Next Issue
Volume 4, June
Previous Issue
Volume 3, December
 
 

Biologics, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 7 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
17 pages, 525 KiB  
Review
Extracellular Vesicles: Tiny Messengers for Mighty RNA Delivery
by Alakesh Das
Biologics 2024, 4(1), 88-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4010007 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) encompass a diverse array of cell-derived vesicles, originating either from the endosomal compartment (exosomes) or generated through shedding from the cell membrane. These lipid bilayer nanovesicles carry a diverse cargo consisting of nucleic acids, various macromolecules, and growth factors, capable [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) encompass a diverse array of cell-derived vesicles, originating either from the endosomal compartment (exosomes) or generated through shedding from the cell membrane. These lipid bilayer nanovesicles carry a diverse cargo consisting of nucleic acids, various macromolecules, and growth factors, capable of being assimilated by nearby or distant cells through biofluids, thereby triggering a wide range of cellular responses. Given their distinctive biological characteristics and crucial roles in intercellular communication, EVs have garnered significant attention, especially concerning potential clinical applications. Inheriting cargo from their parent cells, EVs present promising resources for diverse disease biomarkers. Research elucidating the specific impacts of cargo on target cells has sparked enthusiasm for their therapeutic potential. Compelling evidence indicates that RNA cargo housed within EVs can modulate gene expression and influence cellular functions in recipient cells. However, despite significant progress, numerous aspects of EV biology remain obscure, encompassing selective cargo-loading mechanisms that yield distinct compositions from source cells, variability in size and content, and undisclosed pathways governing uptake and cargo fate in recipient cells. A thorough understanding of core EV mechanisms—such as generation, trafficking, and payload delivery—is essential for their effective clinical utilization. This review explores the current understanding of RNA loading and transportation within EVs, shedding light on the advancements made toward clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3763 KiB  
Article
A Molecular Modeling Study into Brønsted and Lewis Acid Catalyzed Conversion of CBD into Other Cannabinoids
by Wim Buijs
Biologics 2024, 4(1), 75-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4010006 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 599
Abstract
There is a continuous interest in cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Previous experimental research has described the conversion of CBD to either Δ8-THC or Δ9-THC, depending on the acid catalyst applied. The use [...] Read more.
There is a continuous interest in cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Previous experimental research has described the conversion of CBD to either Δ8-THC or Δ9-THC, depending on the acid catalyst applied. The use of para-toluene sulfonic acid (pTSA) has led to the formation of Δ8-THC, while boron trifluoride etherate (BF3·Et2O) has mainly yielded Δ9-THC. The enormous difference in product selectivity between these two catalysts was investigated with Molecular Modeling, applying quantum chemical density functional theory. It was found that pTSA leads to fast isomerization of Δ9-CBD to Δ8-CBD and subsequent ring closure to Δ8-THC. BF3·Et2O catalysis leads to the formation of tertiary carbenium ions in the transition states, which yield Δ9-THC and some iso THC. Under dry conditions in refluxing toluene, it was found that pTSA is predominantly present as a dimer, and only a small fraction is available as monomeric catalyst. Applying the computationally derived activation barriers in transition state theory yielded reaction rates that predicted the amounts of cannabinoids that are in close agreement with the experimental findings from the previous literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1267 KiB  
Review
Monoclonal Antibody Development for Cancer Treatment Using the Phage Display Library Platform
by Tiantian Zhang and Zhe Wang
Biologics 2024, 4(1), 55-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4010005 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Thirty-four years ago, the groundbreaking work of John McCafferty and Sir Gregory Winter in developing phage display technology revolutionized the discovery of human antibodies, paving the way for diverse applications. Since then, numerous phage-derived antibodies have been successfully developed and advanced into clinical [...] Read more.
Thirty-four years ago, the groundbreaking work of John McCafferty and Sir Gregory Winter in developing phage display technology revolutionized the discovery of human antibodies, paving the way for diverse applications. Since then, numerous phage-derived antibodies have been successfully developed and advanced into clinical studies, resulting in the approval of more than a dozen therapeutic antibodies. These antibodies have demonstrated efficacy across a spectrum of medical conditions, ranging from autoimmune diseases to various cancers. In this article, we provide an in-depth review of the development of phage display libraries as powerful platforms for therapeutic antibody discovery, elucidating the intricate procedures involved in antibody development. Additionally, we conduct a review of the current ntibody drugs for cancer treatment that have been developed using the phage display platform. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges inherent in this technology, offering insights into potential solutions to enhance crucial steps and facilitate more efficient drug discovery in the field of phage display technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Monoclonal Antibodies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 463 KiB  
Article
Cytokines and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Childhood: Study of a Group of Children
by Luana Maria Nosetti, Claudio Tirelli, Franca Marino, Michela Gaiazzi, Lucia Sacchi, Mara De Amici, Fiorella Barocci, Ramona Maio, Marco Cosentino and Luigi Nespoli
