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J. Mol. Pathol., Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 4 articles

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11 pages, 1687 KiB  
Article
Use of the Biocartis Idylla™ Platform for the Detection of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, BRAF and KRAS Proto-Oncogene Mutations in Liquid-Based Cytology Specimens from Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
by Leonie Wheeldon, Mary Jones, Ben Probyn, Dushyant Shetty and James Garvican
J. Mol. Pathol. 2022, 3(2), 104-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmp3020010 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3094
Abstract
The study aimed to demonstrate rapid and effective molecular testing on liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples for EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations using the Biocartis Idylla™. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) LBC samples for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) or pancreatic ductal [...] Read more.
The study aimed to demonstrate rapid and effective molecular testing on liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples for EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations using the Biocartis Idylla™. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) LBC samples for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) or pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were tested for EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations based on the relevance to tumour subtype. The quantification values (Cq values) and mutation detection status were compared between LBC samples and routine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) clot samples. ROSE LBC samples (n = 54) showed a higher yield of well-preserved tumour and wild type (WT) DNA, demonstrated by lower quantification cycles, no false positives or false negatives, and a higher sensitivity for low allele frequency mutations when compared with FFPE clot samples. The Biocartis Idylla™ provides highly sensitive, reliable and rapid testing for LBC samples for the detection of EFGR and KRAS mutations. BRAF mutations were not detected in the participant cohort; however, all LBC WT BRAF results correlated with the results from the FFPE clot samples. Access to rapid molecular testing using LBC samples can detect the most frequent driver mutations closer to the time of diagnosis, enabling the selection of the most effective first-line targeted therapy sooner, reducing delays or side effects from suboptimal treatments, patient anxiety and costs to healthcare systems, whilst improving patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Journal of Molecular Pathology)
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16 pages, 921 KiB  
Review
Micro-RNA in Cholangiocarcinoma: Implications for Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapy
by Anna Barbato, Fabiola Piscopo, Massimiliano Salati, Luca Reggiani-Bonetti, Brunella Franco and Pietro Carotenuto
J. Mol. Pathol. 2022, 3(2), 88-103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmp3020009 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3126
Abstract
Bile-duct cancers (BDC) are a group of solid tumors arising from the biliary tree. Despite their classification as rare cancers, the incidence of BDC is increasing worldwide. Poor prognosis is a common feature of this type of cancer and is mainly determined by [...] Read more.
Bile-duct cancers (BDC) are a group of solid tumors arising from the biliary tree. Despite their classification as rare cancers, the incidence of BDC is increasing worldwide. Poor prognosis is a common feature of this type of cancer and is mainly determined by the following factors: late diagnosis, lack of effective therapeutic approaches, and resistance to conventional treatments. In the past few years, next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed us to study the genome, exome, and transcriptome of BDC deeper, revealing a previously underestimated class of RNA: the noncoding RNA (ncRNA). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ncRNAs that play an important regulatory role in gene expression. The aberrant expression of miRNAs and their pivotal role as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in biliary carcinogenesis has been widely described in BDC. Due to their ability to regulate multiple gene networks, miRNAs are involved in all cancer hallmarks, including sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing/accessing vasculature, activating invasion and metastasis, reprogramming cellular metabolism, and avoiding immune destruction. Their use as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers has been widely explored in several human cancers, including BDC. Furthermore, miRNA-based therapeutic strategies are currently the subject of numerous clinical trials that are providing evidence of their efficacy as potent anticancer agents. In this review, we will provide a detailed update of miRNAs affecting BDC, discussing their regulatory function in processes underlying the molecular pathology of BDC. Finally, an overview of their potential use as biomarkers or therapeutic tools in BDC will be further addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Pathology in Solid Tumors)
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10 pages, 2216 KiB  
Article
Molecular Diagnostics of Lung Cancer in Serous Effusion Samples
by Jana Fassunke, Reinhard Büttner and Marianne Engels
J. Mol. Pathol. 2022, 3(2), 78-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmp3020008 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
For molecular diagnostics of lung cancer samples, often only a small amount of material is available. The ever-increasing number of biomarker testing is in contrast to the amount of material obtained. In that case, cytological specimens, such as serous effusion samples, are one [...] Read more.
