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Standards, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 2 articles

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14 pages, 927 KiB  
Review
Quick Roadmap for Exposure Assessment of Contaminants in Food
by Bozidar Udovicki and Ilija Djekic
Standards 2024, 4(1), 25-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards4010002 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 659
Abstract
The presence of chemical contaminants in food is often unavoidable and associated with many adverse health effects. Exposure assessment is the essential element of an overall risk assessment process. While the specific purpose of the exposure assessment process can vary, the main goal [...] Read more.
The presence of chemical contaminants in food is often unavoidable and associated with many adverse health effects. Exposure assessment is the essential element of an overall risk assessment process. While the specific purpose of the exposure assessment process can vary, the main goal is to provide a foundation for health-protective decisions. In recent years, there have been significant advances in exposure assessment methodologies and procedures, subsequently contributing to an increased complexity of the process. This paper aims to provide a generalized, simplified, and practical road map for exposure assessment, pointing to the pros and cons of different methods and challenges that occur while performing this type of study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Standardizing Exposure Assessment Studies)
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24 pages, 518 KiB  
Article
Educational Technology Procurement at Canadian Colleges and Universities: An Environmental Scan
by Hannah Ali, Sapolnach Prompiengchai and Steve Joordens
Standards 2024, 4(1), 1-24; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards4010001 - 23 Feb 2024
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Abstract
There has been an increase in the use of education technology (EdTech) within post-secondary institutions, which has resulted in an unprecedented overflow of EdTech in the market. Institutions then make decisions on which EdTech to procure. This procurement process occurs on a continuum, [...] Read more.
There has been an increase in the use of education technology (EdTech) within post-secondary institutions, which has resulted in an unprecedented overflow of EdTech in the market. Institutions then make decisions on which EdTech to procure. This procurement process occurs on a continuum, where on one extreme, an institution takes a decentralized (bottom–up) approach where individuals within an institution independently decide on EdTech procurement, or a centralized (top–down) approach where the institution decides on criteria and standards that the EdTech must meet. This study administered a questionnaire and conducted structured interviews to explore how important standards are, and to identify the associated challenges with implementing centralized procurement. It was distributed to individuals involved in EdTech procurement at universities and colleges across Canada. The results showed that standards related to Privacy and Security, Accessibility, and Care of Data Practices play a larger role in EdTech procurement within most institutions. The use of standards is increasing as institutions become more centralized; however, they are not yet relied on in a structured way. This study suggests ways to move towards a procurement process that incorporates standards and addresses many of the identified challenges with procuring EdTech, thus, improving the efficiency and efficacy of EdTech procurement. Full article
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