Asking about Risk in a Company: A New Approach to Learning ISO 45001 in Engineering Programs
2. Methodological Design
2.1. Activity Design
- Large group: all the students are in the classroom. At this level, an expository class will be held to explain details about the activity.
- Working groups: teams formed by a maximum of four students. The heaviest workload of scholars will be at this level. The aim is to enhance skills related to teamwork and oral communication.
- Individual student: at this level, the student must individually reflect and ask his colleagues about the results of their works. Furthermore, the individual perception of the student will be studied.
2.2. Research Instruments
- Most of the doubts that the professor had to answer were about the formal approach of the questions (type of scale, the form of writing, etc.). During the activity development, the scholars usually consulted the international standards , the regulations of occupational risk prevention in Spain , and the materials of the subject. It was also possible to observe how they consulted the websites of similar companies on the Internet and additional information.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Company Description||ATOSSAN S.A. (fictitious entity) is a Spanish company dedicated to promoting all the necessary resources and building projects around the world.|
|Number of employers||The company has 800 employees of its own (most of them highly specialized) and it is estimated that it has created around 1000 indirect jobs.|
|Headquarters (for legislative purposes)||European Union (Spain)|
|Influence area||The company has different offices in Spain, France, Portugal, and Colombia|
|1||Strategy Department||This department is in charge of locating land opportunities for building and negotiating their purchase. It is located in Madrid, from where the central management is carried out, but also has a branch in Bogota and Lisbon in order to be closer to potential investment opportunities. The department has professionals who travel around the territory to locate purchase opportunities.|
|2||Financial Department||This department is responsible for the financial administration of the company and the development of financial products associated with the sales that are offered together with the product in partnership with financial institutions (loans, mortgages, insurance, etc.).|
|3||Technical Department:||This department is in charge of planning the execution of the works and liaising with the contractors for the development of the projects. It is also in charge of obtaining the necessary permits and licenses to build. It is located in Madrid, from where the central management is carried out, but also has a unit in Bogotá and another in Lisbon, to be closer to the works, to be able to carry out control tasks, and to be able to facilitate the obtaining of permits and licenses. The company works in collaboration with different local engineering/architectural firms to which it outsources part of the projects to be executed.|
|4||Marketing Department:||This department is in charge of supporting the sales department by training the sales staff, creating and managing advertising, and maintaining the website, social networks, etc. It is located in the Madrid offices and provides support to all offices and departments.|
|5||Legal Department:||This department is responsible for providing legal support to the other departments and drafting contracts with companies, as well as purchase and sale contracts with clients and land sellers. They are also in charge of representing and defending the company’s interests in courts and tribunals. It is located in the Madrid offices and provides support to all offices and departments. However, given the different legislation in foreign countries, local law firms from those countries are hired to defend the company’s interests if any controversy arises and to advise the foreign headquarters.|
|6||Human Resources Department:||This department is in charge of personnel management, new hires, social security formalities, and other human resources issues. It is located in the Madrid offices and provides support to all offices and departments. In the case of offices in foreign countries, the selection and management of personnel are carried out by external recruitment and temporary employment companies contracted to provide this service.|
|7||Sales and Customer Service Department:||This department is responsible for customer service and advice, always focusing its efforts on the formalization of sales. Their tasks include attracting clients, attending to clients in the office or virtually, and scheduling visits to the properties. The company has a large database of clients who have shown interest in the company’s services, and regularly provides these clients with offers and contacts them to find out if they are still interested.|
|1||Usefulness for needs and expectations detection of department workers: it is a requirement of ISO 45001:2018 to know the needs and expectations of the Stakeholders of the organization, and employees are one of them.|
|2||Usefulness to define the Health and Safety Policy: the Occupational Health and Safety Policy is a key element in the OSHMS, and therefore the opinion of department workers must be obtained before its publication and communication.|
|3||Usefulness for the assignment of responsibilities and roles: Health and Safety management involves the definition of roles within the organization, and the designation of people with responsibility and authority. This matter should be consulted with employees or their representatives.|
|4||Compliance with legal requirements: compliance with legal provisions implies the making of changes and decision-making, which in some cases greatly affects occupants.|
|5||Usefulness for defining and planning prevention objectives: it is a requirement of ISO 45001 2018 that specifies that the objectives of the Health and Safety Management System should be established. These objectives will involve actions and changes in the organization, which affect everyone, and therefore it is necessary to know the opinion of the workers.|
|6||(If applicable) Usefulness for the treatment of subcontractors and Temporary Employment Agency (TEA) The subcontracting of ETT jobs or workers is usually an important focus of risk for the Health and Safety of the company since occupational risks would also affect these external workers. When establishing controls over them, consultation with employees is required.|
|7||Monitoring, measurement, and evaluation: the functioning of the Health and Safety Management System must be measured and evaluated periodically, determining what needs to be measured, how to do it, and what provides useful information is very important.|
|8||Audit scheduling oriented: audits are a key tool to know the real functioning of the Health and Safety Management System. Therefore, its planning, its execution, and evaluation of its results require prior consultation.|
|9||Continuous improvement: the continuous improvement of the Occupational Health and Safety Management System is a mandatory commitment of the Management. Regarding how this commitment (required by ISO 45001 2018) is guaranteed, employees should be consulted.|
|10||Clarity and good wording of the question, absence of ambiguities, and adequation of the scale to interpret the results.|
|Question||Statement||Scale||ITEM to Measure|
|C1||I found the form activity interesting.||Likert 1–5||Interesting|
|C2||The activity has helped me to improve my learning of the subject.||Likert 1–5||Useful for learning|
|C3||The activity is close to business reality.||Likert 1–5||Adapted to reality|
|C4||During the development of the activity, I felt self-confident.||Likert 1–5||Self-confident|
|C5||During the development of the activity, I felt satisfied.||Likert 1–5||Satisfaction|
|C6||During the development of the activity, I felt happy.||Likert 1–5||Happiness|
|Question||ITEM to Measure||Mean||Adj. Total|
|C2||Useful for learning||3.968||18.742||4||0.875||2.792|
|C3||Adapted to reality||3.871||18.839||4||0.957||2.922|
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Rodríguez-Martín, M.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Domingo, R. Asking about Risk in a Company: A New Approach to Learning ISO 45001 in Engineering Programs. Standards 2023, 3, 21-30. https://doi.org/10.3390/standards3010003
Rodríguez-Martín M, Rodríguez-Gonzálvez P, Domingo R. Asking about Risk in a Company: A New Approach to Learning ISO 45001 in Engineering Programs. Standards. 2023; 3(1):21-30. https://doi.org/10.3390/standards3010003Chicago/Turabian Style
Rodríguez-Martín, Manuel, Pablo Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, and Rosario Domingo. 2023. "Asking about Risk in a Company: A New Approach to Learning ISO 45001 in Engineering Programs" Standards 3, no. 1: 21-30. https://doi.org/10.3390/standards3010003