Next Issue
Volume 4, June
Previous Issue
Volume 3, December
 
 

Adolescents, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 13 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
15 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Associations between Household Food Insecurity and Depressive Symptomology among Adolescent Girls and Young Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Africa
by Stanley Carries, Lovemore Nyasha Sigwadhi, Audrey Moyo, Colleen Wagner, Catherine Mathews and Darshini Govindasamy
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 185-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010013 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Evidence suggests an association between food insecurity and depressive symptomatology; however, little is known about the association between adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in the context of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between household food insecurity (HFI) and depressive [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests an association between food insecurity and depressive symptomatology; however, little is known about the association between adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in the context of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between household food insecurity (HFI) and depressive symptomology among AGYW in South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondary data analysis was conducted using cross-sectional data collected from the HERStory2 study conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from 515 AGYW (aged 15–24 years) recruited from six South African districts using a demographic detail and socio-economic questionnaire as well as the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD-10) Scale. Data were fitted using a multi-variable robust Poisson regression model and controlled for sociodemographic and health factors. The results suggest that the majority of the sample of AGYW were 20 years old, with 74% exposed to HFI and 30.29% experiencing depressive symptomology. AGYW exposed to HFI were 1.80 times at risk of depressive symptomology compared to those from food-secure households [adjusted risk ratio (aRR): 1.80; 95% CI: 1.35–2.42, p < 0.0001)]. Future pandemic-preparedness strategies should incorporate screening for HFI as a means to identify AGYW who may require psychosocial support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescent Health and Mental Health)
15 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Development and Preliminary Validation of the Sexual Minority Identity Emotion Scale
by Jacob Goffnett, Samantha Robinson, Anna Hamaker, Mohammod Mahmudur Rahman, Sheree M. Schrager and Jeremy T. Goldbach
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 171-184; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010012 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Emotions influence health behaviors and outcomes, yet little research has examined the emotion–health relationship among sexual minorities. The few studies in this area have used general measures of feelings without regard for identity, despite the literature positing emotions as culturally and contextually specific. [...] Read more.
Emotions influence health behaviors and outcomes, yet little research has examined the emotion–health relationship among sexual minorities. The few studies in this area have used general measures of feelings without regard for identity, despite the literature positing emotions as culturally and contextually specific. This critical limitation obscures inferences made in studies that have found emotions to predict mental health outcomes for sexual minorities. This study begins to address this gap by developing and examining the preliminary validation of the Sexual Minority Identity Emotion Scale, a measure of shame and pride specific to the identity experiences of sexual minority adolescents. The initial pool of items emerged from a qualitative study and was refined through a multistep review. The measurement’s factor structure and criterion validity were examined using a nationwide sample of 273 sexual minority adolescents from the United States. The scale has four factors with strong internal reliability, adequate criterion validity, and utility in health research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescent Health and Mental Health)
13 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Tailoring Sexual Health Research Practices to Meet the Needs of Adolescent Girls in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Findings from Mexico
by Argentina E. Servin, Ruth Macklin, Sara Wilkerson, Teresita Rocha-Jiménez, Gudelia M. Rangel, Sophie E. O’Bryan and Celia B. Fisher
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 158-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010011 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research is essential for the development of population-tailored evidence-based policies and programs that support sexual health among adolescent girls. However, ethical challenges create barriers to girls’ participation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). From February to September 2019, [...] Read more.
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research is essential for the development of population-tailored evidence-based policies and programs that support sexual health among adolescent girls. However, ethical challenges create barriers to girls’ participation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). From February to September 2019, girls aged 16–20 (n = 30) who participated in the Jovenes Sanos study in Tijuana, Baja California (ClinicalTrials: NCT03660514) responded to in-depth interviews (IDs) on the perceived risks and benefits of participating in studies which address gender-based violence, unintended pregnancy, and STIs. Emergent themes indicated the need to ensure that consent and incentive procedures are tailored to the developmental level of participants, while highlighting the importance of researcher–participant relationships, and demonstrating how research can serve as an opportunity to empower girls to express their sexual health medical needs. Understanding adolescent girls’ voices is a critical step in ensuring that consent to participate SRH research is tailored to the developmental needs of participants, is culturally competent, and has a participant-centered approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescent Health and Mental Health)
20 pages, 1663 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of and Influential Factors for Waterpipe Smoking among School-Attending Adolescents in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
by Jónína Einarsdóttir, Aladje Baldé, Zeca Jandi, Hamadou Boiro and Geir Gunnlaugsson
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 138-157; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010010 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 390
Abstract
The marketing of sweetened and flavoured tobacco in the early 1990s resulted in an upsurge in waterpipe smoking (WPS), mainly among young people and women. Here, we estimate prevalence rates among school-attending adolescents aged 14–19 (girls 52%) for a lifetime experience of WPS [...] Read more.
