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Agrochemicals, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 8 articles

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13 pages, 3551 KiB  
Article
Imidacloprid Uptake and Leaching in the Critical Root Zone of a Florida Entisol
by Qudus O. Uthman, Miguel Vasconez, Davie M. Kadyampakeni, Yu Wang, Demetris Athienitis and Jawwad A. Qureshi
Agrochemicals 2024, 3(1), 94-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/agrochemicals3010008 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Imidacloprid (IDP) products are applied via soil drenching in the citrus critical root zone (CCRZ) at 0–60 cm soil depth. This study aimed to determine the uptake and leaching of IDP in the CCRZ of a Florida Entisol. The treatments include: (1) a [...] Read more.
Imidacloprid (IDP) products are applied via soil drenching in the citrus critical root zone (CCRZ) at 0–60 cm soil depth. This study aimed to determine the uptake and leaching of IDP in the CCRZ of a Florida Entisol. The treatments include: (1) a control with no IDP applied, (2) 1.6 g of active ingredient (a.i.) per tree (×2), and (3) 3.2 g a.i. per tree of IDP (×4). The treatments were applied to two trees within each experiment unit, replicated five times, and completely randomized. The IDP concentration in the Entisol was affected by the amount of water received within the sampling intervals. IDP movement in the Entisol was evident for the field trials in Fall 2021 and 2022, irrespective of the treatment. A total of 10 mm of daily irrigation was the major driver of IDP movement in Fall 2021 (September–December 2021), while 11.7 cm of cumulative rainfall plus 10 mm of daily irrigation were the major drivers for IDP in Fall 2022 (November–December 2022). The IDP uptake level by leaves was relatively low probably because of the relatively low temperature and humidity. More applications of IDP did not result in its higher uptake by citrus leaves in the Entisol. Given the persistence of IDP, there is a possibility of leaching, which could potentially contaminate the groundwater, surface water, and non-target organisms. Therefore, it is crucial to carefully manage the use of IDP in citrus production systems to mitigate the unintended environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pesticides)
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24 pages, 916 KiB  
Review
Toxicity and Risk of Biopesticides to Insect Pollinators in Urban and Agricultural Landscapes
by Joshua Chavana and Neelendra K. Joshi
Agrochemicals 2024, 3(1), 70-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/agrochemicals3010007 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Pollinators play important roles in providing pollination services, maintaining biodiversity, and boosting crop production. Even though pollinators are essential to the environment and agriculture, their decline has been noted across multiple studies in the recent past. Both natural and anthropogenic factors have contributed [...] Read more.
Pollinators play important roles in providing pollination services, maintaining biodiversity, and boosting crop production. Even though pollinators are essential to the environment and agriculture, their decline has been noted across multiple studies in the recent past. Both natural and anthropogenic factors have contributed to their decline. Much of the focus has been placed on climate change, habitat loss, pests and pathogens, and synthetic pesticides, but relatively little is known about the effects of biopesticides. Biopesticides are biological control agents derived from living organisms and are classified into three groups: microbial, biochemical, and plant-incorporated protectant-based products. Biopesticides are formulated similarly to their synthetic counterparts and are readily available and used within urban and agricultural settings by pest management experts and household residents. The general public and much scientific literature support the prevailing idea that biopesticides are environmentally safe and pollinator friendly in comparison with synthetic versions. However, such generalizations are based on studies with a few key pollinator species and may not be relevant to several other species that provide crop pollination services. Studies focused on native pollinators have shown that some biopesticides have lethal and sublethal effects. Because each biopesticide exhibits varying effects across pollinator species, it could be dangerous to generalize their non-toxicity across taxa and environmental settings. In this article, recent research in this direction is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pesticides)
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13 pages, 295 KiB  
Review
Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Apiaceae Family Plants
by Yasasvi Jayakodi, Punniamoorthy Thiviya, Ashoka Gamage, Philippe Evon, Terrence Madhujith and Othmane Merah
Agrochemicals 2024, 3(1), 57-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/agrochemicals3010006 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 941
Abstract
The importance of antioxidants has gained much attention due to the increase in the prevalence of various non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases, which occur due to excess reactive species. The widespread use of synthetic antioxidants in the food [...] Read more.
