key bivalve nutrition problems, and an alga-based microencapsulated diet can turn [...] Read more.
Bivalve mollusks represent a nutritious source with a low environmental impact; as a result, they are one of the most attractive aquaculture options. Advances in microencapsulation technology offer great potential to face key bivalve nutrition problems, and an alga-based microencapsulated diet can turn enriched bivalves into potential functional foods. The central goal of this study was the evaluation of food intake as a function of particle size and microalga content following the supply of four microencapsulated diets, incorporating as core material Nannochloropsis sp. or Tetraselmis sp. in 20 or 40 µm diameter pellets (diets N20, T20, N40, and T40, respectively) in five bivalve species (Magallana gigas, Solen marginatus, Ruditapes decussatus, Ruditapes philippinarum, and Cerastoderma edule). Overall, all tested diets were easily ingested, although food intake was higher for N20 (except for the S. marginatus, which showed a higher rate for the diet T40). Concerning a size-related analysis, C. edule and S. marginatus favored, respectively, smaller and bigger pellet-sized diets, with no signs of selectivity for microalga species. The diet T20 was the lesser ingested, except for C. edule. This knowledge enables a better selection of feed with appropriate and species-adjusted profiles, contributing to the optimization of microencapsulated diets for bivalve rearing and a better final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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13 pages, 484 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pelagic Sargassum on In Vitro Dry Matter and Organic Matter Degradation, Gas Production, and Protozoa Population
by Luis Alberto Canul-Ku, José Roberto Sanginés-García, Edgar Aguilar Urquizo, Jorge Rodolfo Canul-Solís, Ingrid Abril Valdivieso-Pérez, Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Isabel Molina-Botero, Jacobo Arango and Ángel Trinidad Piñeiro-Vázquez
Animals 2023, 13(11), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13111858 - 2 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
This study determined the effect of pelagic Sargassum on in vitro dry matter and organic matter degradation, total gas production (TGP), and protozoa population. The treatments were different levels of Sargassum inclusion on a basal substrate (Stargrass hay; Cynodon nlemfuensis) as follows: [...] Read more.
This study determined the effect of pelagic Sargassum on in vitro dry matter and organic matter degradation, total gas production (TGP), and protozoa population. The treatments were different levels of Sargassum inclusion on a basal substrate (Stargrass hay; Cynodon nlemfuensis) as follows: T0 (control treatment based on Stargrass hay), T10 (90% Stargrass hay + 10% Sargassum), T20 (80% Stargrass hay + 20% Sargassum), and T30 (70% Stargrass hay + 30% Sargassum). Ruminal fermentation kinetics and protozoa population were determined during 72 h of in vitro incubations. Compared to control, dry matter degradability at 48 and 72 h and organic matter degradability at 24 and 48 h were higher in Sargassum treatments. TGP was lower with T20 at 48 h. The total population of protozoa and the concentration of Entodinium spp. were lower at T20 at 48 h and T30 at 72 h. Cl, S, Ca, K, and Zn (103, 5.97, 88.73, 285.70 g/kg, and 15,900 mg/kg) were high in Sargassum, reaching twice or even nine times higher than the contents in Stargrass (11.37, 1.60, 43.53, 87.73 g/kg, and 866.67 mg/kg). Overall, up to 30% pelagic Sargassum could be included in hay-based substrates from tropical grasses without negative effects on in vitro dry matter and organic matter degradability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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13 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Adaptation to Three Red Seaweeds Using the Rumen Simulation Technique
by Stephanie A. Terry, Ana M. Krüger, Paulo M. T. Lima, Robert J. Gruninger, D. Wade Abbott and Karen A. Beauchemin
Animals 2023, 13(10), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13101643 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Several red seaweeds have been shown to inhibit enteric CH4 production; however, the adaptation of fermentation parameters to their presence is not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of three red seaweeds (Asparargopsis taxiformis, Mazzaella [...] Read more.
Several red seaweeds have been shown to inhibit enteric CH4 production; however, the adaptation of fermentation parameters to their presence is not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of three red seaweeds (Asparargopsis taxiformis, Mazzaella japonica, and Palmaria mollis) on in vitro fermentation, CH4 production, and adaptation using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with four treatments, duplicated in two identical RUSITEC apparatus equipped with eight fermenter vessels each. The four treatments included the control and the three red seaweeds added to the control diet at 2% diet DM. The experimental period was divided into four phases including a baseline phase (d 0–7; no seaweed included), an adaptation phase (d 8–11; seaweed included in treatment vessels), an intermediate phase (d 12–16), and a stable phase (d 17–21). The degradability of organic matter (p = 0.04) and neutral detergent fibre (p = 0.05) was decreased by A. taxiformis during the adaptation phase, but returned to control levels in the stable phase. A. taxiformis supplementation resulted in a decrease (p < 0.001) in the molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, with an increase in the molar proportions of butyrate, caproate, and valerate; the other seaweeds had no effect (p > 0.05) on the molar proportions or production of individual VFA. A. taxiformis was the only seaweed to suppress CH4 production (p < 0.001), with the suppressive effect increasing (p < 0.001) across phases. Similarly, A. taxiformis increased (p < 0.001) the production of hydrogen (H2, %, mL/d) across the adaptation, intermediate, and stable phases, with the intermediate and stable phases having greater H2 production than the adaptation phase. In conclusion, M. japonica and P. mollis did not impact rumen fermentation or inhibit CH4 production within the RUSITEC. In contrast, we conclude that A. taxiformis is an effective CH4 inhibitor and its introduction to the ruminal environment requires a period of adaptation; however, the large magnitude of CH4 suppression by A. taxiformis inhibits VFA synthesis, which may restrict the production performance in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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16 pages, 489 KiB  
Article
Brown and Green Seaweed Antioxidant Properties and Effects on Blood Plasma Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, Hepatic Antioxidant Genes Expression, Blood Plasma Lipid Profile, and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens
by Mohammad Naeem Azizi, Teck Chwen Loh, Hooi Ling Foo, Henny Akit, Wan Ibrahim Izuddin and Danladi Yohanna
Animals 2023, 13(10), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13101582 - 9 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
The study was designed to analyze the effects of brown seaweed (BS) and green seaweed (GS) on blood plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, hepatic antioxidant genes expression, blood plasma lipid profile, breast meat quality, and chemical composition in broiler chickens. The dietary treatment groups [...] Read more.
