Supportive, Fitted, and Comfortable Bras for Individuals with Atypical Breast Shape/Size: Review of the Challenges and Proposed Roadmap
2. Individuals with Atypical Breast Shape/Size
2.1. Breast Asymmetry
3. Challenges for Individuals with Atypical Breast Shape/Size
3.1. Bra Dissatisfaction
3.2. Measurement, Fit and Mass-Manufacturing
3.3. Breast Pain
4. Current Strategies
4.1. 3D Scanners and Other Measuring Software
4.2. Specialization and Production
- Back band rising: this is mostly due to the weight of the breast dragging it downwards with little or no support from the under band and/or strap;
- Falling straps: when the band is too narrow, too big or the shoulders of the individual are slopped, the straps are likely to fall;
- Displacement of the centerpiece (gore): the gore should rest on the sternum, otherwise the breast will put pressure on the gore causing it to bend, break or poke through the ends;
- Side boobs: this occurs when the side breast tissue is peeking out of the bra. In most cases, this adds an extra layer of excess skin to what may already exist under the armpit;
- Quad boobs: this happens when the cup is too small or the style does not fit. Unfortunately, women with big breasts often cannot afford to wear certain styles as their breasts require to be enclosed.
5. Proposed Roadmap
5.1. Selecting the Right Type of Fabric Depending on the Bra Part
5.2. Bra Design
5.3. Customization and Fitting
5.4. Wear Trial
5.5. Translational Approaches to Patients
Institutional Review Board Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Bulging||Skin pushing over or underneath the cup, band or straps||Large breasts, bra size too small or too tight||[43,44]|
|Digging||Bra parts digging into the skin, especially in individuals with extra under arm and side skin||Bra too small, or too tight|||
|Lifting away||Centre gore lifts creating space between the bra and the skin.||Under wires, stiff materials, bra too small or too tight|||
|Gapping||Gaps in the center gore or cups||Large breasts, bra too big or too loose||[44,46]|
|Double breast||Occurs mostly in deep-V and push-up style bras used for enhancing cleavages. It occurs when a large part of the breast is outside of the cup.||Large breasts, improper fitting or sizing.|||
|Bra Part||Function||Knitted||Stretch Woven||Rational for Fabric Selection|
|Strap (2)||Support the cups & back panels||✓||Good strength to ensure connections between the cup and the back panel|
|Cup (3)||Hold the breast||✓||Excellent drape to host the breast tissue, good breathability to prevent sweat & irritation between the breast and the upper stomach area|
|Gore (4)||Connect the two cups||✓||Good stretch to accommodate different breast sizes and breathability to promote ventilation|
|Back panel (6)||Support the side panels & straps||✓||Rigid enough to provide support|
|Side panel (7 & 8)||Link between the back panels & cups||✓||Good stretch and elasticity to provide good silhouette. This is especially important for those with excess skin around the armpit|
|Durability||Pilling||Grade 4||Grade 4|
|Colorfastness: Laundering||Grade 4||Grade 4|
|Colorfastness: Perspiration||Grade 4||Grade 4|
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Bolaji, J.T.; Dolez, P.I. Supportive, Fitted, and Comfortable Bras for Individuals with Atypical Breast Shape/Size: Review of the Challenges and Proposed Roadmap. Textiles 2022, 2, 560-578. https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2040032
Bolaji JT, Dolez PI. Supportive, Fitted, and Comfortable Bras for Individuals with Atypical Breast Shape/Size: Review of the Challenges and Proposed Roadmap. Textiles. 2022; 2(4):560-578. https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2040032Chicago/Turabian Style
Bolaji, Josephine Taiye, and Patricia I. Dolez. 2022. "Supportive, Fitted, and Comfortable Bras for Individuals with Atypical Breast Shape/Size: Review of the Challenges and Proposed Roadmap" Textiles 2, no. 4: 560-578. https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2040032