The importance of antioxidants has gained much attention due to the increase in the prevalence of various non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases, which occur due to excess reactive species. The widespread use of synthetic antioxidants in the food industry has raised concerns about their potential harmful effects on health. As a result, the utilization of natural antioxidants to preserve food and as a source of dietary antioxidants has gained attention. Essential oils extracted from Apiaceae family plants are an excellent source of antioxidants. In this review, research findings regarding the antioxidant activity of selected Apiaceae family members and their applications are discussed. Full article
15 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Dicamba and 2,4-D in the Urine of Pregnant Women in the Midwest: Comparison of Two Cohorts (2010–2012 vs. 2020–2022)
by Joanne K. Daggy, David M. Haas, Yunpeng Yu, Patrick O. Monahan, David Guise, Éric Gaudreau, Jessica Larose and Charles M. Benbrook
Agrochemicals 2024, 3(1), 42-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/agrochemicals3010005 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 4465
Abstract
Currently, there are no known human biomonitoring studies that concurrently examine biomarkers of dicamba and 2,4-D. We sought to compare biomarkers of exposure to herbicides in pregnant women residing in the US Midwest before and after the adoption of dicamba-tolerant soybean technology using [...] Read more.
Currently, there are no known human biomonitoring studies that concurrently examine biomarkers of dicamba and 2,4-D. We sought to compare biomarkers of exposure to herbicides in pregnant women residing in the US Midwest before and after the adoption of dicamba-tolerant soybean technology using urine specimens obtained in 2010–2012 from the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-be (N = 61) and in 2020–2022 from the Heartland Study (N = 91). Specific gravity-standardized concentration levels for each analyte were compared between the cohorts, assuming data are lognormal and specifying values below the LOD as left-censored. The proportion of pregnant individuals with dicamba detected above the LOD significantly increased from 28% (95% CI: 16%, 40%) in 2010–2012 to 70% (95% CI: 60%, 79%) in 2020–2022, and dicamba concentrations also significantly increased from 0.066 μg/L (95% CI: 0.042, 0.104) to 0.271 μg/L (95% CI: 0.205, 0.358). All pregnant individuals from both cohorts had 2,4-D detected. Though 2,4-D concentration levels increased, the difference was not significant (p-value = 0.226). Reliance on herbicides has drastically increased in the last ten years in the United States, and the results obtained in this study highlight the need to track exposure and impacts on adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Agrochemicals)
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13 pages, 871 KiB  
Review
Neonicotinoid Insecticide-Degrading Bacteria and Their Application Potential in Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation
by Yuechun Zeng, Shaolin Sun, Pengfei Li, Xian Zhou and Jian Wang
Agrochemicals 2024, 3(1), 29-41; https://doi.org/10.3390/agrochemicals3010004 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 853
Abstract
Recent advances in the microbial degradation of persistent organic pollutants have the potential to mitigate the damage caused by anthropogenic activities that are harmfully impacting agriculture soil ecosystems and human health. In this paper, we summarize the pollution characteristics of neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs) [...] Read more.
Recent advances in the microbial degradation of persistent organic pollutants have the potential to mitigate the damage caused by anthropogenic activities that are harmfully impacting agriculture soil ecosystems and human health. In this paper, we summarize the pollution characteristics of neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs) in agricultural fields in China and other countries and then discuss the existing research on screening for NNI-degrading functional bacterial strains, their degradation processes, the construction of microbial consortia, and strategies for their application. We explore the current needs and solutions for improving the microbial remediation rate of NNI-contaminated soil and how these solutions are being developed and applied. We highlight several scientific and technological advances in soil microbiome engineering, including the construction of microbial consortia with a broad spectrum of NNI degradation and microbial immobilization to improve competition with indigenous microorganisms through the provision of a microenvironment and niche suitable for NNI-degrading bacteria. This paper highlights the need for an interdisciplinary approach to improving the degradation capacity and in situ survival of NNI-degrading strains/microbial consortia to facilitate the remediation of NNI-contaminated soil using strains with a broad spectrum and high efficiency in NNI degradation. Full article
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7 pages, 535 KiB  
Opinion
Chemical Weed Control and Crop Injuries Due to Spray Drift: The Case of Dicamba
by Eleftheria Travlou, Nikolaos Antonopoulos, Ioannis Gazoulis and Panagiotis Kanatas
Agrochemicals 2024, 3(1), 22-28; https://doi.org/10.3390/agrochemicals3010003 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
Herbicide volatility and drift are serious problems for chemical weed control. The extended use of dicamba, especially due to the commercial release of dicamba-resistant crops, revealed many off-target dicamba injury issues for sensitive crops. The objective of the present study is to give [...] Read more.