For molecular diagnostics of lung cancer samples, often only a small amount of material is available. The ever-increasing number of biomarker testing is in contrast to the amount of material obtained. In that case, cytological specimens, such as serous effusion samples, are one possible option. Effusion samples were prepared as sediment smears or cytospins or as a cell block if needed. Suitable tumor cells areas were marked by a cytopathologist and used for molecular diagnostics, including fast track analysis, parallel sequencing, and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization. In 62 cases of malignant effusion with cells of pulmonary adenocarcinoma, molecular diagnostics were carried out. A fast-track result with the high-resolution melting method for hotspot mutation of KRAS Exon 2 and EGFR exon 21 and fragment length analysis of EGFR exon 19 was available for 43 out of 47 samples (92%). Parallel sequencing was successful for 56 out of 60 samples (93.3%). In the same period, 108 FISH analyses were performed for MET amplification, followed by ROS1, RET, and ALK translocation analysis. If only a limited amount of tissue/biopsy is available, a malignant effusion is advisable to perform on the molecular diagnostics with a high success rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Cytopathology)
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10 pages, 5607 KiB  
Case Report
Prometastatic CXCR4 and Histone Methyltransferase EZH2 Are Upregulated in SMARCB1/INI1-Deficient and TP53-Mutated Poorly Differentiated Chordoma
by Albina Joldoshova, Shaimaa Elzamly, Robert Brown and Jamie Buryanek
J. Mol. Pathol. 2022, 3(2), 68-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmp3020007 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
Background: Chordoma is a rare tumor most commonly arising in the sacrococcygeal region from notochord remnants. Usually, these tumors are locally invasive and recurrent, and they have a 5–43% ability to metastasize. A newly-described aggressive variant called poorly differentiated chordoma is different from [...] Read more.
Background: Chordoma is a rare tumor most commonly arising in the sacrococcygeal region from notochord remnants. Usually, these tumors are locally invasive and recurrent, and they have a 5–43% ability to metastasize. A newly-described aggressive variant called poorly differentiated chordoma is different from conventional chordoma in that it does not have the well-differentiated histologic appearance of conventional chordoma and also exhibits the loss of SMARCB1/INI1. Herein, we describe a case of poorly differentiated chordoma with SMARCB1/INI1 loss, a concurrent TP53 mutation, and Rb1 loss. Methods: The patient is a middle-aged man with a history of previously resected sacrococcygeal chordoma, who was found to have new hepatic, lung, and adrenal lesions. Results: Biopsy of the liver lesion showed sheets of malignant epithelioid cells with vacuolated cytoplasm, areas of necrosis, and up to five mitoses in one high-power field. No physaliferous cytologic features or matrix material was seen. After reviewing an extensive panel of immunohistochemical markers, the origin of the metastatic tumor could not be determined; the tumor was only positive for Cam5.2, EMA, and CD56. Brachyury was performed due to the patient’s previous history and was positive. Genomic testing showed a SMARCB1 mutation, TP53 mutation, and RB1 loss. Additional markers were performed, and the tumor showed a Ki-67 proliferation index of approximately 80%, mutant p53 protein, loss of INI1, and strong expression of both the histone methyl transferase EZH2 and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Conclusions: Poorly differentiated chordoma is a highly aggressive variant of chordoma with few cases reported. This case of SMARCB1/INI-deficient, poorly differentiated chordoma also showed a concurrent TP53 mutation and loss of RB1, which resulted in malignant transformation with upregulation of both prometastatic CXCR4 and the histone methyltransferase EZH2, causing aggressive behavior and metastasis. Full article
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