The marketing of sweetened and flavoured tobacco in the early 1990s resulted in an upsurge in waterpipe smoking (WPS), mainly among young people and women. Here, we estimate prevalence rates among school-attending adolescents aged 14–19 (girls 52%) for a lifetime experience of WPS and within the last 30 days (WPS < 30 days) and identify influential factors for such smoking in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. A random sample (N = 2039) was drawn from a class-based register created for 16 schools in Bissau; attending students in June 2017 were invited to respond to a locally adapted Planet Youth questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to identify influential factors for WPS. The prevalence rates for a lifetime experience of WPS and within < 30 days were high, 17.7% and 15.0%, respectively, with no significant gender difference. For both groups, a multinomial logistic regression analysis identified attending higher grades in school, use of alcohol and being a victim of sexual violence as significant, influential factors. The overlapping of influential factors suggests preventive work against substance abuse should focus on less stigmatising behaviour, such as WPS and firmer implementation of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescent Health Behaviors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 464 KiB  
Article
Stress Appraisals and Coping across and within Academic, Parent, and Peer Stressors: The Roles of Adolescents’ Emotional Problems, Coping Flexibility, and Age
by Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck and Ellen A. Skinner
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 120-137; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010009 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 618
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether adolescents’ emotional problems, coping flexibility, age, and stress appraisals account for ways of coping, which include engagement and disengagement coping, with academic-, parent-, and peer-related stressful events. Stress appraisals were defined as perceived threats [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine whether adolescents’ emotional problems, coping flexibility, age, and stress appraisals account for ways of coping, which include engagement and disengagement coping, with academic-, parent-, and peer-related stressful events. Stress appraisals were defined as perceived threats to the psychological needs of relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Models were fit at a higher order level, indicated by adolescents’ appraisals and intended ways of coping with stress in three domains (i.e., academic, parent, and peer) and tested at the lower level within each domain. Adolescents (N = 410; age 10–15; Mage = 12.5; 50% girls) reported their emotional problems (combined depressive and anxiety symptoms) and coping flexibility six months prior to completing an analogue task. The task involved viewing six short film clips portraying stressful events (e.g., obtaining a worse than expected exam grade or arguing with a parent) and reporting three stress appraisals and eight ways of coping after each stressor. The ways of coping were analyzed as four composite scores reflecting engagement coping (active coping, self-reliance) or disengagement coping (withdrawal coping, helplessness). In structural equation models, adolescents who appraised more threat reported more withdrawal coping and helplessness but also more active coping and self-reliance. Adolescents with more emotional problems appraised more threat and anticipated using less constructive ways of coping, whereas adolescents higher in coping flexibility intended to use more constructive ways of coping, with these associations sufficiently modeled at the general (across stress domains) level. Improvement in the model fit was found when appraised threat–coping associations were modeled at the lower (specific stressor domain) level, suggesting differences by stressor domain. Age was associated with more self-reliance and helplessness, with self-reliance being specific to parent stressors and helplessness specific to peer stressors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescent Health and Mental Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 672 KiB  
Article
Problematic Smartphone Use and Communication in Families with Adolescents
by Marina Merkaš, Matea Bodrožić Selak and Ana Žulec Ivanković
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 107-119; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010008 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Research examining the relations among adolescent’s problematic smartphone use, parent–adolescent conflicts about smartphone use, family communication, and adolescent communication skills is scarce. Thus, the study empirically examined a model of the direct and indirect effects of adolescents’ problematic smartphone use on adolescent communication [...] Read more.
