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Radiation, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 8 articles

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14 pages, 1550 KiB  
Review
Cultivation of Vitamin C-Rich Vegetables for Space-Radiation Mitigation
by Alireza Mortazavi, Helia Yarbaksh, Batool Faegheh Bahaaddini Baigy Zarandi, Reza Yarbakhsh, Fatemeh Ghadimi-Moghaddam, Syed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi, Masoud Haghani, Donya Firoozi and Lembit Sihver
Radiation 2024, 4(1), 101-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation4010008 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Space exploration introduces astronauts to challenges, such as space radiation and microgravity. Researchers have investigated vitamin C as a potential radiation mitigator, as well as antioxidants for sustaining astronaut health. Our own studies demonstrate vitamin C’s life-saving radioprotective effects and its potential as [...] Read more.
Space exploration introduces astronauts to challenges, such as space radiation and microgravity. Researchers have investigated vitamin C as a potential radiation mitigator, as well as antioxidants for sustaining astronaut health. Our own studies demonstrate vitamin C’s life-saving radioprotective effects and its potential as a radiation mitigator, thus highlighting promise, even when administered 24 h post-exposure. This is particularly relevant in scenarios where astronauts may be exposed to sudden large solar particle events, potentially resulting in lethal doses of space radiation. The success of vegetable cultivation on the International Space Station using NASA’s Veggie system offers fresh, vitamin C-rich food. While approved supplements address somatic function, further research is needed to optimize vitamin C’s efficacy in humans, and to develop appropriate antioxidant cocktails for space missions. The variable vitamin C content in vegetables underscores the necessity for the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) to assist astronauts in selecting and cultivating the vitamin C-rich vegetables best-suited to combat high levels of space radiation and microgravity. Particularly, AI algorithms can be utilized to analyze various factors, such as nutritional content, growth patterns, and cultivation methods. In conclusion, vitamin C shows significant potential for mitigating space radiation, and ongoing research aims to enhance astronaut health through optimal dietary strategies. Full article
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16 pages, 2571 KiB  
Article
Assessing Radiation Effects on Chemo-Treated BT20 and 4T1 Breast Cancer, and Neuroblastoma Cell Lines: A Study of Single and Multiple-Cell Ionization via Infrared Laser Trapping
by Mulugeta S. Goangul, Daniel B. Erenso, Ying Gao, Li Chen, Kwame O. Eshun, Gisela Alvarez and Horace T. Crogman
Radiation 2024, 4(1), 85-100; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation4010007 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 840
Abstract
Background: Our study aimed to assess the radiation sensitivity of BT20, a human breast tumor cell line, using the laser-trapping technique and compare it with N2a and 4T1 cells. Additionally, we investigated the impact of the antitumor compound 2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) on radiation sensitivity. [...] Read more.
Background: Our study aimed to assess the radiation sensitivity of BT20, a human breast tumor cell line, using the laser-trapping technique and compare it with N2a and 4T1 cells. Additionally, we investigated the impact of the antitumor compound 2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) on radiation sensitivity. Methods and Materials: We employed laser trapping to calculate both the threshold ionization energy (TIE) and threshold radiation dose (TRD) for BT20, N2a, and 4T1 cells. We assessed the effect of DMDD on BT20 cells’ radiosensitivity and conducted comparisons across these cell lines. Results: Our findings reveal that DMDD significantly enhances the radiosensitivity of BT20 breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, we observed distinct trends in TIE and TRD across the three cell lines, with differences attributed to variations in cell size and composition. When multiple cell ionizations were considered, a notable reduction in TRD was observed, implicating factors such as the chain effect of ionizing radiation and the influence of DMDD. The study found that TIE increased with the number of cells in the trap while TRD consistently decreased across all three cell lines, suggesting comparable radiation sensitivity, and oligostilbene treatment further reduced TRD, presenting the potential for enhancing therapeutic ratios in cancer treatment. Conclusion: The antitumor compound DMDD enhances the radiosensitivity of BT20 breast carcinoma cells, highlighting its potential in cancer treatment. Furthermore, our study underscores the impact of cell size and multiple-cell ionizations on TRD. Leveraging laser trapping techniques, biocompatible nanoparticles, and advanced optical tweezers opens promising avenues for personalized and effective cancer therapy approaches. Full article
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16 pages, 2630 KiB  
Communication
Calculations of the Radiation Dose for the Maximum Hormesis Effect
by Katsuhito Kino
Radiation 2024, 4(1), 69-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation4010006 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 802
Abstract
To date, the radiation-adaptive response has been reported as a low-dose-related phenomenon and has been associated with radiation hormesis. Well-known cancers are caused by non-radiation active reactants, in addition to radiation. A model of suppression for radiation-specific cancers was previously reported, but the [...] Read more.
