Heavy Metals in Farmland Soils: Mechanisms and Remediation Strategies

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Soils".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2024 | Viewed by 3351

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Environmental and Life Science, Nanning Normal University, Nanning 530100, China
Interests: soil; heavy metals; DGT; amendments; risk assessment

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Guest Editor
Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: heavy metals; soil fertility; acidification; variable charged soils

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Guest Editor
College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China
Interests: heavy metals; soil; risk assessment; food safety; environmental safety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Soil is the foundation for sustainable agricultural development. Heavy metals (HMS) are common pollutants in the soil, and this type of contamination is biologically toxic, widely distributed, and persists long-term in the soil. The accumulation of HMs in farmland also leads to declines in the soil buffering capacity and fertility, thus affecting crop growth and even reducing crop yields. We set up the Special Issue “Heavy Metals in Farmland Soils: Mechanisms and Remediation Strategies” to publish original, scientifically challenging research articles of international significance that describe and explain biological, chemical and physical processes of heavy metals occurring in soil, which enhance our mechanistic understanding of the fate and behavior of heavy metals in soil environments. In addition, we are seeking manuscripts that showcase the development of new innovative products, technologies and ideas that improve and remediate the heavy metal contamination.

Topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Heavy metal pollutant exposure;
  • Environmental occurrences, transport, behavior, and effects of heavy metal pollutants in farmland soil;
  • Environmental heavy metal pollutants in farmland soil;
  • Food safety and environmental safety;
  • New technologies for soil heavy metal remediation in farmland;
  • Agronomy for heavy metal remediation;
  • Modeling of pollution processes in farmland soil environments;
  • Soil chemical, physical and biological process of heavy metals;
  • Effect of heavy metals on plant productions systems;
  • Crop genomic research on resistance or hyper-accumulation of heavy metals in farmland.

Dr. Tuo Zhang
Dr. Nan Zhang
Prof. Dr. Wei Liu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • soil contamination
  • farmland
  • new techniques
  • agronomy
  • food safety
  • environmental safety
  • remediation
  • crops