Research examining the relations among adolescent’s problematic smartphone use, parent–adolescent conflicts about smartphone use, family communication, and adolescent communication skills is scarce. Thus, the study empirically examined a model of the direct and indirect effects of adolescents’ problematic smartphone use on adolescent communication skills via family communication and parent–adolescent conflicts about smartphone use. The data used for the creation of this paper came from a sample of 284 adolescents (59.4% girls), aged 10 to 15, who participated in a four-wave longitudinal study (2021–2023) examining the effects of smartphone use on well-being and development. Adolescents rated their problematic smartphone use (wave 1), conflicts with parents about their smartphone use (wave 2), family communication (wave 3), and communication skills (wave 4). There was no support for the direct effect of problematic smartphone use on communication skills. Our path analysis showed a significant indirect effect of problematic smartphone use on communication skills via family communication. Our analysis also showed a significant direct effect of problematic smartphone use on conflicts between parents and adolescents about the time spent using smartphones and balancing activities with smartphone use. The findings of this study imply that excessive and extensive smartphone use may pose a risk factor for frequent parent–adolescent conflicts, poor family communication, and poor adolescent communication skills. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 475 KiB  
Article
Transforming Service into Civic Purpose: A Qualitative Study of Adolescent Civic Engagement and Purpose Development
by Brenna Lincoln, Kira N. Patel, Molly Binder, Terese J. Lund and Belle Liang
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 90-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010007 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 411
Abstract
As tomorrow’s leaders, adolescents are navigating coming-of-age tasks in the context of both the fast-growing promises of technology and the burdens of overwhelming global challenges. The Climate Leaders Fellowship (CLF) is an extracurricular program that supports adolescents interested in environmental sustainability. Program participants [...] Read more.
As tomorrow’s leaders, adolescents are navigating coming-of-age tasks in the context of both the fast-growing promises of technology and the burdens of overwhelming global challenges. The Climate Leaders Fellowship (CLF) is an extracurricular program that supports adolescents interested in environmental sustainability. Program participants are connected with like-minded peers and mentors across the globe who help them develop and implement community-based volunteer projects (CLF, 2022). This study focuses on whether and how participation in CLF shaped adolescents’ development. A directed content analysis approach was utilized to conduct and analyze semi-structured interviews with adolescent CLF participants (n = 9, 89% female). Results indicate that engagement in the program is associated with civic purpose development. Specifically, participants reported experiencing civic reflection, motivation, and action through their CLF involvement. Findings offer supporting evidence that the development of civic purpose may be associated with burgeoning critical consciousness. Recommendations for future programming, study limitations, and implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging and Contemporary Issue in Adolescence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Family Characteristics and Adolescent Perception of the Quality of Family Communication
by Martina Feric
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 75-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010006 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Many studies consider family communication to be one of the most important protective factors for the positive development of children and adolescents in the family environment. This paper aims to clarify whether some characteristics of the family environment influence the quality of family [...] Read more.
Many studies consider family communication to be one of the most important protective factors for the positive development of children and adolescents in the family environment. This paper aims to clarify whether some characteristics of the family environment influence the quality of family communication in order to provide guidelines for the planning of prevention strategies that effectively improve the quality of family communication and, thus, the positive development of adolescents. Specifically, the aim is to investigate whether there are gender- and age-related differences in the assessment of the quality of family communication and whether there are differences in the assessment of the quality of family communication depending on some family characteristics. High school students from five large Croatian cities (Zagreb, Osijek, Split, Pula, and Varazdin) took part in this study. The quota sample is stratified by three Croatian high school programs, as well as by individual program orientations within each school. The results show that there are differences in assessment of the quality of family communication in relation to gender, age, living with both or one parent, and the educational and working status of the parents. The data suggest that, in addition to the timely implementation of evidence-based parenting and/or family-based prevention interventions, there is a need to invest in high-quality social policies that could lead to a better quality of family life by increasing the chances of higher educational attainment for (future) parents as well as adequate employment opportunities. Full article