To date, the radiation-adaptive response has been reported as a low-dose-related phenomenon and has been associated with radiation hormesis. Well-known cancers are caused by non-radiation active reactants, in addition to radiation. A model of suppression for radiation-specific cancers was previously reported, but the model did not target radiation-nonspecific cancers. In this paper, we describe kinetic models of radiation-induced suppressors for general radiation non-specific cancers, estimating the dose M that induces the maximum hormesis effect while satisfying the condition that the risk is approximately proportional to a dose above NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level). The radiation hormesis effect is maximal when the rate constant for generation of a risk-reducing factor is the same as the rate constant for its decomposition. When the two rate constants are different, the dose M at which the radiation hormesis effect is maximized depends on both rate constants, but the dose M increases as the two rate constants approach each other, reaching a maximum dose. The theory proposed in this paper can only explain existing experiments with extremely short error bar lengths. This theory may lead to the discovery of unknown risk-reducing factor at low doses and the development of risk-reducing methods in the future. Full article
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19 pages, 4232 KiB  
Article
Deep Texture Analysis—Enhancing CT Radiomics Features for Prediction of Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Outcomes: A Machine Learning Approach
by Aryan Safakish, Lakshmanan Sannachi, Amir Moslemi, Ana Pejović-Milić and Gregory J. Czarnota
Radiation 2024, 4(1), 50-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation4010005 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 671
Abstract
(1) Background: Some cancer patients do not experience tumour shrinkage but are still at risk of experiencing unwanted treatment side effects. Radiomics refers to mining biomedical images to quantify textural characterization. When radiomics features are labelled with treatment response, retrospectively, they can train [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Some cancer patients do not experience tumour shrinkage but are still at risk of experiencing unwanted treatment side effects. Radiomics refers to mining biomedical images to quantify textural characterization. When radiomics features are labelled with treatment response, retrospectively, they can train predictive machine learning (ML) models. (2) Methods: Radiomics features were determined from lymph node (LN) segmentations from treatment-planning CT scans of head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. Binary treatment outcomes (complete response versus partial or no response) and radiomics features for n = 71 patients were used to train support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) classifier models with 1–7 features. A deep texture analysis (DTA) methodology was proposed and evaluated for second- and third-layer radiomics features, and models were evaluated based on common metrics (sensitivity (%Sn), specificity (%Sp), accuracy (%Acc), precision (%Prec), and balanced accuracy (%Bal Acc)). (3) Results: Models created with both classifiers were found to be able to predict treatment response, and the results suggest that the inclusion of deeper layer features enhanced model performance. The best model was a seven-feature multivariable k-NN model trained using features from three layers deep of texture features with %Sn = 74%, %Sp = 68%, %Acc = 72%, %Prec = 81%, %Bal Acc = 71% and with an area under the curve (AUC) the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of 0.700. (4) Conclusions: H&N Cancer patient treatment-planning CT scans and LN segmentations contain phenotypic information regarding treatment response, and the proposed DTA methodology can improve model performance by enhancing feature sets and is worth consideration in future radiomics studies. Full article
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13 pages, 3528 KiB  
Article
Proton- and Neutron-Induced SEU Cross-Section Modeling and Simulation: A Unified Analytical Approach
by Gennady I. Zebrev, Nikolay N. Samotaev, Rustem G. Useinov, Artur M. Galimov, Vladimir V. Emeliyanov, Artyom A. Sharapov, Dmitri A. Kazyakin and Alexander S. Rodin
Radiation 2024, 4(1), 37-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation4010004 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 902
Abstract
A new physics-based compact model, which makes it possible to simulate in a unified way the neutrons and protons of cosmic ray-induced SEU cross-sections, including the effects from nuclear reaction products and from direct ionization by low-energy protons, has been proposed and validated. [...] Read more.