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 6773 KiB  
Article
Lanthanum-Modified Phosphogypsum Red Mud Composite for the Co-Adsorption of Cadmium and Arsenic: Mechanism Study and Soil Remediation
by Chengmei Shang, Zhixi Geng, Yuanyuan Sun, Dongxue Che, Qingjiao Zhao, Ting Chen, Ming Tang and Lijuan Huo
Agriculture 2024, 14(3), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14030464 - 13 Mar 2024
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Abstract
With the development of industrial activities and the agricultural and mining industries, farmland soils are facing serious problems related to heavy metal contamination, especially cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contamination. In this study, two industrial by-products, phosphogypsum (PG) and red mud (RM), were [...] Read more.
With the development of industrial activities and the agricultural and mining industries, farmland soils are facing serious problems related to heavy metal contamination, especially cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contamination. In this study, two industrial by-products, phosphogypsum (PG) and red mud (RM), were modified by lanthanum (La) impregnation to form a new composite (L-PR) to investigate the adsorption performance of Cd(II)/As(V) in both single and binary systems. The adsorption mechanisms of Cd(II)/As(V) on L-PR were analyzed using SEM, XRD, FTIR, and XPS. The passivation effect of L-PR on the Cd-As composite contaminated soil was confirmed through a soil cultivation experiment. The adsorption experiments revealed that L-PR showed superior adsorption capabilities for Cd(II) and As(V) compared to PG and RM. Additionally, L-PR was found to be less affected by changes in pH. The kinetic studies indicated that Cd(II) and As(V) adsorption by L-PR followed the second-order kinetic model most accurately. Isothermal adsorption experiments revealed that the adsorption of Cd(II) by L-PR was more in accordance with the Freundlich model, while As(V) was more in accordance with the Langmuir model. The mechanisms of Cd(II) and As(V) adsorption on L-PR involved electrostatic attraction, ion exchange, complexation, and precipitation. The adsorption of Cd(II) is dominated by complexation and precipitation, and the adsorption of As(V) is dominated by ion exchange and complexation. Soil cultivation experiments showed that L-PR significantly reduced the available Cd and As concentrations in soil by 86.01% and 27.80%, respectively, and it could induce the transformation of non-stable Cd(II)/As(V) to the more stable residual. In summary, L-PR exhibits facile preparation, excellent adsorption performance, and is capable of simultaneously removing Cd(II) and As(V) from aqueous solutions while immobilizing these contaminants in soil. These remarkable attributes made it a highly promising alternative for the simultaneous treatment of various toxic metal contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Farmland Soils: Mechanisms and Remediation Strategies)
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17 pages, 7429 KiB  
Article
Influence and Mechanism Study of Soil Moisture on the Stability of Arsenic-Bearing Ferrihydrite in Surface Soil Vertical Profiles
by Lijuan Li, Xinyi Chen, Yan Wang, Fubin Zhang, Xinyi Zhou and Tuo Zhang
Agriculture 2024, 14(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14030450 - 11 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Ferrihydrite is usually used as a remedy for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil due to its strong affinity and large specific surface area. However, its noncrystalline phase makes it unstable in long-term applications in the soil. In this study, a soil incubation experiment was designed [...] Read more.
Ferrihydrite is usually used as a remedy for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil due to its strong affinity and large specific surface area. However, its noncrystalline phase makes it unstable in long-term applications in the soil. In this study, a soil incubation experiment was designed using the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique and spectral techniques to investigate the fate of As-bearing ferrihydrite [As(V)-Fh] after long-term incubation at different soil water holding capacities (SWHCs). After As(V)-Fh (0.05 and 0.005 As/Fe molar ratio) was incubated in soil for 360 days, both DGT-derived labile As and Fe were released at 70% SWHC and 120% SWHC into the soil (at a vertical depth of 12 cm). The concentrations of DGT-As and DGT-Fe increased with incubation time and were greater at 120% SWHC. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that As(V)-Fh gradually transformed into hematite and goethite after 360 days of incubation. Goethite was mainly found in the 120% SWHC treatment after 180 days. Hematite and goethite formation rates were greater in the 120% SWHC treatment and in the bottom soil layer. Mechanistic analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the variation in soil pH and the formation of Fe(II) (under flooded water conditions) are the two key factors promoting the formation of hematite (dehydrogenation and dehydration) and goethite (As(V)-Fh dissociation and reorganization). The As release mainly occurred due to the loss of adsorption sites. Thus, it is recommended that ferrihydrite be applied in paddy–dry rotations or dry-field patterns to effectively avoid the loss of As(V)-Fh in long-term-saturated soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Farmland Soils: Mechanisms and Remediation Strategies)
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16 pages, 6575 KiB  
Article
Ecological Risk Assessment and Source Analysis of Heavy Metals in Farmland Soil in Yangchun City Based on APCS-MLR and Geostatistics
by Yingyuting Li, Yili Zhang, Junyu Chen, Guangfei Yang, Haihui Li, Jinjin Wang and Wenyan Li
Agriculture 2024, 14(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14020309 - 15 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Yangchun City, a typical polymetallic ore distribution area in Guangdong Province (China), was selected as the research region to study the content, distribution, source, and possible impacts of heavy metals (HMs) (Arsenic: As; Cadmium: Cd; Chromium: Cr; Copper: Cu; Mercury: Hg; Nickel: Ni; [...] Read more.
Yangchun City, a typical polymetallic ore distribution area in Guangdong Province (China), was selected as the research region to study the content, distribution, source, and possible impacts of heavy metals (HMs) (Arsenic: As; Cadmium: Cd; Chromium: Cr; Copper: Cu; Mercury: Hg; Nickel: Ni; Lead: Pb; and Zinc: Zn) on the farmland soil of this City. According to our findings, the spatial distribution of HMs in Yangchun City shows higher concentrations in the north and southeast and lower in the west and other regions. Metal content in some sampled sites of the agricultural land exceeded the soil pollution risk screening values, particularly As (7.5%), Cd (12%), Cu (4%), Hg (14.5%), and Pb (3%). Additionally, the average content of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn from the studied areas surpassed the soil background value of Guangdong Province for all metals. The absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) was used to identify potential sources of HMs in the soil samples. There are three potential sources identified by the model: traffic emissions, natural sources, and agricultural activities, accounting for 28.16%, 16.68%, and 14.42%, respectively. Based on the ecological risk assessment, the potential ecological risk (Eri = 310.77), Nemero pollution index (PN = 2.27), and multiple possible effect concentration quality (mPECQs = 0.23) indicated that the extent of heavy metal pollution in the soil samples was moderate. Three sources were identified: traffic emissions, natural sources, and agricultural activities. We suggest that by combining the above results, a monitoring and early warning system focused on Cd and Hg can be established. The system could utilize geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies to achieve dynamic monitoring and prediction of pollution. Regular testing of soils and sustainable management practices are also recommended to control and remediate contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Farmland Soils: Mechanisms and Remediation Strategies)
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Review

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17 pages, 2575 KiB  
Review
The Hotspots and Trends of Patented Technologies for Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Remediation: A Systematic Review
by Wenmin Luo, Guiting Mu, Xianliang Wu, Wei Qin and Yingying Liu
Agriculture 2024, 14(5), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14050715 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Heavy metal soil pollution severely threatens human health and food safety. This study used PRISMA to systematically review heavy metal-contaminated soil remediation patents in the Derwent Patent Database from 2003 to 2023. A total of 1744 patents were selected. The results of the [...] Read more.
Heavy metal soil pollution severely threatens human health and food safety. This study used PRISMA to systematically review heavy metal-contaminated soil remediation patents in the Derwent Patent Database from 2003 to 2023. A total of 1744 patents were selected. The results of the analysis show that related patent applications are growing around the world. Among them, China has the most significant number of patents, but the layout of transnational patents needs to be revised. Countries have different preferences in transnational patent technology. Technological development is generally balanced, and there is no apparent monopoly. However, the need for continuous in-depth research on inventors is an obstacle to technological development. In addition, the technology in this field is concentrated in chemistry and engineering. Currently, the mainstream technology is soil remediation agents, and thermal desorption technology has also attracted much attention. Future technologies will use new polymer materials and advanced machinery to improve efficiency and control repair costs. In addition, remediation has shifted from the total amount of heavy metals to the control of practical parts. This study summarizes the current status of heavy metal-contaminated soil remediation technology and analyzes future development trends, providing a reference for technology development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Farmland Soils: Mechanisms and Remediation Strategies)
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