The study was designed to analyze the effects of brown seaweed (BS) and green seaweed (GS) on blood plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, hepatic antioxidant genes expression, blood plasma lipid profile, breast meat quality, and chemical composition in broiler chickens. The dietary treatment groups contained basal diet [negative control (NC)], basal diet + vitamin E (100 mg/kg feed) [positive control (PC)], basal diet + 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, and 1.25% BS and GS supplements separately. The findings showed that both BS and GS exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity. In contrast, the maximum antioxidant activity was recorded by BS (55.19%), which was significantly higher than the GS (25.74%). Results showed that various levels of BS and GS had no significant effects on broiler blood plasma catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities. The hepatic superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene mRNA expression was significantly higher for birds fed 0.50% and 0.75% BS. Regarding the plasma lipid profile, the total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were higher (p < 0.05) for birds fed 0.75 and 1% BS compared to the negative and positive control groups. The findings showed that different levels of BS and GS had significantly higher breast meat crude protein (CP) content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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14 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Micro- and Macro-Algae Combination as a Novel Alternative Ruminant Feed with Methane-Mitigation Potential
by Eslam Ahmed, Kengo Suzuki and Takehiro Nishida
Animals 2023, 13(5), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13050796 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3651
Abstract
This study was conducted to provide alternative high-quality feed and to reduce methane production using a mixture of the minimum effective levels of Euglena gracilis, EG, and Asparagopsis taxiformis, AT. This study was performed as a 24 h in vitro batch [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to provide alternative high-quality feed and to reduce methane production using a mixture of the minimum effective levels of Euglena gracilis, EG, and Asparagopsis taxiformis, AT. This study was performed as a 24 h in vitro batch culture. Chemical analysis demonstrated that EG is a highly nutritive material with 26.1% protein and 17.7% fat. The results showed that the supplementation of AT as a feed additive at 1 and 2.5% of the diet reduced methane production by 21 and 80%, respectively, while the inclusion of EG in the diet at 10 and 25% through partially replacing the concentrate mixture reduced methane production by 4 and 11%, respectively, with no adverse effects on fermentation parameters. The mixtures of AT 1% with both EG 10% and EG 25% had a greater reductive potential than the individual supplementation of these algae in decreasing methane yield by 29.9% and 40.0%, respectively, without adverse impacts on ruminal fermentation characteristics. These results revealed that the new feed formulation had a synergistic effect in reducing methane emissions. Thus, this approach could provide a new strategy for a sustainable animal production industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
11 pages, 730 KiB  
Article
Inclusion of Red Macroalgae (Asparagopsis taxiformis) in Dairy Cow Diets Modulates Feed Intake, Chewing Activity and Estimated Saliva Secretion
by Emma Nyløy, Egil Prestløkken, Margrete Eknæs, Katrine Sømliøy Eikanger, Live Heldal Hagen and Alemayehu Kidane
Animals 2023, 13(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030489 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2309
Abstract
The current study assessed the effects of red macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis (AT)—included as an enteric methane inhibitor—in dairy cow diets on feed intake and eating–rumination behaviour. Fifteen early lactating Norwegian Red dairy cows were offered ad libitum access to drinking water and a [...] Read more.
The current study assessed the effects of red macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis (AT)—included as an enteric methane inhibitor—in dairy cow diets on feed intake and eating–rumination behaviour. Fifteen early lactating Norwegian Red dairy cows were offered ad libitum access to drinking water and a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of 35% concentrate feed and 65% grass silage on a dry matter (DM) basis. The experiment lasted for 74 days with the first 22 days on a common diet used as the covariate period. At the end of the covariate period, the cows were randomly allocated into one of three dietary treatments: namely, 0% AT (control), 0.125% AT and 0.25% AT in the TMR. The TMR was offered in individual feed troughs with AT blended in a 400 g (w/w) water–molasses mixture. Eating–rumination behaviour was recorded for 11 days using RumiWatchSystem after feeding the experimental diets for 30 days. The 0.25% AT inclusion significantly reduced the DM intake (DMI). Time (min/d) spent on eating and eating in a head-down position increased with the increasing AT level in the diet, whereas rumination time was not affected. The greater time spent on eating head-down with the 0.25% AT group resulted in a significantly higher chewing index (min/kg DMI). Estimated saliva production per unit DMI (L/kg DMI, SE) increased from 10.9 (0.4) in the control to 11.3 (0.3) and 13.0 (0.3) in the 0.125% and 0.25% AT groups, respectively. This aligned with the measured ruminal fluid pH (6.09, 6.14, and 6.37 in the control, 0.125% AT and 0.25% AT groups, respectively). In conclusion, either the level of the water–molasses mixture used was not sufficient to mask the taste of AT, or the cows used it as a cue to sort out the AT. Studies with relatively larger numbers of animals and longer adaptation periods than what we used here, with varied modes of delivery of the seaweed may provide novel strategies for administering the additive in ruminant diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae in Animal Nutrition)
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