Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Farm Animal Welfare

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Welfare".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2019) | Viewed by 8814

Special Issue Editor

1. Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
2. Curtin University Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Kent St., Bentley 6102, Australia
Interests: animal welfare; animal ethics; captive animal management; heavy metals in animals
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is open for submissions of papers presented at the 3rd World Conference on Farm Animal Welfare, Qingdao, China, 19-20 September 2019.

Prof. Clive J. C. Phillips
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 8834 KiB  
Article
Effects of Added Dietary Fiber and Rearing System on the Gut Microbial Diversity and Gut Health of Chickens
Animals 2020, 10(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010107 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2902
Abstract
It is of merit to study the appropriate amount of dietary fiber to add to free-range chickens’ feed to improve their microbial diversity and gut health in times of plant fiber deprivation. Lignocellulose is a useful source of dietary fiber, and its positive [...] Read more.
It is of merit to study the appropriate amount of dietary fiber to add to free-range chickens’ feed to improve their microbial diversity and gut health in times of plant fiber deprivation. Lignocellulose is a useful source of dietary fiber, and its positive effects on the growth performance and laying performance of chickens has already been proven. However, few researchers have researched the effects of adding it on the gut microbiota of chickens. In this research, we added three different levels of eubiotic lignocellulose (0%, 2%, and 4%) to the feed of caged and free-range Bian chickens from September to November, aiming to observe the effects of added dietary fiber and different rearing systems on the gut microbial diversity and gut health of chickens, as well as to determine an appropriate amount of lignocellulose. The results showed that adding dietary fiber increased the thickness of the cecum mucus layer and the abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium in caged chickens, and 4% lignocellulose was appropriate. In addition, adding lignocellulose increased the microbial diversity and the abundance of the butyrate-producing bacteria Faecalibacterium and Roseburia in fee-range chickens. The α-diversity and the length of the small intestine with 2% lignocellulose in free-range chickens were better than with 2% lignocellulose in caged chickens. Maybe it is necessary to add dietary fiber to the feed of free-range chickens when plant fibers are lacking, and 2% lignocellulose was found to be appropriate in this experiment. In addition, compared with caged chickens, the free-range chickens had a longer small intestine and a lower glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level. The significant difference of GLP-1 levels was mainly driven by energy rather than short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). There was no interaction between added dietary fiber and the rearing system on SCFAs, cecum inner mucus layer, and GLP-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Farm Animal Welfare)
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16 pages, 1138 KiB  
Article
Equipping Farrowing Pens with Straw Improves Maternal Behavior and Physiology of Min-Pig Hybrid Sows
Animals 2020, 10(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010105 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2826
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of two factors, enriched environment (EE) and different crossbreeds, on the maternal behavior and physiology of Min-pig hybrid sows. The analysis was performed on a total of 72 multiparous sows, including Duroc × Min pig (DM), Landrace × [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of two factors, enriched environment (EE) and different crossbreeds, on the maternal behavior and physiology of Min-pig hybrid sows. The analysis was performed on a total of 72 multiparous sows, including Duroc × Min pig (DM), Landrace × Min pig (LM), and Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) sows, using a total of 24 sows per cross. The sows were housed in two different farrowing pens, one with straw (EE) and one without straw (barren environment (BE)). The results showed that nest-building behavior, including the frequency, total duration, and bout duration, was significantly higher in EE sows than in BE sows (p < 0.01). The frequency and duration of prepartum nest-building behavior were higher in DM and LM sows than in LY sows (p < 0.0001). During the first three days postpartum, EE sows spent a shorter time in ventral recumbency compared with BE sows (p < 0.05). The oxytocin (p < 0.05) and prolactin (p < 0.01) concentrations of EE sows were significantly higher than in BE sows; however, the concentration of cortisol followed the opposite (p < 0.01). The concentration of oxytocin was significantly higher in DM and LM sows than in LY sows (p < 0.01). In conclusion, both EE increased the expression of hormones related to parental behaviors and prenatal nesting and nursing behavior of sows. Furthermore, an EE can also reduce stress in sows. Min-pig hybrids may inherit highly advantageous characteristics of maternal behavior of Min-pig sows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Farm Animal Welfare)
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11 pages, 3416 KiB  
Article
Keel Fracture Causes Stress and Inflammatory Responses and Inhibits the Expression of the Orexin System in Laying Hens
Animals 2019, 9(10), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100804 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Keel fracture has negative effects on the health and welfare of laying hens. We investigated effects of keel fracture on stress, inflammation, and the orexin system in laying hens. Ninety 17-week-old Lohmann white laying hens were palpated and euthanatized at 42 weeks old, [...] Read more.
Keel fracture has negative effects on the health and welfare of laying hens. We investigated effects of keel fracture on stress, inflammation, and the orexin system in laying hens. Ninety 17-week-old Lohmann white laying hens were palpated and euthanatized at 42 weeks old, and marked as normal keel (NK)/fractured keel (FK) from absence/presence of keel fracture. Serum, brain, liver, and abdominal-muscle samples were collected from 10 NK and 10 FK hens to determine the stress and inflammatory responses and the activity of orexin systems by corticosterone content, expression of heat shock proteins (TNF-α 60, 70, 90), and inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E synthases (PTGEs), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β)), orexin (ORX), and orexin-receptor 1/2 (ORXR1/ORXR2). The FK hens had higher serum corticosterone content, Hsps, and inflammatory factor mRNA expression levels than NK hens, although levels of iNOS in the liver and TNF-α in the muscle were similar. Protein levels of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in the brain and liver, iNOS and COX-2 in the liver, NF-κBp65, iNOS, and COX-2 in the brain of FK hens were increased compared with NK hens. Furthermore, FK hens had lower mRNA expression of ORX, ORXR1, and ORXR2 than NK hens. Therefore, keel fracture causes stress and inflammation, and inhibits the expression of the orexin system in laying hens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Farm Animal Welfare)
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