What Tourists Want, a Sustainable Paradise
2. Literature Review
2.1. Economic, Sociocultural, and Environmental Impacts
2.2. Sustainable Destinations
2.3. Nature-Based Tourism
- Promote nature-based solutions and the conservation of resources;
- Reduce the excessive use of nature-based resources and waste to prevent environmental damage in the long term;
- Enhance the quality of life of domestic society;
- Protect environmental quality with the continuum of ecological systems and biological varieties;
- Activate a high-quality experience for tourists;
- Raise awareness among tourists and employees working in the tourism sector on the issue of sustainable and nature-based tourism.
4.1. Differences between Genders
4.2. Differences among Generations
- “I am interested in the conservation of the islands´ natural environment and habitat”.
- “Personally, I am interested in conserving nature and protecting whales”.
- “I am interested in participating in the conservation of nature and natural beauty of Hawaii”.
- “Hawaiian culture and music are fascinating”.
- “Important to minimize plastic”.
- “It is important that Hawaii are able to continue to keep its natural beauty. Trees, grass, and vegetation natural for Hawaii”.
- “Islands like Hawaii, if they exploit the potential of sustainability correctly, can transform their fragility and vulnerability into strengths, innovative behaviors, and competitive advantage, compared to other areas of the country”.
- “I think that today, it is no longer possible to think about development if it is not ecofriendly and sustainable”.
- “In terms of hotels being sustainable I prefer individual bars of soap being wrapped. I feel it is important that fewer people have touched the items right now due to COVID-19”.
- “Sustainability is more important now because of COVID-19. I feel eating sustainable locally grown food is safer and there is less risk of getting sick”.
- “Ocean, rivers need to be kept clean, initiatives to keep sewage and plastic waste out of the ocean. Many cities need to modernize its piping”.
- “Even though Hawaii has a lot of rain and therefore water supply is not a problem so far, it is important to focus on reducing water consumption as much as possible, to avoid being in the bad situation of many other islands in the world”.
- “In my opinion, there is a need to reach everyone including tourists with correct information, the need to create a platform that fosters collaboration between the different islands through the exchange of information and experiences, the development of start-ups, the finding of economic resources, and the development of prevention programs”.
- “I am very worried about the amount of plastic that we use nowadays. All the plastic that ends in the sea and on the beaches ruins the ecosystem, with greater negative consequences. Hawaii already banned plastic bags, which is great; but the government has to continue undertaking more actions to limit and prevent plastic pollution in the islands”.
6. Limitations and Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Male (n = 184)||Female (n = 270)|
|The tourism industry must ensure quality tourism experiences for visitors.||3.94||1.00||3.83||0.89||0.11||0.216|
|It is the responsibility of tourism businesses to meet visitor needs.||3.97||0.88||3.73||0.83||0.21||0.003||*|
|It is the responsibility of tourism businesses to meet the local community´s needs.||3.95||0.92||3.85||0.91||0.10||0.256|
|Tourism must contribute to the improvement of the local community.||4.01||1.01||4.06||0.86||−0.05||0.585|
|Tourism must be developed with consideration of the natural and cultural environment.||4.21||0.86||4.29||0.89||−0.08||0.394|
|Male (n = 184)||Female (n = 270)|
|I would describe myself as environmentally responsible.||3.75||0.91||3.80||0.83||−0.05||0.574|
|I would describe myself as culturally sensitive.||3.85||0.91||3.92||0.84||−0.07||0.458|
|I consider the potential impacts of my actions when making many of my vacation decisions.||3.65||0.99||3.83||0.84||−0.18||0.040||*|
|When choosing a vacation destination, it is important to me that the tourism industry supports environmentally sustainable tourism practices.||3.59||1.08||3.94||0.88||−0.35||0.001||*|
|When choosing a vacation destination, it is important to me that the tourism industry supports culturally respectful tourism practices.||3.96||0.92||4.17||0.88||−0.21||0.016||*|
|Tukey’s HSD Comparisons|
|18–29 (n = 126)||3.63|
|30–44 (n = 124)||3.77||insignificant|
|45–60 (n = 140)||3.79||insignificant||insignificant|
|>60 (n = 64)||4.06||p < 0.05||insignificant||insignificant|
|Tukey’s HSD comparisons|
|Willingness to pay||Mean||18–29||30–44||45–60||>60|
|18–29 (n = 126)||1.32|
|30–44 (n = 124)||1.19||insignificant|
|45–60 (n = 140)||1.36||insignificant||p < 0.05|
|>60 (n = 64)||1.30||insignificant||insignificant||insignificant|
|Tukey’s HSD comparisons|
|18–29 (n = 126)||3.91|
|30–44 (n = 124)||3.86||insignificant|
|45–60 (n = 140)||3.78||insignificant||insignificant|
|>60 (n = 64)||3.39||p < 0.05||p < 0.05||insignificant|
|Local Examples||Description||Research Question|
|The Four Seasons||Tree planting initiative where resort charge a fee.||RQ2|
|Alohilani Resort||Tree planting initiative where resort charge a fee.||RQ2|
|The Cliffs at Princeville||Educate tourists prearrival and offer environmental program to encourage participating in beach cleanups.||RQ1|
|The Travel2Change |
|Connecting tourists with nonprofit local sustainable possibilities.||RQ1|
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Linnes, C.; Agrusa, J.; Ronzoni, G.; Lema, J. What Tourists Want, a Sustainable Paradise. Tour. Hosp. 2022, 3, 164-183. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp3010013
Linnes C, Agrusa J, Ronzoni G, Lema J. What Tourists Want, a Sustainable Paradise. Tourism and Hospitality. 2022; 3(1):164-183. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp3010013Chicago/Turabian Style
Linnes, Cathrine, Jerome Agrusa, Giulio Ronzoni, and Joseph Lema. 2022. "What Tourists Want, a Sustainable Paradise" Tourism and Hospitality 3, no. 1: 164-183. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp3010013