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Nanomanufacturing, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 3 articles

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9 pages, 2559 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Electrochemically Deposited CuIn(Ga)Se2 Solar Cells
by Hareesh Dondapati and Aswini K. Pradhan
Nanomanufacturing 2024, 4(2), 111-119; https://doi.org/10.3390/nanomanufacturing4020008 (registering DOI) - 24 May 2024
Abstract
We have demonstrated a low-cost and simple method for the fabrication of large-area films using the electrodeposition technique. Fairly superior quality CuIn(Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films were deposited by a one-step electrodeposition method using a salt bath followed by annealing in an argon atmosphere [...] Read more.
We have demonstrated a low-cost and simple method for the fabrication of large-area films using the electrodeposition technique. Fairly superior quality CuIn(Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films were deposited by a one-step electrodeposition method using a salt bath followed by annealing in an argon atmosphere at 550 °C for 1 h. The X-ray analyses demonstrate that the films are crystalline in nature, having a chalcopyrite phase. However, the conversion efficiencies are found to be lower compared to other methods. Our results indicate that CIGS films can be produced effectively via a one-step electrodeposition method. The observed morphology can have a great impact on solar cell efficiency. With suitable modifications, this simple and cheaper manufacturing process will be the best alternative method to the vacuum deposition technique for the fabrication of reliable and flexible CIGS solar cells in the near future. Full article
12 pages, 5212 KiB  
Article
Developments in Mask-Free Singularly Addressable Nano-LED Lithography
by Martin Mikulics, Andreas Winden, Joachim Mayer and Hilde Helen Hardtdegen
Nanomanufacturing 2024, 4(2), 99-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/nanomanufacturing4020007 - 22 Apr 2024
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Abstract
LED devices are increasingly gaining importance in lithography approaches due to the fact that they can be used flexibly for mask-less patterning. In this study, we briefly report on developments in mask-free lithography approaches based on nano-LED devices and summarize our current achievements [...] Read more.
LED devices are increasingly gaining importance in lithography approaches due to the fact that they can be used flexibly for mask-less patterning. In this study, we briefly report on developments in mask-free lithography approaches based on nano-LED devices and summarize our current achievements in the different building blocks needed for its application. Individually addressable nano-LED structures can form the basis for an unprecedented fast and flexible patterning, on demand, in photo-chemically sensitive films. We introduce a driving scheme for nano-LEDs in arrays serving for a singularly addressable approach. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges facing nano-LED fabrication and possibilities to improve their performance. Additionally, we introduce LED structures based on a hybrid nanocrystal/nano-LED approach. Lastly, we provide an outlook how this approach could further develop for next generation lithography systems. This technique has a huge potential to revolutionize the field and to contribute significantly to energy and resources saving device nanomanufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Nanomanufacturing in 2023)
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18 pages, 8295 KiB  
Article
Solution-Processed Bilayered ZnO Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Inverted Non-Fullerene Organic Solar Cells
by Walia Binte Tarique, Md Habibur Rahaman, Shahriyar Safat Dipta, Ashraful Hossain Howlader and Ashraf Uddin
Nanomanufacturing 2024, 4(2), 81-98; https://doi.org/10.3390/nanomanufacturing4020006 - 1 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Organic solar cells (OSCs) are becoming increasingly popular in the scientific community because of their many desirable properties. These features include solution processability, low weight, low cost, and the ability to process on a wide scale using roll-to-roll technology. Enhancing the efficiency of [...] Read more.
Organic solar cells (OSCs) are becoming increasingly popular in the scientific community because of their many desirable properties. These features include solution processability, low weight, low cost, and the ability to process on a wide scale using roll-to-roll technology. Enhancing the efficiency of photovoltaic systems, particularly high-performance OSCs, requires study into not only material design but also interface engineering. This study demonstrated that two different types of OSCs based on the PTB7-Th:IEICO-4F and PM6:Y6 active layers use a ZnO bilayer electron transport layer (ETL). The ZnO bilayer ETL comprises a ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO NP) and a ZnO layer created from a sol-gel. The effect of incorporating ZnO NPs into the electron transport layer (ETL) was studied; in particular, the effects on the electrical, optical, and morphological properties of the initial ZnO ETL were analyzed. The ability of ZnO films to carry charges is improved by the addition of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), which increase their conductivity. The bilayer structure had better crystallinity and a smoother film surface than the single-layer sol-gel ZnO ETL. This led to a consistent and strong interfacial connection between the photoactive layer and the electron transport layer (ETL). Therefore, inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) with PTB7-Th:IEICO-4F and PM6:Y6 as photoactive layers exhibit improved power conversion efficiency and other photovoltaic properties when using the bilayer technique. Full article
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