13 pages, 2053 KiB  
Article
School Scoliosis Screening: The Influence of Dominant Limbs and Gender
by Eleni Theodorou, Marios Hadjicharalambous and Marios Tryfonidis
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 62-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010005 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 886
Abstract
This study aimed to examine whether (a) there is an association of the dominant hand (DH) and leg (DL) with the side of the primary angle of trunk rotation (ATR A) and (b) there are any differences between boys and girls in the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine whether (a) there is an association of the dominant hand (DH) and leg (DL) with the side of the primary angle of trunk rotation (ATR A) and (b) there are any differences between boys and girls in the degree of the angle of trunk rotation (ATR) and the dominant hand and leg. One thousand sixty-five (age: 14 ± 3 years; height: 162 ± 13 cm; weight: 56 ± 18.7 kg; BMI: 21.18 ± 5.07) secondary school children participated in this study. Of the participants, 52.5% (n = 559) were male students (age: 14 ± 2 years; height: 166 ± 16 cm; weight: 58.7 ± 22.6 kg; BMI: 21.41 ± 5.61), and 47.5% (n = 506) were female students (age: 14 ± 3 years; height: 159.5 ± 8.5 cm; weight: 53.9 ± 14.8 kg; BMI: 21.03 ± 4.38). The ATR was measured with a scoliometer. Boys were taller and heavier (p = 0.001) and had more left DLs (p = 0.039) than girls. Girls were biologically more mature (p = 0.002), also having higher measurements for the ATR A (p = 0.004) and secondary angle of trunk rotation (ATR B) (p = 0.023) degrees compared to boys. In the general sample, only in boys, there was a significant association between the DH (p = 0.012) and DL (p = 0.001) with the ATR A side. Also, within the scoliotic group, only in boys, there was a significant association between the DH (p = 0.048) and DL (p = 0.024) with the ATR A. In conclusion, girls had higher measurements for the ATR than boys, but cross laterality was found only in boys. The results suggest different progression patterns of ATR between genders during their growth. Future research should focus on examining other possible progression mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescent Health and Mental Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1699 KiB  
Article
“I Prefer Eating Less Than Eating Healthy”: Drivers of Food Choice in a Sample of Muslim Adolescents
by Lucie Nield
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 41-61; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010004 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 874
Abstract
Adolescence is a time of significant change which is experienced differently across sociocultural contexts. Understanding drivers of food practice in adolescence is vital as these impact future health outcomes and can drive health inequality. This study investigates drivers of food choice in predominantly [...] Read more.
Adolescence is a time of significant change which is experienced differently across sociocultural contexts. Understanding drivers of food practice in adolescence is vital as these impact future health outcomes and can drive health inequality. This study investigates drivers of food choice in predominantly British–Asian, Muslim adolescents living in a deprived urban area of England. It identifies dominant drivers of food choice and their impact on health and wellbeing, and explores how Muslim adolescents from a low socioeconomic, British–Asian group understand and action autonomy in their food practices. PhotoVoice, a focussed ethnographical methodology where participants reflect on lived experience, was used to address the study aim. Participants (n = 21) were secondary school pupils aged 14–15 years, recruited from a school situated in an area of deprivation. Four overarching themes were developed from the qualitative data framework analysis: (1) food preference and other determinants of food choice; (2) concept, understanding and importance of health; (3) developing autonomy, skills, and independence; and (4) role of community, friends, and family in food practices. The adolescents were developing autonomy in relation to their food practices, whilst navigating a complex web of factors which were, in part, determined by their social class location and demographics. Participants understood the constituents of healthy eating. However, there was a perceived “effort” of being healthy, including additional time for preparing healthier food and sacrificing taste preferences. Parents, friends, and schools highly influence food choices, with adolescents preferring a broad palate of takeaway and convenience foods and would prefer to eat less of these “unhealthy” options than eat healthily. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescent Health Behaviors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
Perspectives Matter: Insecure Residency Status Accounts for Aggressive Emotions in Adolescent Refugees
by Lara L. Eder, Alexandra Martin, Gerhard Hapfelmeier and Marco Walg
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 28-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010003 - 03 Jan 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Unaccompanied refugees are a high-risk group for trauma-induced psychiatric disorders. Besides traumatic experiences pre- and during migration, post-migration stressors such as insecure residency status affect refugees’ mental health and foster aggressive emotions. High levels of psychological distress and psychopathology distort time perspectives. Consequently, [...] Read more.