Biologics 2024, 4(1), 44-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4010004 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in children is characterized by repeated episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways that impair normal ventilation and cause hypoxia and sleep disruption. These episodes activate innate and adaptive immunity resulting in the production of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in children is characterized by repeated episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways that impair normal ventilation and cause hypoxia and sleep disruption. These episodes activate innate and adaptive immunity resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and reactive oxygen species. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPT) axis is also activated with alteration of the circadian rhythm of cortisol synthesis. OSA in children, and even more in adults, induces a systemic inflammatory condition that contributes to the genesis of clinical complications: poor growth, learning disabilities, cardiovascular changes, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Methods: A total of 42 non-obese children (age 1–15 years) were enrolled among those sent to our sleep center to perform full polysomnography (PSG). After PSG, 6 children did not show OSA (controls), 20 had mild OSA (m OSA), and 16 had medium-severe OSA (MS OSA). In vitro IL-1β, TNF-α, and serum cortisol levels were measured at 2 and 8 am in the analyzed groups. Results: Cortisol levels did not differ between controls and OSA children. At 2 am, there were no differences between controls and OSA in TNF-α production, whereas at 8 am, TNF-α was reduced in MS-OSA. IL-1β production showed no differences between OSA and controls. Conclusions: In our population, only TNF-α production is suppressed in MS-OSA: this might indicate a role of OSA severity in inducing inflammation. In adults, the phenomenon is more pronounced due to the habitual greater severity/duration of OSA, presence of comorbidities (cardiovascular and metabolic), and different immune system function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cytokines and Allied Mediators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
Phytotherapy Used in Ailments of the Digestive System by Andean Inhabitants of Pampas, Huancavelica, Peru
by Charles Frank Saldaña-Chafloque, Mercedes Acosta-Román, José Torres-Huamaní and José Luis Castillo-Zavala
Biologics 2024, 4(1), 30-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4010003 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 743
Abstract
The use of medicinal plants for the therapy of diseases of the digestive system, where the Andean peoples developed various forms of administration. The objective is to identify medicinal plants used in the therapy of ailments of the digestive system by the Andean [...] Read more.
The use of medicinal plants for the therapy of diseases of the digestive system, where the Andean peoples developed various forms of administration. The objective is to identify medicinal plants used in the therapy of ailments of the digestive system by the Andean inhabitants of Pampas, Tayacaja, Huancavelica, Peru. Methods: Non-probabilistic sampling, using the “snowball” technique, carrying out semi-structured surveys, allowing information to be collected on the prevalence of ailments or diseases of the digestive system treated with medicinal plants, with inhabitants over 20 years of age participating and using the medicinal plants in the therapy of your digestive system ailments, and exclude those inhabitants who do not comply with it. Results: A total of 16 families, 33 genera, and 34 species are reported, where the families that present the greatest abundance of species are Asteraceae and Lamiaceae. The widely used species are Minthostachys mollis (11.9%), Aloe vera (10.4%), Clinopodium bolivianum (9%), Artemisia absinthium (9%), and Matricaria chamomilla (8.2%). Concluding with the identification of a diversity of medicinal flora, used in the therapy of diseases of the digestive system, such as stomach pain, constipation, gallbladder ailments, gastritis, and gastrointestinal, and liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1482 KiB  
Review
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines for the Prevention of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Patients Living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Rapid Review
by Paul M. Boylan, Megan E. Fleischman, Nathan Pinner, Joseph Andrew Woods and Adam Welch
Biologics 2024, 4(1), 17-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4010002 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Background: Patients living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at risk for lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The first RSV vaccines were approved in 2023 for adults ages 60 years and older. The safety and efficacy of [...] Read more.
Background: Patients living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at risk for lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The first RSV vaccines were approved in 2023 for adults ages 60 years and older. The safety and efficacy of the RSV vaccines and their clinical implications in patients living with COPD, apart from composite comorbidity results, are under-reported. Methods: This rapid review aimed to collect and report data pertaining to RSV vaccine safety and efficacy in patients living with COPD. Resources searched included Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, published peer-reviewed abstracts, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Results: Seven records were included: five research manuscripts and two ongoing clinical trials. Patients living with COPD were included in RSV vaccine clinical trials, but outcomes of RSV vaccine safety and efficacy in patients living with COPD were grossly unreported. Conclusions: Future clinical trials of patients living with COPD and subgroup analyses of patients living with COPD within existing studies evaluating RSV vaccine safety and efficacy are necessary to substantiate outcomes in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccines)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 753 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Arboviral Vaccines: Emerging Platforms and Promising Innovations
by Sujit Pujhari
Biologics 2024, 4(1), 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4010001 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, such as mosquitoes, and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, there are only a few options, with restricted use, for effective vaccines against these viruses. However, recent advances in arboviral vaccine [...] Read more.
Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, such as mosquitoes, and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, there are only a few options, with restricted use, for effective vaccines against these viruses. However, recent advances in arboviral vaccine development have shown promising innovations that have potential in preclinical and clinical studies. Insect-specific viruses have been explored as a novel vaccine platform that can induce cross-protective immunity against related arboviruses. Nanoparticle-based vaccines have also been developed to enhance the immunogenicity and stability of viral antigens. Additionally, vaccines against mosquito salivary proteins that can modulate the host immune response and interfere with arboviral transmission are being explored. Synonymous recoding, such as random codon shuffling, codon deoptimization, and codon-pair deoptimization, is being investigated as a strategy to attenuate the replication of arboviruses in vertebrate cells, reducing the risk of reverting to wild-type virulence. Finally, mRNA vaccines have been developed to rapidly generate and express viral antigens in the host cells, eliciting robust and durable immune responses. The challenges and opportunities for arboviral vaccine development are outlined, and future directions for research and innovation are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop