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Phycology, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2023) – 5 articles

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11 pages, 2114 KiB  
Article
Mycosporine-like Amino Acids from Red Alga Dulse (Devaleraea inkyuleei): Monthly Variation and Improvement in Extraction
Phycology 2023, 3(3), 394-404; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3030026 - 07 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are natural UV-absorbing compounds found in microalgae and macroalgae. The content of MAAs in algae varies with the seasons and environmental factors. Red alga dulse in Usujiri (Hokkaido, Japan) is an underutilized resource. Therefore, we investigated the amount of [...] Read more.
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are natural UV-absorbing compounds found in microalgae and macroalgae. The content of MAAs in algae varies with the seasons and environmental factors. Red alga dulse in Usujiri (Hokkaido, Japan) is an underutilized resource. Therefore, we investigated the amount of MAAs in Usujiri dulse in 2022 to clarify the suitable months for MAA extraction. In addition, we also evaluated the extraction method focusing on the extraction volume. MAAs were prepared via the 20 volumes of 25% ethanol extraction method and detected via HPLC. The results showed that the amount of MAAs on 25 March 2022 showed the highest value (40.4 μmol/g DW) among the samples from 24 January to 13 May. The tendency of suitable samples for MAA preparation corresponded to the term from mid-February to early April, which was the same as the previous three years. Although the surveys from 2019–2021 were performed by using the successive water–methanol method, it was found that the improved method also reflected the monthly variation in MAAs. The extraction of MAAs was performed via 20 or 40 volumes of 25% ethanol at 4 °C for 24 h. The amount of MAAs with 40 volumes of 25% ethanol extraction increased 1.3-fold compared to that with 20 volumes of 25% ethanol extraction. These data are useful information for valuable compound extraction from Usujiri dulse. Full article
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12 pages, 444 KiB  
Article
Willingness to Contribute Time versus Willingness to Pay for the Management of Harmful Algal Blooms
Phycology 2023, 3(3), 382-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3030025 - 28 Aug 2023
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Abstract
The harmful impacts of the ongoing Sargassum invasions in the Atlantic Ocean include fish kills, skin and eye irritation, beach fouling, and declines in fisheries and tourism in West Africa and the Americas. This study was conducted to address important gaps in the [...] Read more.
The harmful impacts of the ongoing Sargassum invasions in the Atlantic Ocean include fish kills, skin and eye irritation, beach fouling, and declines in fisheries and tourism in West Africa and the Americas. This study was conducted to address important gaps in the non-market valuation literature and support the design of effective adaptation policies to reduce the harmful impacts of algal blooms. Contingent valuation survey data and linear mixed-effects regression models were utilized to estimate the drivers of willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to contribute time (WTCT) for the management of invasive Sargassum seaweeds in Ghana. The study revealed that income, education, family size, years of residence, sex, attitudes, and political affiliation are significant drivers of WTP, while distance to the beach, occupation, house ownership, attitudes, and political affiliation are also significant predictors of WTCT. Hence, only attitudes about invasive seaweeds and political affiliation influence both WTP and WTCT. The findings suggest that for developing countries to generate enough funding and adequate economic support for coastal resource conservation, they should design local resource protection programs that give residents the option to contribute both time and money. Full article
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14 pages, 2072 KiB  
Article
Chlorophyll Content and Photosynthetic Activity of Phytoplankton in Reservoirs of the Volga River (Russia)
Phycology 2023, 3(3), 368-381; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3030024 - 10 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Using the fluorescent method in the modification of Krasnoyarsk State University, we studied the development (as chlorophyll content, ∑CHL) and photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton in seven large flat reservoirs of the Volga River cascade (Russia) in August 2015–2017. In the period of the [...] Read more.
