Diagnosis and Prevention of Endemic Diseases in Ruminants

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 1889

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Umbria e delle Marche "Togo Rosati", Perugia, Italy
Interests: infectious disease; molecular biology; veterinary pathology; virology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Umbria e delle Marche "Togo Rosati", Perugia, Italy
Interests: infectious diseases; antimicrobial resistance (AMR); genomics; whole genomic sequences (WGS); livestock
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The "traditional" role of ruminants is to provide meat, milk, fibers, and pelts. Because farming lands are considerably reduced, in addition to water and energy also becoming increasingly limited, production requires a substantial increase in efficiency and sustainability. In this scenario, the diagnosis and prevention of endemic disease in small and large ruminants are the keys to ensuring animal welfare and health, as well as sustainable livestock production and public health protection related to the consumption of animal products. Proper nutrition and housing, high-biosecurity measures, and correct prophylaxis via appropriate vaccine use are fundamental to reducing antibiotic use and ruminants' diseases. At the same time, improving the efficacy and reliability of diagnostic techniques is crucial to the early detection of disease. Additionally, last but not least, epidemiological surveillance is essential for making relevant decisions in mitigation activities. Outstanding progress has been made in all of these fields, and sharing international expertise is advisable.

In this context, the Special Issue will focus on new technologies developed for diagnoses, epidemiological studies, disease control, and prevention activities in ruminants. Original research, short communications, narrative reviews, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews are encouraged. There is no limit to the size of research, which could be significant on local, regional, country, or world scales.

Dr. Silvia Pavone
Dr. Francesca Romana Massacci
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • animal welfare
  • biosecurity
  • diagnostic techniques
  • endemic diseases
  • epidemiological studies
  • mitigation activities
  • nutrition
  • ruminants
  • vaccine

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Molecular Diagnosis of Footrot and Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitis in Small Ruminants in the Iberian Peninsula
by Alfredo A. Benito, Silvia Anía, María de los Ángeles Ramo, Cristina Baselga, Joaquín Quílez, María Teresa Tejedor and Luis Vicente Monteagudo
Animals 2024, 14(3), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14030481 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) and footrot (FR), a sub-acute or acute necrotic (decaying) infectious disease involving the hoof and underlying tissues, pose economic challenges to herds in Spain and worldwide. The aetiological agent for FR is Dichelobacter nodosus, while CODD is [...] Read more.
Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) and footrot (FR), a sub-acute or acute necrotic (decaying) infectious disease involving the hoof and underlying tissues, pose economic challenges to herds in Spain and worldwide. The aetiological agent for FR is Dichelobacter nodosus, while CODD is caused by pathogenic Treponema phylogroups. We detail the findings derived from the analysis by qPCR of 105 pooled samples from 100 ovine and five caprine herds in Spain and Portugal, alongside 15 samples from healthy flocks in order to identify Dichelobacter nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Treponema spp., and three pathogenic Treponema phylogroups (T. phagedenis, T. medium, and T. pedis). Treponema spp. were detected in all 120 pools, including samples from the 15 healthy flocks where only one positive result for F. necrophorum was recorded. Mixed infections by agents different from Treponema spp. were identified in 68.57% of samples. Positive results for F. necrophorum and/or D. nodosus, were obtained for 91.4% of the pools, whereas the presence of the three pathogenic Treponema phylogroups was rare: each of them appeared in isolation in a single pool, while they were found in 18 pools in combination with other agents. While F. necrophorum was the sole finding in 16.2% of samples from affected herds, D. nodosus (the footrot causative agent) was only detected in 61% of affected farms. An improved qPCR protocol was implemented to determine the serogroups of D. nodosus in the samples and found all of them (except the G serogroup), often in combined infections (35.1%). This report concludes with comprehensive proposals for diagnosing, preventing, and treating hoof ailments, remarking the interest of the information about D. nodosus serogroups in order to improve the efficiency of immunization by choosing appropriate vaccine protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Prevention of Endemic Diseases in Ruminants)
12 pages, 1013 KiB  
Communication
Environmental and Breed Risk Factors Associated with the Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis in Dual-Purpose Livestock Systems in the Arauca Floodplain Savannah, Colombian Orinoquia
by Arcesio Salamanca-Carreño, Mauricio Vélez-Terranova, Diana Patricia Barajas-Pardo, Rita Tamasaukas, Raúl Jáuregui-Jiménez and Pere M. Parés-Casanova
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3815; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243815 - 11 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the environmental and breed risk factors associated with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in cows in the dual-purpose livestock system of Arauca, Colombian Orinoquia. Milk samples were taken from 1924 mammary quarters, corresponding to [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the environmental and breed risk factors associated with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in cows in the dual-purpose livestock system of Arauca, Colombian Orinoquia. Milk samples were taken from 1924 mammary quarters, corresponding to 481 cows on 28 different farms, and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) was applied. Risk factors associated with SCM were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The response variable was the presence (1) or absence (0) of SCM. Breed was included as a genetic risk factor, and daily milk production, number of cows in production, lactation month, calving number, cow age, climatic period, and body condition were included as environmental risk factors. The analysis of the odds ratio (OR) of significant effects indicated that the factors significantly associated with the presence of SCM were the number of cows (OR = 2.29; p = 0.005), milk production (OR = 0.88; p = 0.045), and the Taurus-Indicus breeds (OR = 1.79; p = 0.009) and composite breed (OR = 3.95; p = 0.005). In this study, the occurrence of SCM was determined by the following risk factors: number of cows, milk production, and breed. Likewise, the highest prevalence seemed to occur on farms with less technological development and sanitary management of producers from the lowest socioeconomic stratum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Prevention of Endemic Diseases in Ruminants)
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