Unaccompanied refugees are a high-risk group for trauma-induced psychiatric disorders. Besides traumatic experiences pre- and during migration, post-migration stressors such as insecure residency status affect refugees’ mental health and foster aggressive emotions. High levels of psychological distress and psychopathology distort time perspectives. Consequently, an insecure residency status linked to distress may influence a refugee’s time perspective. This study investigated psychological distress, PTSD symptoms, aggressive emotions, and time perspectives in 33 unaccompanied adolescent refugees with and without secure residency status in Germany. Refugees with precarious residency status showed higher levels of overall distress and aggression than individuals with secure residency status. Both groups revealed a distorted time perspective profile, but individuals with a residence permit showed a stronger orientation toward the present hedonistic perspective than those without a permit. Higher aggressive emotions were related to insecure status, higher levels of psychological distress, more pronounced PTSD symptoms, and lower orientation to future time perspective. Distorted time perspectives among refugees may be caused by traumatic experiences and having been uprooted, independently of their residency status in the host country. A higher future orientation may buffer the association between distorted time perspectives and aggressive emotions in the highly stressed group of unaccompanied adolescent refugees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescent Health and Mental Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 743 KiB  
Article
Perceived Physical Competence, Self-Esteem, and Leadership among Girls: A Program Evaluation of GOALS (Girls Organizing and Learning Sport)
by Bailey Csabai, Barbara A. Pollard and Sarah J. Woodruff
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 14-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010002 - 03 Jan 2024
Viewed by 633
Abstract
This study evaluated a leadership-based physical activity program, Girls Organizing and Learning Sport (GOALS), by assessing changes in health behaviours, physical competence, self-esteem, and leadership. Of the 466 participants who enrolled in the program, 102 (22%) completed a pre-and post-program survey containing questions [...] Read more.
This study evaluated a leadership-based physical activity program, Girls Organizing and Learning Sport (GOALS), by assessing changes in health behaviours, physical competence, self-esteem, and leadership. Of the 466 participants who enrolled in the program, 102 (22%) completed a pre-and post-program survey containing questions concerning demographics, physical activity, physical competence, self-esteem, and leadership. The GOALS program was held twice (fall 2022/winter 2023) and consisted of two-hour weekly sessions over four weeks at nine different locations. Paired-sample t-tests, Chi-squares, and one-way ANOVA tests were utilized to analyze differences before and after the GOALS program. Results revealed that more participants were involved in school sports, community sports, and regular physical activity post-program (all p’s < 0.05). A significant difference was also observed between pre-and post-test scores for physical competence and self-esteem (p’s < 0.05). However, the program did not elicit changes in health behaviours or total leadership scores (all p’s > 0.05). Moreover, significant results were observed between physical competence difference scores and those who care for their health by exercising (p = 0.025), leadership difference scores and those who take care of their health by exercising (p = 0.044), self-esteem difference scores by program location (p = 0.001), and physical competence difference scores by ethnicity (p = 0.003). Overall, further research into the design, administration, and targeted outcomes is recommended for future sessions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescent Health Behaviors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
“Instead of Asking for Fare, You Ask Her to Pay with Sex”: Male Perspectives on the Factors Influencing Schoolgirls’ Participation in Age-Disparate Transactional Sex Relationships
by Leso Munala, Asha Mohamed, Nene Okunna, Bethlehem Yewhalawork, Paul Kibati and Jesse Kihuha
Adolescents 2024, 4(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4010001 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Age-disparate transactional sex relationships are often coerced and exploitative. The gender and economic disparities between affluent men and economically disadvantaged girls often perpetuate these relationships, resulting in their exploitation. This qualitative study assessed men’s understanding of factors influencing schoolgirls’ engagement in age-disparate transactional [...] Read more.
Age-disparate transactional sex relationships are often coerced and exploitative. The gender and economic disparities between affluent men and economically disadvantaged girls often perpetuate these relationships, resulting in their exploitation. This qualitative study assessed men’s understanding of factors influencing schoolgirls’ engagement in age-disparate transactional sex relationships in two rural districts in Kenya. Four focus group sessions were conducted with men from two primary professions: motorcycle taxi operators (Boda Boda) and teachers from primary and secondary schools from two districts in Kitui South, Sub County, Kenya. Focus group data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Several influential factors associated with schoolgirls’ engagement in these transactional relationships are discussed in three broad themes: access and coercion, parental influence, and peer-related factors. Study results indicate that schoolgirls in rural areas are more susceptible to predation by men willing to trade sexual favors with underage girls. These findings make it imperative to address the predation of adolescent girls by men involved in these transactional relationships by implementing comprehensive sex education programs that empower schoolgirls to recognize and resist coercion. Additionally, implementing measures involving community leaders, parents, and other stakeholders in a collective effort to combat the exploitation of underage girls is paramount. These measures should be accompanied by the stricter enforcement of laws and regulations to hold perpetrators accountable for their actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging and Contemporary Issue in Adolescence)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop