The Tourist Attractiveness of Tokyo in the Opinion of Surveyed Tourists
2. The Essence of Tourist Attractiveness in a Literature Review
2.1. The Term “Tourist Attractiveness”
- Tourist attractiveness is subjectively considered; a specific place can be considered in terms of tourist attractiveness based on one’s own experience and world view;
- Tourist attractiveness is considered as a result of standardization and categorization;
- Tourist attractiveness is considered valorization, applying a given research technique.
2.2. Factors Affecting Tourist Attractiveness
- Leisure qualities;
- Nature qualities;
- Cultural qualities;
- Specialist qualities.
- Technical infrastructure (e.g., food and accommodation facilities);
- Social infrastructure (e.g., service offices, tourist information centres).
2.3. Tourist Attractiveness of the Cities
- External conditions;
- Internal conditions.
3. Tourist Attractiveness of Tokyo
3.1. Characteristics of Tokyo and the Development of Tourism in the City in Recent Years
3.1.1. Basic Information on Tokyo
3.1.2. Accommodation in Tokyo
- City hotels;
- Business hotels;
- Capsule hotels;
- Private apartments;
- Accommodation in facilities rented from private persons (e.g., by Airbnb);
- Share houses.
3.1.3. Food-Serving Facilities in Tokyo
3.1.4. Tourism in Tokyo
4. Materials and Methods
- Getting to know the basic information of Tokyo;
- Presenting the accommodation facilities and eating places in Tokyo;
- Presenting the key tourist attractions of Tokyo;
- Designing a study to include the people who have visited Tokyo;
- Study results presentation and interpretation.
- The most attractive seasons of the year in Tokyo in terms of tourism are spring and autumn;
- The most attractive monument in Tokyo is the oldest Buddhist Sensō-ji temple, located in the Taitō district;
- Younger tourists rated Tokyo more highly than the elderly.
5.1. Motivations and Factors Affecting the Organization of Tourist Trips to Tokyo
5.2. Evaluation of Tourist Attractiveness of Tokyo and the Barriers Making Trips to the City Difficult
- Tokyo is a well-communicated city, and the residents of Tokyo are very nice and helpful;
- Tokyo is a very safe and well-signposted city; the city provides many interesting tourist attractions;
- Tokyo offers abundant accommodation; it is a city which is open to tourists and much information is offered in English.
- The language barrier made their travel in Tokyo difficult;
- It is easy to get lost in the city;
- Tokyo is an expensive and very crowded city;
- People with no knowledge of the Japanese culture can experience so-called “cultural shock”.
- The Japanese people wearing face masks (even before the COVID-19 pandemic); the Japanese are very attentive not to infect others and so if they have a cold, they wear face masks;
- When taking public transport, one cannot talk loud; it is very important for tourists to know that having a loud conversation when on public transport is considered very bad manners;
- Talking on the phone when on public transport is forbidden; travelling in Tokyo as well as all across Japan, tourists should know that talking on the phone on public transport is forbidden and considered rude. So, if you do not want to offend the Japanese, you must turn the volume on a phone down before you enter public transport.
- A ban on smoking in public spaces (except for designated places); it is a significant social difference for smokers, as when unaware of that difference, the tourist can receive a fine;
- In most places in Tokyo one can pay only with cash; although for the Olympics, cards started to be accepted as a payment method, while travelling in Tokyo and all across Japan, tourists should have cash on them. The difference can make travelling difficult as one has to look for ATMs to withdraw cash.
5.3. Historic Sites and Attractions Visited by Tourists in Tokyo
- Basic information on Tokyo was studied;
- Tokyo accommodation facilities and eating places were presented;
- The key tourist attractions in Tokyo were demonstrated;
- Visitors to Tokyo were covered by a study;
- The research results were presented and interpreted.
- Transport availability is considered by the tourists as one of the best-operating elements of tourist attractiveness. Tokyo city transport is reliable and well expanded, which helps travelling.
- Eating places are definitely an element of tourist attractiveness, which is very much appreciated by tourists. Many eating places are very high quality, as seen from, e.g., the number of the eating facilities honoured with Michelin stars.