A new physics-based compact model, which makes it possible to simulate in a unified way the neutrons and protons of cosmic ray-induced SEU cross-sections, including the effects from nuclear reaction products and from direct ionization by low-energy protons, has been proposed and validated. The proposed approach is analytical and based on explicit analytical relationships and approximations with physics-based fitting parameters. GEANT4 or SRIM numerical calculations can be used as an aid to adjust or refine the phenomenological parameters or functions included in the model, taking into account real geometrical configurations and chemical compositions of the devices. In particular, explicit energy dependencies of the soft error cross-sections for protons and neutrons over a wide range of nucleon energies were obtained and validated. The main application areas of the developed model include space physics, accelerator studies high energy physics and nuclear experiments. Full article
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11 pages, 637 KiB  
Communication
Characterizing the Early Acidic Response in Advanced Small Modular Reactors Cooled with High-Temperature, High-Pressure Water
by Abida Sultana, Jintana Meesungnoen and Jean-Paul Jay-Gerin
Radiation 2024, 4(1), 26-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation4010003 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 744
Abstract
Utilizing Monte Carlo multi-track chemistry simulations along with a cylindrical instantaneous pulse (Dirac) irradiation model, we assessed the initial acidic response in both subcritical and supercritical water under high radiation dose rates. This investigation spans a temperature range of 300 to 500 °C [...] Read more.
Utilizing Monte Carlo multi-track chemistry simulations along with a cylindrical instantaneous pulse (Dirac) irradiation model, we assessed the initial acidic response in both subcritical and supercritical water under high radiation dose rates. This investigation spans a temperature range of 300 to 500 °C at a nominal pressure of 25 MPa, aligning with the operational conditions anticipated in proposed supercritical water (SCW)-cooled small modular reactors (SCW-SMRs). A pivotal finding from our study is the observation of a significant ‘acid spike’ effect, which shows a notable intensification in response to increasing radiation dose rates. Our results bring to light the potential risks posed by this acidity, which could potentially foster a corrosive environment and thereby increase the risk of accelerated material degradation in reactor components. Full article
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9 pages, 3030 KiB  
Article
Acquisition Conditions for Lu-177 DOTATATE Imaging
by Yuri Sagisaka, Yasuyuki Takahashi, Shota Hosokawa, Niina Kanazawa, Hiroki Yamamoto, Go Takai and Keiji Nagano
Radiation 2024, 4(1), 17-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation4010002 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 842
Abstract
We investigated imaging conditions for the distribution of lutetium oxodotreotide (Lu-177 DOTATATE) in the body during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumor (NET). We investigated imaging conditions using gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide. The gamma rays had energy peaks at 113 [...] Read more.
We investigated imaging conditions for the distribution of lutetium oxodotreotide (Lu-177 DOTATATE) in the body during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumor (NET). We investigated imaging conditions using gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide. The gamma rays had energy peaks at 113 and 208 keV and characteristic X-rays at 56 keV. Image quality was compared by utilizing a combination of low–medium-energy general-purpose (LMEGP) and medium-energy general-purpose (MEGP) collimators. This study included the measurement of total spatial resolution (Full Width at Half Maximum) using a line source phantom. We compared the image quality of static images using a plane phantom and SPECT images using a cylindrical phantom. This comparison involved assessing recovery coefficient curves, count ratio, and %CV. Imaging evaluation was also performed on one NET patient. In phantom studies and the clinical study, comparing the combination of the three energy peaks (56 + 113 + 208 keV) using the LMEGP collimator and the conventional combination (113 + 208 keV) using the MEGP collimator revealed a count ratio of 1.9 times the maximum, stable %CV, and the best image quality. Full article
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16 pages, 2672 KiB  
Review
Potential Effects of Anthropogenic Radiofrequency Radiation on Cetaceans
by Alfonso Balmori-de la Puente and Alfonso Balmori
Radiation 2024, 4(1), 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation4010001 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2337
Abstract
Cetaceans are cast to shore for a large number of reasons, although sometimes it is not clear why. This paper reviews the types and causes of cetacean strandings, focusing on mass strandings that lack a direct scientific explanation. Failure of cetacean orientation due [...] Read more.
Cetaceans are cast to shore for a large number of reasons, although sometimes it is not clear why. This paper reviews the types and causes of cetacean strandings, focusing on mass strandings that lack a direct scientific explanation. Failure of cetacean orientation due to radiofrequency radiation and alterations in the Earth’s magnetic field produced during solar storms stand out among the proposed causes. This paper proposes the possibility that anthropogenic radiofrequency radiation from military and meteorological radars may also cause these strandings in areas where powerful radars exist. A search of accessible databases of military and meteorological radars in the world was carried out. Research articles on mass live strandings of cetaceans were reviewed to find temporal or spatial patterns in the stranding concentrations along the coast. The data showed certain patterns of spatial and temporal evidence in the stranding concentrations along the coast after radar setup and provided a detailed description of how radars may interfere with cetacean echolocation from a physiological standpoint. Plausible mechanisms, such as interference with echolocation systems or pulse communication systems, are proposed. This work is theoretical, but it leads to a hypothesis that could be empirically tested. Further in-depth studies should be carried out to confirm or reject the proposed hypothesis. Full article
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