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Phycology, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 8 articles

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17 pages, 5159 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Examinations of Phenotypical Changes in Land-Based Long-Term Tumble Culture of Palmaria palmata
Phycology 2023, 3(4), 503-519; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3040034 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Within the last decade, the red alga P. palmata gained increasing interest as a food additive in Europe. Traditionally, P. palmata is harvested from wild stocks, but higher biomass demands request a shift towards industrial cultivation of this species. Using a land-based tumble [...] Read more.
Within the last decade, the red alga P. palmata gained increasing interest as a food additive in Europe. Traditionally, P. palmata is harvested from wild stocks, but higher biomass demands request a shift towards industrial cultivation of this species. Using a land-based tumble culture approach, we have successfully grown P. palmata via vegetative propagation over a 2-year period. One year after the initial setup, phenotypic changes represented in the formation of randomly shaped, mostly circular galls and homogeneous greenish–white spots with significantly reduced photosynthetic activity were observed on the algal thalli. With progressing time, galls increased into large flat or sunken structures, whereas the tissue in the center of the greenish–white spots weakened. In later stages, the weakened tissue is disrupted, forming holes in the thallus. In this study, we present observations, microscopy analysis, PAM results, and biotechnological approaches to describe a possible infection of P. palmata. Test results showed that light quantity might be the most important factor for the propagation behavior of the infection, whereas the pH level might be secondary, and the nutrient level and biomass density might be of minor relevance. Similarly, changes in light quality could also influence the occurrence of pathological changes in P. palmata. Full article
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19 pages, 1716 KiB  
Article
Exploration of Microalgae-Activated Sludge Growth Performance in Lab-Scale Photobioreactors under Outdoor Environmental Conditions for Wastewater Biotreatment
Phycology 2023, 3(4), 484-502; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3040033 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 999
Abstract
Increasing the volume of untreated and inadequately treated municipal wastewater undermines the circular economy potential of wastewater resources, particularly in low-income regions. This present study focused on and evaluated the performance of native microalgae-activated sludge (MAS) growth for tertiary treatment of anaerobically digested [...] Read more.
Increasing the volume of untreated and inadequately treated municipal wastewater undermines the circular economy potential of wastewater resources, particularly in low-income regions. This present study focused on and evaluated the performance of native microalgae-activated sludge (MAS) growth for tertiary treatment of anaerobically digested wastewater from an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) in an outdoor lab-scale photobioreactor (2.2 L). Three conditions with distinct MAS inoculum concentrations alongside three controls were operated in batch mode for 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 11.5:12.5 photo-hours. The MAS inoculum concentration influenced the treatment outcome. The best performance was observed when the MAS concentration was 0.10/0.20 g L−1, and the cell density was 1.60 × 107 cells mL−1, total biomass productivity of 0.10 g TSS L−1 d−1, total phosphorus uptake of 85.1%, and total nitrogen uptake of 66.1%. Logarithmic removal (Log-Re) of bacterial pathogens (water quality indicators) showed Log-Re 3.4 for total coliforms (1.37 × 102 CFU 100 mL−1) and 4.7 for Escherichia coli (0.00 × 100 CFU 100 mL−1). The results revealed optimum remediation performance and nutrient recovery potential with appropriate inoculum concentration, in admiration to advancing the science of circular economy. Full article
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12 pages, 11905 KiB  
Article
Cultivation of Cyanobacteria on Sustainable Dried Luffa cylindrica
Phycology 2023, 3(4), 472-483; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3040032 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Cyanobacteria are promising organisms for the sustainable production of various biotechnological interesting products. Due to their energy production via photosynthesis, the cultivation of cyanobacteria expands the CO2 cycle. Most cyanobacteria form biofilms on surfaces in their natural environment by surrounding the cells [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria are promising organisms for the sustainable production of various biotechnological interesting products. Due to their energy production via photosynthesis, the cultivation of cyanobacteria expands the CO2 cycle. Most cyanobacteria form biofilms on surfaces in their natural environment by surrounding the cells with a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that hold the cells together. These special growth properties need special reactors for cultivation. By immobilizing cyanobacteria on carriers, systems currently established in industry could also be used for biofilm formers. Various artificial carriers for immobilized growth of cyanobacteria and microalgae have already been described in the literature. However, the use of waste materials or natural biodegradable carriers would be more sustainable and is, therefore, the focus of this study. Dried Luffa cylindrica, zeolite, and corn stalks were investigated for their use as carriers for cyanobacteria. L. cylindrica was shown to be an excellent natural carrier for (i) Anabaena cylindrica, (ii) Nostoc muscorum 1453-12a, and (iii) Nostoc muscorum 1453-12b. Higher or at least similar growth rates were achieved when cyanobacteria were cultivated with L. cylindrica compared to submerged cultivation. Additionally, the production of EPS and C-phycocyanin was increased at least 1.4 fold in all strains by culturing on L. cylindrica. The improved growth could be explained on the one hand by the high surface area of L. cylindrica and its properties, and, on the other hand, by the release of growth-promoting nutrients from L. cylindrica to the medium. Full article
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13 pages, 2414 KiB  
Article
Harnessing Symbiotic Mixotrophic Microalgal–Bacterial Biofilms for N and P Elimination
Phycology 2023, 3(4), 459-471; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3040031 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms can be very attractive for potato wastewater treatment. Microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus and simultaneously produce the oxygen that is required for the aerobic, heterotrophic degradation of organic pollutants. In this study, symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms were grown in flow cells [...] Read more.
Symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms can be very attractive for potato wastewater treatment. Microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus and simultaneously produce the oxygen that is required for the aerobic, heterotrophic degradation of organic pollutants. In this study, symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms were grown in flow cells with ammonium and phosphate, and with acetate as a simulated biodegradable organic pollutant. The symbiotic biofilms removed acetate without an external oxygen or carbon dioxide supply, but ammonium and phosphate could not be completely removed. The biofilm was shown to have a considerable heterotrophic denitrification capacity. The symbiotic relationship between microalgae and aerobic heterotrophs was proven by subsequently removing light and acetate. In both cases, this resulted in the cessation of the symbiosis and in increasing effluent concentrations of both acetate and the nutrients ammonium and phosphate. Full article
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12 pages, 2338 KiB  
Article
Integrative Literature Analysis of Holopelagic Sargassum (Sargasso) in the Western Atlantic (2011–2022): Status, Trends, and Gaps
Phycology 2023, 3(4), 447-458; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3040030 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Since 2011, the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coasts have been receiving massive influxes of holopelagic sargasso algae composed of Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans. This phenomenon has been causing several negative local impacts, such as ecological disturbances and socioeconomic and health [...] Read more.
Since 2011, the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coasts have been receiving massive influxes of holopelagic sargasso algae composed of Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans. This phenomenon has been causing several negative local impacts, such as ecological disturbances and socioeconomic and health concerns of communities in impacted areas. This work aimed to assess the status of scientific knowledge related to pelagic sargasso, including trends, emphases, and gaps. A literature review was conducted on publications and reports from 2011 to 2022, of which 251 articles were collected based on an inclusion–exclusion criteria. Aspects of each article were quantified, including location, description of sargasso, the type of study, and research theme. A region-wide research emphasis on ecology, remote sensing, and valorization was observed. Areas first affected by the inundations composed a higher percentage of sargasso studies than other locations, and the distribution of studies varied among subregions. Topics requiring further investigation include sargasso’s growth and mortality rates and drivers, taxonomic and physiologic differences among morphotypes, and real-time forecasting resolution at local scales both on and offshore. This research emphasized efforts from the scientific community on research and mitigation initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sargassum Golden Tides, a Global Problem)
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11 pages, 1807 KiB  
Article
Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Green Microalgae: A New Potential Drug for Thrombolytic Therapy?
Phycology 2023, 3(4), 436-446; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3040029 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Thrombosis is characterized by the pathological formation of fibrin clots within a blood vessel, leading to the obstruction of blood flow. Fibrinolytic enzymes from microorganisms have been shown to be more efficient and safer in dissolving clots. Then, this study aimed to evaluate [...] Read more.
Thrombosis is characterized by the pathological formation of fibrin clots within a blood vessel, leading to the obstruction of blood flow. Fibrinolytic enzymes from microorganisms have been shown to be more efficient and safer in dissolving clots. Then, this study aimed to evaluate the cell growth and fibrinolytic enzyme production of Tetradesmus obliquus under different cultivation conditions. T. obliquus grew under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions using different concentrations of corn steep liquor (0.25 ≤ CSL ≤ 4.00%). The cells were concentrated and lysed via two different methods (sonication or homogenization) to trigger the release of the enzyme. It was precipitated via acetone or ammonium sulfate additions and purified using ion exchange chromatography. The highest biomass productivity (Px = 130 ± 12.8 mg∙L−1day−1), specific growth rate (µmax = 0.17 ± 0.00 day−1), and fibrinolytic activity (391 ± 40.0 U∙mg−1) was achieved on a mixotrophic cultivation at a 0.25% CSL concentration. The results showed that the homogenizing method had better performance in the release of enzyme, and the precipitation with acetone obtained the highest fibrinolytic activity (567 ± 49.3 U∙mg−1). The purified enzyme showed a specific activity of 1221 ± 31 U∙mg−1 and a molecular mass of 97 kDa. So, the fibrinolytic enzyme from T. obliquus had higher activity when compared to the other fibrinolytic enzymes, being a potential source for the development of therapeutic agents in thrombosis treatment. Additional studies are needed to investigate the biochemical properties and biological profile of this enzyme. Full article
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23 pages, 10121 KiB  
Article
Revealing Interactions between Temperature and Salinity and Their Effects on the Growth of Freshwater Diatoms by Empirical Modelling
Phycology 2023, 3(4), 413-435; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3040028 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Salinization and warming are of increasing concern for freshwater ecosystems. Interactive effects of stressors are often studied in bifactorial, two-level experimental setups. The shape of environmental reaction norms and the position of the “control” conditions along them, however, can influence the sign and [...] Read more.
Salinization and warming are of increasing concern for freshwater ecosystems. Interactive effects of stressors are often studied in bifactorial, two-level experimental setups. The shape of environmental reaction norms and the position of the “control” conditions along them, however, can influence the sign and magnitude of individual responses as well as interactive effects. We empirically model binary-stressor effects in the form of three-dimensional reaction norm surfaces. We monitored the growth of clonal cultures of six freshwater diatoms, Cymbella cf. incurvata, Nitzschia linearis, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Melosira varians, Ulnaria acus, and Navicula gregaria at various temperature (up to 28 °C) and salinity (until the growth ceased) shock treatments. Fitting a broad range of models and comparing them using the Akaike information criterion revealed a large heterogeneity of effects. A bell-shaped curve was often observed in the response of the diatoms to temperature changes, while their growth tended to decrease with increasing electrical conductivity. C. meneghiniana was more tolerant to temperature, whilst C. incurvata and C. meneghiniana were the most sensitive to salinity changes. Empirical modelling revealed interactive effects of temperature and salinity on the slope and the breadth of response curves. Contrasting types of interactions indicates uncertainties in the estimation by empirical modelling. Full article
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8 pages, 1244 KiB  
Communication
Temporal Changes in the Composition of Beached Holopelagic Sargassum spp. along the Northwestern Coast of Cuba
Phycology 2023, 3(4), 405-412; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3040027 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Since 2011, the distribution, abundance, and composition of holopelagic Sargassum spp. (sargasso) have changed by the emergence of the Great Atlantic Sargasso Belt (GASB) in the northern tropical Atlantic. We expected that the north of the Cuban coast would receive sargasso from both [...] Read more.
Since 2011, the distribution, abundance, and composition of holopelagic Sargassum spp. (sargasso) have changed by the emergence of the Great Atlantic Sargasso Belt (GASB) in the northern tropical Atlantic. We expected that the north of the Cuban coast would receive sargasso from both the original Sargasso Sea and the GASB. We systematically monitored six beaches on the NW coast of Cuba to assess changes in sargasso composition from June 2019 to June 2021. During landing months, mean Sargasso wet biomass was at 1.54 kg/m2 (SE: 0.7), which was considerably lower than the sargasso on the Atlantic coasts directly impacted by GASB. Eleven out of 13 landings occurred in the autumn-winter seasons 2019–2020 and 2020–2021, with a dominance of S. natans I (accounting for 41–63% of total biomass), followed by S. fluitans III (25–36%) and S. natans VIII (12–31%). This composition is similar to those observed on the Sargasso Sea. During this season, dominant winds (≥14 km/h) came from northern (N), eastern (E), and east-northeastern (ENE) directions. In May and August 2020 (spring-summer season), S. fluitans III dominated (52–56%), followed by S. natans VIII (33–43%) and S. natans I (5–12%). This composition is similar to those observed on GASB-impacted Atlantic coasts in the spring-summer seasons (April to September). During this season, dominant winds (≥20 km/h) came from eastern (E) and east-northeastern (ENE) directions. Thus, the NW Cuba’s morphotype composition suggests that landings have different origin sources depending on season and specific meteorological and oceanographic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sargassum Golden Tides, a Global Problem)
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