- Tokyo is a city with many interesting tourist attractions. Cultural assets are especially appreciated by the tourists due to the assets’ variety and differences.
- Almost all of the tourists would like to visit Tokyo again, which demonstrates that it is a very attractive city.
- Tokyo is a very safe and tourist-friendly place. The residents are very nice and helpful.
- A tourist who does not speak Japanese can experience some discomfort while travelling in Tokyo as there is a lot of information that is not translated into English.
- The price is a factor that can discourage tourists from travelling to Tokyo. It is a city considered quite expensive.
- What is the influence of COVID-19 on the tourism labor market?
- Will COVID-19 lead to a radical transformation of the tourism sector?
- In what way can the tourism and hoteling sector respond to such changes in the future?
- How can the consequences of similar crises of public health be mitigated in the future?
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Author, Year of Publication||Definition|
|Kruczek, 2011 ||Tourist attractiveness is a complex term and it must be comprehensively considered. It is determined by tourist attractions, transport availability, and the supply of the services related to the visited areas’ management services. |
It is, therefore, a term that integrates elements providing a springboard for tourist traffic development, namely tourist attractions with the conditions of how to satisfy the needs of that traffic with the adequately developed tourist infrastructure.
|Batyk, 2010 ||Tourist infrastructure is seen from the occurrence of a unique feature, to a certain extent, attracting a specific kind of tourism to be considered in a comprehensive manner. The feature can include both the qualities of the natural landscape and cultural assets.|
|Bąk, Matlegiewicz, 2010 ||The region’s tourist attractiveness is considered a property with a specific set of natural or non-natural features that are of interest to tourists. Tourist attractiveness is a subjective experience. It is not always the case that the geographic, social or cultural environment is an attraction for the tourist.|
|Rapacz, Jaremen, 2011 ||Tourist attractiveness is a complex term, not always univocal. It can be an area, region, tourist destination, or a specific structure that can be attractive in terms of tourism. The tourist attractiveness of the regions and tourist structures is determined, on the one hand, by objective factors, e.g., the occurrence of nature qualities, human impact qualities, or adequate elements of tourist infrastructure and tourism-related services. On the other hand, the attractiveness of a specific place is determined by a subjective perception of all those factors by tourists, investors, and residents.|
|N = 369||%|
|Place of residence:|
|Elements of Tourist Attractiveness Evaluated||N = 369||Average Score|
|General tourist attractiveness||369||4.6|
|Places Evaluated||N = 369||Average Score|
|The National Museum in Tokyo||177||4.1|
|Palace of the Emperor||264||3.8|
|Authors||Title||Journal/Publishing||Year of |
|Ranaweerage, Arima, Kikuchi ||Regional Characteristics of Urban Tourism in Tokyo||Springer||2018|
|Henderson ||Global cities, Tokyo, urban tourism||International Journal of Tourism Cities||2017|
|Zhang, Xu, Lin, Lei ||Cultural Capital and Destination Image of Metropolitans: A Comparative Study of New York and Tokyo Official Tourism Websites in Chinese||Journal of China Tourism Research||2015|
|Ryu, Hyun, Shim ||Creating New Relationships Through Tourism: A Qualitative Analysis of Tourist Motivations of Older Individuals in Japan||Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing||2015|
|Liou ||Beyond Tokyo Rainbow Bridge: destination images portrayed in Japanese drama affect Taiwanese tourists’ perception||Journal of Vacation Marketing||2010|
|Saito, Matsui ||Characteristics of Tourism in Tateyama: Tourist Area in the Southern Region of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area||Tsukuba Geoenvironmental Sciences||2009|
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Roman, M.; Bury, K. The Tourist Attractiveness of Tokyo in the Opinion of Surveyed Tourists. Tour. Hosp. 2022, 3, 184-209. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp3010014
Roman M, Bury K. The Tourist Attractiveness of Tokyo in the Opinion of Surveyed Tourists. Tourism and Hospitality. 2022; 3(1):184-209. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp3010014Chicago/Turabian Style
Roman, Michał, and Katarzyna Bury. 2022. "The Tourist Attractiveness of Tokyo in the Opinion of Surveyed Tourists" Tourism and Hospitality 3, no. 1: 184-209. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp3010014