Using the fluorescent method in the modification of Krasnoyarsk State University, we studied the development (as chlorophyll content, ∑CHL) and photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton in seven large flat reservoirs of the Volga River cascade (Russia) in August 2015–2017. In the period of the maximal warming of water, average ∑CHL varied in limits of 19.4–33.7 μg L−1 in the Upper Volga, 8.5–27.8 μg L−1 in the Middle Volga, and 5.2–11.3 μg L−1 in the Lower Volga. The photosynthetic activity coefficient (PhAC) varied mostly in limits of 0.12–0.59, with an average of 0.22–0.38 and only in 2017 decreased to minimal < 0.10 and average < 0.20. The average PhAC values show the normal physiological state of the phytoplankton of the Upper Volga during all periods of observation, with an occasional decrease in PhAC in the Middle Volga and low photosynthetic activity in the Lower Volga. A decrease in the average ∑Chl and PhAC in 2017 was under cyclonic windy weather with a large amount of precipitation, low solar radiation, and large volume of flow. A trend towards a decrease in ∑CHL, like a decrease in PhAC from the Upper Volga to the Lower Volga, is explained by an increase in the flow rate and volume of runoff downstream of the Volga River. Full article
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12 pages, 563 KiB  
Perspective
Are Microalgae New Players in Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Eutrophic Aquatic Environments?
Phycology 2023, 3(3), 356-367; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3030023 - 25 Jul 2023
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Abstract
Anthropogenic activities cause the introduction of nitrogen (N) into aquatic environments where these N inputs drive the biological synthesis of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent and ozone-depleting greenhouse gas. To assess the significance of N2O emissions to climate change, [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic activities cause the introduction of nitrogen (N) into aquatic environments where these N inputs drive the biological synthesis of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent and ozone-depleting greenhouse gas. To assess the significance of N2O emissions to climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates indirect N2O emissions from rivers, lakes, and estuaries by multiplying the amounts of N received by these ecosystems with specific emission factors. Interestingly, the IPCC recently increased the N2O emission factor associated with wastewater discharge into “nutrient-impacted (eutrophic) aquatic receiving environments” nearly four times based on experimental evidence of high N2O emissions from N-receiving eutrophic ecosystems. As microalgae can produce N2O, these organisms may contribute to the N2O emissions frequently reported in eutrophic aquatic bodies. If that is the case, estimating N2O emissions solely based on nitrogen inputs to water bodies might lead to inaccurate N2O budgeting as microalgae growth is often limited by phosphorus in these environments. Establishing the significance of microalgal N2O synthesis in eutrophic environments is, therefore, critical and may lead to considerable changes on how to budget and mitigate N2O emissions and eutrophication. Full article
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19 pages, 82285 KiB  
Article
Taxonomic Structure and Diversity of Benthic Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) in the Northern Shelf of the Black Sea
Phycology 2023, 3(3), 337-355; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3030022 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
The key role of benthic diatoms in coastal ecosystems highlights the relevance of studying their biodiversity and developing integrated biodiversity conservation measures. Benthic diatom richness in the northern part of the Black Sea was estimated based on both published data and our own [...] Read more.
The key role of benthic diatoms in coastal ecosystems highlights the relevance of studying their biodiversity and developing integrated biodiversity conservation measures. Benthic diatom richness in the northern part of the Black Sea was estimated based on both published data and our own data. The checklist of benthic diatoms includes 1100 species and intraspecific taxa, 953 species, 149 genera, 61 families, 32 orders, and 3 classes of Bacillariophyta. More than 280 species and intraspecific taxa, as well as 8 genera new to the diatom flora of the Black Sea and 7 species new to science, were revealed. An interregional analysis of the diversity of benthic Bacillariophyta along the coasts of Bulgaria, Romania, and Crimea, as well as the northwestern and northeastern parts of the Black Sea shelf, was carried out using the Taxonomic Distinctness Indices (TaxDI). The lowest TaxDI value for Crimea was closest to the average value expected for the Black Sea diatom flora, indicating a large proportion of polyspecies branches in the taxocene structure, which resulted in the maximum species richness (species/genus = 7) and led to a decrease in the vertical evenness of hierarchical tree. On the contrary, the highest TaxDI value was detected off the Romanian coast, which was caused by the significant proportion of mono- and oligospecies branches and minimal species saturation in the taxocene structure (species/genus = 4). We also identified some species with a high taxonomic exclusivity rank. If these species disappear, the entire architectonics of the Black Sea hierarchical tree of Bacillariophyta may be significantly altered. Such region-specific species are given the highest protection priority since they have great importance for gene pool conservation. Full article
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