Herbicide volatility and drift are serious problems for chemical weed control. The extended use of dicamba, especially due to the commercial release of dicamba-resistant crops, revealed many off-target dicamba injury issues for sensitive crops. The objective of the present study is to give information on the chemical properties and volatility of dicamba and highlight some key issues, while a systematic review of the recently reported cases is attempted. Unfortunately, the problem is increasing, with a huge majority of the injuries reported in the USA, but it is also present in many other countries. Several arable, horticultural, and perennial crops suffer from such damage. Specific measures and approaches are suggested in order to quantify, reduce, and prevent such problems, while the training of farmers and stakeholders and further research are certainly required for the optimization of the several alternative options. Full article
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10 pages, 824 KiB  
Article
Quick In Situ Evaluation of Herbicide Efficacy in Maize (Zea mays L.) Crop
by Anastasia Tsekoura, Ioannis Gazoulis, Nikolaos Antonopoulos, Angeliki Kousta, Panagiotis Kanatas and Ilias Travlos
Agrochemicals 2024, 3(1), 12-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/agrochemicals3010002 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Sustainable crop and weed management is among the crucial challenges in the era of the EU Green Deal. The main objective of the present study was to apply an innovative approach for the rapid assessment of herbicide efficacy in maize (Zea mays [...] Read more.
Sustainable crop and weed management is among the crucial challenges in the era of the EU Green Deal. The main objective of the present study was to apply an innovative approach for the rapid assessment of herbicide efficacy in maize (Zea mays) crop in four different trials during two years. Weed NDVI values were recorded at two weeks after treatment, while weed biomass and crop yield were also measured. The results revealed significant differences between the several treatments. In many cases, significant effects of herbicide application on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values and weed biomass were noticed at two weeks after treatment. Moreover, the mixture nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron + mesotrione resulted in high efficacy on the crop yield of all fields. Consequently, our approach can allow for an early prediction of the real field efficacy of several herbicides and thus act as an alert for the farmers in order to choose the most efficient herbicide, avoid applications of low efficacy and reduce the herbicide inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Herbicides)
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11 pages, 3036 KiB  
Article
Adjuvant Pluronic F68 Is Compatible with a Plant Root-Colonizing Probiotic, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6
by Amanda R. Streeter, Anthony Cartwright, Mohammad Zargaran, Anagha Wankhade, Anne J. Anderson and David W. Britt
Agrochemicals 2024, 3(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/agrochemicals3010001 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 927
Abstract
Plant probiotic bacteria are being increasingly used to maximize both the productivity and quality of field crops. Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6) is a plant root colonizer with probiotic activities. This bacterium produces an array of metabolites, including a group of phenazines [...] Read more.
Plant probiotic bacteria are being increasingly used to maximize both the productivity and quality of field crops. Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6) is a plant root colonizer with probiotic activities. This bacterium produces an array of metabolites, including a group of phenazines that are functional in plant protection. The paper reports responses of PcO6 to a nonionic triblock copolymer surfactant, Pluronic F68. This Pluronic exhibits membrane “healing” activity and improves cryopreservation recovery in eukaryotic cells. The product is FDA-approved and is applied as an adjuvant in formulations used in agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology. Growth of PcO6 on lysogeny broth at 25 °C was unhindered by 0.1 and 1.0 g/L F68, reduced at 10 g/L, and with significant inhibition at 100 g/L F68; micelle formation could account for inhibited growth at higher doses. Phenazine production was not changed by F68, whereas the surfactant activity of F68 induced the spread of bacterial colonization on 0.5% agar. Exposure of cells to fluorescein-labeled F68 resulted in intense fluorescence, stable to washing, showing a direct association of the Pluronic with the bacterium. However, neither protection nor harm was found for PcO6 cells suspended in either 0.1% or 1% F68 after three freeze (−20 °C)/thaw cycles. These findings suggest that F68 could be compatible for use in agricultural formulations with little effect on probiotics such as PcO6. Full article
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