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Hygiene, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2021) – 5 articles

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11 pages, 1959 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Effect on Denture Base Metal of Cleaning with Denture Cleanser Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method
Hygiene 2021, 1(3), 129-139; https://doi.org/10.3390/hygiene1030012 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Denture plaque control for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia is very important. The pellicle is the major cause of denture plaque adhesion. Few basic studies have evaluated the effectiveness of denture cleansers for pellicles composed of salivary proteins. The adhesion of salivary proteins [...] Read more.
Denture plaque control for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia is very important. The pellicle is the major cause of denture plaque adhesion. Few basic studies have evaluated the effectiveness of denture cleansers for pellicles composed of salivary proteins. The adhesion of salivary proteins formed on denture base metal and the removal rate were quantitatively analyzed using the QCM method after denture cleanser injection. This is the first study to compare the cleaning effects of denture cleanser on denture base metal using the QCM method. Au and Ti sensors were employed as the denture base metals. Albumin was used for the adsorption of salivary proteins. The results showed that no significant difference was found between Au and Ti in the amounts of albumin adsorbed, and the rate of albumin removal from Ti was significantly higher than that of Au. In this study, the cleaning effectiveness of denture cleanser was confirmed based on the adsorbed amount and the removal rate of salivary proteins adsorbed onto denture base metals. Thus, the QCM method was suggested to be a useful tool for removing the effects of salivary proteins from denture cleaning agents on denture base metal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral and Dental Hygiene)
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9 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Facing COVID-19: Quantifying the Use of Reusable vs. Disposable Facemasks
Hygiene 2021, 1(3), 120-128; https://doi.org/10.3390/hygiene1030011 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3409
Abstract
Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, many governments have recommended or mandated the wearing of fitted face masks to limit the transmission of the virus via aerosols. The public had, in essence, two choices: single-use, disposable surgical masks and [...] Read more.
Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, many governments have recommended or mandated the wearing of fitted face masks to limit the transmission of the virus via aerosols. The public had, in essence, two choices: single-use, disposable surgical masks and multi-use, washable cloth masks. While the use of cloth masks has been discussed, there are, at present no baseline data that establish the actual proportions of mask types worn in the public. This paper, which presents the findings of rapid walk-through surveys of shopping venues in Albury (Southern New South Wales, Australia), demonstrates that, overall, 33.6% of masks worn by the public were cloth masks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Health and Hygiene)
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14 pages, 2829 KiB  
Review
Trends of Major Foodborne Outbreaks in the European Union during the Years 2015–2019
Hygiene 2021, 1(3), 106-119; https://doi.org/10.3390/hygiene1030010 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5681
Abstract
The incidence of the most common foodborne outbreaks reported by the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control during the years 2015–2019 is described. Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica are the investigated microorganisms, [...] Read more.
The incidence of the most common foodborne outbreaks reported by the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control during the years 2015–2019 is described. Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica are the investigated microorganisms, and symptomatology, food categories responsible for human disease, as well as some prevention measures are the most important information schedules supplied to the readers. Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most common zoonoses with a notification rate of 59.7 and 20.0 per 100,000 population, respectively, in the year 2019. Good hygienic practices both at farm and domestic level could prevent such infections. The highest number of deaths is reported for listeriosis, corresponding to 31 fatal events in the year 2019. Therefore, awareness of the hazards linked to L. monocytogenes is particularly recommended amongst high-risk groups. By contrast, most cases of yersiniosis are sporadic and the most important prophylactic measures include adequate sanitation in pork chain, personnel hygiene, and protection of water supplies. Full article
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7 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
Clostridioides difficile Infection Rates after Ceftolozane–Tazobactam and Ceftazidime–Avibactam Treatment Compared to Carbapenem Treatment: A Retrospective Single-Center Study
Hygiene 2021, 1(3), 99-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/hygiene1030009 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2448
Abstract
Introduction: Ceftolozane–tazobactam (CT) and ceftazidime–avibactam (CZA) are new beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (BL/IBL) and antibiotics. There are few data regarding their impact on Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI). The objective of our study was, therefore, to determine and compare the number of CDI occurring after treatment [...] Read more.
Introduction: Ceftolozane–tazobactam (CT) and ceftazidime–avibactam (CZA) are new beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (BL/IBL) and antibiotics. There are few data regarding their impact on Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI). The objective of our study was, therefore, to determine and compare the number of CDI occurring after treatment with CT or CZA and carbapenem (CBP). Methods: All patients who received at least one dose of CT or CZA in our hospital between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2019 were included. We compared, during the same period, the number of CDI after CT or CZA treatment and CBPs by using a chi-square test of Fischer’s exact test when required. p value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Among the 53 patients receiving CZA and 42 patients receiving CT, two and one, respectively, developed a CDI within 90 days. Of the three (3%) patients who developed a CDI, one died 15 days after his second CDI (36 days after initiation of CZA). Of the 2291 patients receiving CBP, 37 (1.6%) developed a CDI within 90 days. There was no significant difference between the number of CDI occurring after CBP and CT or CZA treatment. CT or CZA use is not associated with an increased rate of CDI compared to CBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Prevention and Control)
19 pages, 870 KiB  
Review
SARS–CoV–2 and Food—How Confident Are We about Them?
Hygiene 2021, 1(3), 80-98; https://doi.org/10.3390/hygiene1030008 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2919
Abstract
The recent COVID-19 pandemic and coronaviruses have been thrust into the lives of humans around the globe. Several concerns of the scientific community, authorities and common people have been aroused concerning the prophylaxis measures that need to be taken in order to safeguard [...] Read more.
The recent COVID-19 pandemic and coronaviruses have been thrust into the lives of humans around the globe. Several concerns of the scientific community, authorities and common people have been aroused concerning the prophylaxis measures that need to be taken in order to safeguard public health. Among others, the possibility of a faecal—oral route, and consequent waterborne or foodborne transmission, have been given little attention. Ground zero was the seafood market of Huanan in Wuhan, China; therefore, it was quite logical at the time to assume a certain degree of relationship between water, seafood and SARS–CoV–2. In this manuscript, a critical review of the current literature concerning these routes of transmission is made. The main questions discussed are whether (i) SARS–CoV–2 can infect food animals, (ii) it can be detected in water, retaining its infectivity for the necessary amount of time, (iii) there is a possibility of contamination of food by SARS–CoV–2 through its various production processes and (iv) there is evidence of foodborne or waterborne transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Hygiene and Safety)
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